Contact Lens Spectrum
(p. 14) Research Review: Essential Fatty Acids and Dry Eye: What Do We Know? By Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO
1. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf 2007; 5;2: 75-92.
2. Marsh P, Pflugfelder SC: Topical nonpreserved methylprednisolone therapy for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjogren syndrome. Ophthalmology 1999; 106;4: 811-816.
3. Avunduk AM, Avunduk MC, et al.: The comparison of efficacies of topical corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drops on dry eye patients: a clinical and immunocytochemical study. Am J Ophthalmol 2003; 136;4: 593-602.
4. Perry HD, Donnenfeld ED: Topical 0.05% cyclosporin in the treatment of dry eye. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2004; 5;10: 2099-2107.
5. Pflugfelder SC: Antiinflammatory therapy for dry eye. Am J Ophthalmol 2004; 137;2: 337-342.
6. Fitzpatrick K: Essential fatty acids: Report to the Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada. Accessed May 2nd 2009. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/pubs/natur/efa_age-eng.php 2005.
7. Lands WE: Dose-response relationships for omega 3/omega 6 effects. World Rev Nutr Diet 1991; 66 177-194.
8. Lands WE: Biochemistry and physiology of n-3 fatty acids. Faseb J 1992; 6;8: 2530-2536.
9. Lands WE: Dietary fat and health: the evidence and the politics of prevention: careful use of dietary fats can improve life and prevent disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005; 1055 179-192.
10. Simopoulos AP: The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 2002; 56;8: 365-379.
11. Simopoulos AP: Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. J Am Coll Nutr 2002; 21;6: 495-505.
12. Simopoulos AP: Essential fatty acids in health and chronic diseases. Forum Nutr 2003; 56 67-70.
13. Simopoulos AP: The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2008; 233;6: 674-688.
14. Belch JJ, Hill A: Evening primrose oil and borage oil in rheumatologic conditions. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71;1 Suppl: 352S-356S.
15. Das UN: Essential fatty acids and their metabolites could function as endogenous HMG-CoA reductase and ACE enzyme inhibitors, anti-arrhythmic, anti-hypertensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and cardioprotective molecules. Lipids Health Dis 2008; 7 37.
16. Kapoor R, Huang YS: Gamma linolenic acid: an antiinflammatory omega-6 fatty acid. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2006; 7;6: 531-534.
17. Zurier RB, Rossetti RG, et al.: gamma-Linolenic acid treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39;11: 1808-1817.
18. Oxholm P, Asmussen K, et al.: Essential fatty acid status in cell membranes and plasma of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Correlations to clinical and immunologic variables using a new model for classification and assessment of disease manifestations. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1998; 59;4: 239-245.
19. Miljanovic B, Trivedi KA, et al.: Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82;4: 887-893.
20. Barabino S, Rolando M, et al.: Systemic linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid therapy in dry eye syndrome with an inflammatory component. Cornea 2003; 22;2: 97-101.
21. Aragona P, Bucolo C, et al.: Systemic omega-6 essential fatty acid treatment and pge1 tear content in Sjogren's syndrome patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005; 46;12: 4474-4479.
22. Kokke KH, Morris JA, et al.: Oral omega-6 essential fatty acid treatment in contact lens associated dry eye. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2008; 31;3: 141-146; quiz 170.
23. Macri A, Giuffrida S, et al.: Effect of linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid on tear production, tear clearance and on the ocular surface after photorefractive keratectomy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2003; 241;7: 561-566.
24. Macsai MS: The role of omega-3 dietary supplementation in blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (an AOS thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 2008; 106 336-356.
25. Pinna A, Piccinini P, et al.: Effect of oral linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid on meibomian gland dysfunction. Cornea 2007; 26;3: 260-264.
26. Rashid S, Jin Y, et al.: Topical omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for treatment of dry eye. Arch Ophthalmol 2008; 126;2: 219-225.
27. Hughner RS, Maher JK, et al.: Review of food policy and consumer issues of mercury in fish. J Am Coll Nutr 2008; 27;2: 185-194.
28. Domingo JL: Omega-3 fatty acids and the benefits of fish consumption: is all that glitters gold? Environ Int 2007; 33;7: 993-998.
29. Smith KM, Sahyoun NR: Fish consumption: recommendations versus advisories, can they be reconciled? Nutr Rev 2005; 63;2: 39-46.
30. McClaskey EM, Michalets EL: Subdural hematoma after a fall in an elderly patient taking high-dose omega-3 fatty acids with warfarin and aspirin: case report and review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy 2007; 27;1: 152-160.
31. Vanschoonbeek K, de Maat MP, et al.: Fish oil consumption and reduction of arterial disease. J Nutr 2003; 133;3: 657-660.
(p. 19) GP Insights: The Benefits of Scleral Lenses for Graft Versus Host Disease, By Ann Laurenzi, OD, FAAO
(p. 26) 2009 Annual Report on Dry Eye Diseases, By Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO
1. Lemp MA, Nichols KK. Blepharitis in the United States 2009: A Survey-based Perspective on Prevalence and Treatment. Ocul Surf 2009;7:S1-S14.
2. Smith JA, Albeitz J, Begley C et al. The epidemiology of dry eye disease: Report of the Epidemiology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf 2007;5:93-107.
3. Schaumberg DA, Dana R, Buring JE, Sullivan DA. Prevalence of dry eye disease among US men: estimates from the Physicians' Health Studies. Arch Ophthalmol 2009;127:763-8.
4. Lekhanont K, Rojanaporn D, Chuck RS, Vongthongsri A. Prevalence of Dry Eye in Bangkok, Thailand. Cornea 2006;25:1162-1167.
5. Schaumberg DA, Sullivan DA, Buring JE, Dana MR. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women. Am J Ophthalmol 2003;136:318-26.
6. Lin PY, Tsai SY, Cheng CY, Liu JH, Chou P, Hsu WM. Prevalence of dry eye among an elderly Chinese population in Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2003;110:1096-1101.
7. Chia EM, Mitchell P, Rochtchina E, Lee AJ, Maroun R, Wang JJ. Prevalence and associations of dry eye syndrome in an older population: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2003;31:229-32.
8. McCarty CA, Bansal AK, Livingston PM, Stanislavsky YL, Taylor HR. The epidemiology of dry eye in Melbourne, Australia. Ophthalmology 1998;105:1114-9.
9. Schein OD, Munoz B, Tielsch JM, Bandeen-Roche K, West S. Prevalence of dry eye among the elderly. Am J Ophthalmol 1997;124:723-8.
10. Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118:1264-8.
11. Korb DR. Survey of preferred tests for diagnosis of the tear film and dry eye. Cornea 2000;19:483-6.
12. Nichols KK, Nichols JJ, Zadnik K. Frequency of dry eye diagnostic test procedures used in various modes of ophthalmic practice. Cornea 2000;19:477-82.
13. Nichols JJ, Ziegler C, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK. Self-reported dry eye disease across refractive modalities. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46:1911-4.
14. Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL et al. Characterization of ocular surface symptoms from optometric practices in North America. Cornea 2001;20:610-8.
15. Begley CG, Caffery B, Nichols KK, Chalmers R. Responses of contact lens wearers to a dry eye survey. Optom Vis Sci 2000;77:40-6.
16. Caffery BE, Richter D, Simpson T, Fonn D, Doughty M, Gordon K. CANDEES. The Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology Study. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;438:805-6.
(p. 32) Inflammation in Dry Eye Disease, By Paul Karpecki, OD, FAAO
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4.  Rao, S. Clinical Study Report: Topical Cyclosporine 0.05% for the Prevention of Dry Eye Disease Progression. 2008
5.  Schaumberg DA, Gulati A, Mathers WD et al. Development and validation of a short global dry eye symptom index. Ocular Surface. 2007 Jan;5(1):50-7
6.  Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Incidence of dry eye in an older population. Archives Ophthalmology. 2004 Mar;122(3):369-73
7.  Nichols JJ, Ziegler C, Mithcell GL, Nichols KK. Self-reported dry eye disease across refractive modalities. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jun;46(6):1911-4
8.  Lois N, Abdelkader E, Reglitz K et al. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and eye disease. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2008;July 25
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12.  Hom MM, Simmons PA, Vehige J. Correspondence of tear film osmolarity and dry eye symptoms in a clinical setting. Poster presented at the American Academy of Optometry; Tampa FL, October 26, 2007
13.  Luo L, Li DQ, Corrales RM et al. Hyperosmoloar saline is a proinflammatory stress on the mouse ocular surface. Eye Contact Lens. 2005 Sep;31(5):186-93
14.  Yokoi N, Mossa F, Tiffany JM et al. Assessment of Meibomian gland function in dry eye using meibometry. Archives Ophthalmology. 1999 Jun;117(6):723-9
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16.  Gilbard JP. Dry eye, blepharitis and chronic eye irritation: divide and conquer. J Ophthalmic Nurse Technology. 2999 May-Jun;18(3):109-15
17.  Luchs J., Efficacy of topical azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% in the treatment of posterior blepharitis. Adv Ther. 2008 Sep;25(9):858-70
18.  Jackson WB, Blepharitis: current strategies for diagnosis and management. Can J Ophthalmology. 2008 Apr;43(2):170-9
19. Voils SA, Evans ME, Lane MT et al. Use of macrolides and tetracyclines for chronic inflammatory disease. Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Jan;39(1):86-94
20.  Yoo SE, Lee DC, Chang MH. The effect of low dose doxycycline therapy in chronic meibomian gland dysfunction. Korean J Ophthalmology. 2005;19(4):258-263
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22.  Stern ME, Beuerman RW, Fox RI, Gao J, Mircheff AK, Pflugfelder SC. The pathology of dry eye: the interaction between the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. Cornea. 1998;17(6):584-589.
23.  Kunert KS, Tisdale AS, Stern ME, Smith JA, Gipson IK. Analysis of topical cyclosporine treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome: effect on conjunctival lymphocytes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(11):1489-1496.
24.  Sall K, Stevenson OD, Mundorf TK, Reis BL; CsA Phase 3 Study Group. Two multicenter, randomized studies of the efficacy and safety of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion in moderate to severe dry eye disease. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(4):631-639
25.  Rao, S. Clinical Study Report: Topical Cyclosporine 0.05% for the Prevention of Dry Eye Disease Progression. 2008
26.  Behrens A, Doyle JJ, Stern L, et al; Dysfunctional tear syndrome study group. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: a Delphi approach to treatment recommendations. Cornea. 2006;25(8):900-907
27.  Perry HD, Solomon R, Donnenfeld ED, et al. Evaluation of topical cyclosporine for the treatment of dry eye disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126(8):1046-1050
28.  Sall K, Stevenson OD, Mundorf TK, Reis BL; CsA Phase 3 Study Group. Two multicenter, randomized studies of the efficacy and safety of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion in moderate to severe dry eye disease [published correction appears in Ophthalmology. 2000;107(7):1220]. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(4):631-639.
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31.  Pflugfelder SC, De Paiva CS, Villarreal AL et al. Effects of sequential artificial tear and cyclosporine emulsion therapy on conjunctival goblet cell density and transforming growth factor-beta2 production. Cornea. 2008 Jan;27(1):64-9
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(p. 39) What Influences Contact Lens-Related Dry Eye? By Lakshman N. Subbaraman, PhD, BSOptom, MSc, FAAO, & Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, DipCLP, DipOrth, FAAO (Dip CL), FIACLE
1. Nichols JJ, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK, Chalmers R, Begley C. The performance of the contact lens dry eye questionnaire as a screening survey for contact lens-related dry eye. Cornea 2002; 21: 469-475.
2. Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK, Caffery B, Simpson T, DuToit R, Portello J, Davis L. Characterization of ocular surface symptoms from optometric practices in North America. Cornea 2001; 20: 610-618.
3. Begley CG, Caffery B, Nichols KK, Chalmers R. Responses of contact lens wearers to a dry eye survey. Optom Vis Sci 2000; 77: 40-46.
4. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the definition and classification subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop. Ocul Surf 2007; 5: 75-92.
5. Epidemiology of dry eye: Report of the epidemiology subcommittee of the 2007 Dry Eye WorkShop (DEWS). Ocul Surf 2007; 5: 93-107.
6. Methodologies to diagnose and monitor dry eye. Report of the diagnostic subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop. Ocul Surf 2007; 5: 108-152.
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8. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Contact Lens Clin 1999; 26: 157-162.
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(p. 48) Pediatric and Teen CL Care: Dry Eyes Are Less of a Problem in Young Contact Lens Wearers, By Jeffrey J. Walline, OD, PhD, & Marjorie J. Rah, OD, PhD
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(p. 49) Treatment Plan: Gaining Some Perspective on Dry Eye Treatment, By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO
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(p. 50) Reader and Industry Forum: Evaluating the Efficacy of a New Lubricant Eye Drop, By John L. Schachet, OD
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