Contact Lens Spectrum

February 2005

Document #112




(p. 17) Letter to the Editor: Response to Anti-infectives Setting the Record Straight, By Vishakha Thakrar, OD, FAAO


1.      Hwang DG. Fluoroquinolone resistance in ophthalmology and the potential role for newer ophthalmic fluoroquinolones. Survey of Ophthalmology 2004;49(2)S76-83.

2.      Kowalski RP, Dhaliwal DK, Karenchak LM, et al. Gatifloxacin and Moxifloxacin: An in vitro susceptibility comparison to Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin using bacterial keratitis isolates. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2003;136(3):500-5.

3.      Mather R, Karenchak LM, Romanowski EG, Kowalski RP. Fourth generation fluoroquinolones: New weapons in the arsenal of ophthalmic antibiotics. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2002;133(4):463-466.

4.      Yates KA, Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Gordon YJ. The In Vitro Evaluation of the Ophthalmic Fluoroquinolones against Bacterial Conjunctivitis Isolates. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004:44; E-Abstract 2118.

5.      Miller D, Diniz J, Diaz M, Perez E, et al. In vitro Comparison of Moxifloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Gentamicin, and Tobramycin Against Ciprofloxacin Resistant Gram positive and Gram Negative Ocular Pathogens. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004:24; E-Abstract 4923.

6.      Dvorak AW, John T, Clark J, Lyzak J. In Vitro Susceptibilities of Ocular Isolates to Old and New Antibiotics. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004:45; E-Abstract 4972.

7.      Kowalski RP, Karenchak LM, Romanowski EG, et al. An in vitro comparison of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th generation fluoroquinolones against bacterial keratitis isolates. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002:43; E-Abstract 1585.

8.      Callegan MC, Ramirez R, Kane ST, Cochran DC, Jensen H. Antibacterial activity of the fourth-generation fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin against ocular pathogens. Adv Ther. 2003 Sep-Oct;20(5):246-52.

9.      Yee RW, Sorour HM, Yee SB, et al. Comparison of Relative Toxicity of Four Ophthalmic Antibiotics Using the Human Cornea Epithelial Cell Culture System
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004:45; E-Abstract 4939.

10.  Nguyen QH, Friedlaender MH, Sharf L, Breshears D. Objective and Subjective Measurement of Drug Toxicity Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004: 45; E-Abstract 4937.

11.  Tripathi BJ, Tripathi RC, Kolli SP. Cytotoxicity of ophthalmic preservatives on human corneal epithelium. Lens Eye Toxic Res. 1992;9(3-4):361-75.

12.  Noecker R. Effects of common ophthalmic preservatives on ocular health. Adv Ther. 2001 Sep-Oct;18(5):205-15.

13.  ZYMARTM prescribing information.

14.  VIGAMOXTM prescribing information.

15.  Farley WJ, Luo L, Chen LZ, Stern ME, Pflugfelder SC. Effects of Commercial 4th Generation Fluoroquinolones on Corneal Epithelial Barrier Function in Experimental Murine Dry Eye. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004:45; E-Abstract 4904.

16.  Schmidt LP, Beuerman RW. Comparison of Gatifloxacin and Moxifloxacin in Healing of a Linear Incision in the Rabbit Cornea. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004:45;E-Abstract 1427.

17.  Gao J, Siemasko KF, Vu C, Etemadi H, McDonnell PJ, Stern ME. Effect of the 4th Generation Fluoroquinolone on Rabbit Corneal Wound Healing. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004:45;E-Abstract 4889.

18.  Petroll WM, Cavanagh HD, Jester JV. Assessment of Corneal Toxicity Following Exposure to Vigamox or Zymar Using In Vivo Confocal Microscopy and ZO-1 Staining. 2004; Abstract 13.

19.  Owen GR, Dembinska O, Stout KR, Mendiola MK. Corneal Penetration and Changes in Corneal Permeability of Moxifloxacin versus Gatifloxacin. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004:45;E-Abstract 4910.

20.  Kim AS et al. Evaluation of the Effects of Topical Ophthalmic Fluoroquinolones (FQ) on the cornea using In Vivo Confocal Microscopy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:44;E-Abstract 1367.

21.  Kovoor TA, Kim AS, McCulley JP, Cavanagh HD, Jester JV, Bugde AC, Petroll WM. Evaluation of the corneal effects of topical ophthalmic fluoroquinolones using in vivo confocal microscopy. Eye Contact Lens. 2004 Apr;30(2):90-4.

22.  Durrie DS. A Comparison of Prophylactic Antibiotic Influences on Fellow Eyes Undergoing LASIK. 2004. Corneal Society Abstract. October, 2004, New Orleans, LA.

23.  Durrie DS, Trattler W. Comparison of Therapeutic Regimens Containing Moxifloxacin and Gatifloxacin on the Rate of Corneal Epithelial Healing following LASEK. J. Ocular Pharm Ther. In Press.

24.  Sami MS, Setabutr P, Folterman MO, Chuang AZ, Yee RW. Epithelial healing rates with topical moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin after bilateral photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Paper presented at: the Cornea Society Meeting; October, 2004; New Orleans, LA.



(p. 28) Benefits and Challenges of High-Dk/t Materials, by Desmond Fonn, Dip Optom, M Optom, FAAO, and Alisa Sivak, BA, DipEd, MA


1.         Coles M, Brennan N, Jaworksi A, et al. Ocular signs and symptoms in patients completing 3 years with silicone-hydrogel contact lenses in 30-day continuous wear. Optom Vis Sci 2001;78 (suppl.).

2.         Covey MA, Papas E, Austen R, et al. Hypoxic effects on the anterior eye of high Dk soft contact lens wearers are negligible. Optom Vis Sci 18:95-99.

3.         Dumbleton, K (2004). Silicone hydrogels for daily wear: comparison of complications with extended wear. Silicone hydrogels website.

4.         Dumbleton, K (2003). Noninflammatory Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Complications. Eye Contact Lens 29(1S):S186-S189.

5.         Dumbleton, K (2002). Adverse events with silicone hydrogel continuous wear. Contact Lens Anterior Eye 25:137-146.

6.         Fonn D, et al. Corneal Oxygen Deficiency. Eye & Contact lens 2005; 31: 23 - 27

7.         Fonn D. Moezzi A, Simpson TL, Situ P. Confirmation of a yoked corneal swelling response between the test and contralateral control eye. Optom Vis Sci.2004:81: 30(12S)

8.         Fonn D, MacDonald K, Richter D, Pritchard N. The ocular response to extended wear of a high-Dk silicone hydrogel contact lens. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2002; 85:176-182.

9.         Fonn D, du Toit R, Simpson TL, et al. Sympathetic swelling response of the control eye to soft lenses in the other eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999;40:3116-21.

10.     Jalbert I, Stretton S, Naduvilath T, Holden BA, Keay L, Sweeney DF. Chnges in myopia with low-Dk hydrogel and high Dk silicone hydrogel extended wear. Optometry and Vision Science 2004;81:591-596.

11.     Sankaridurg PR, Holden B, Jalbert I. Adverse events and infections: which ones and how many? In Silicone Hydrogels: Continuous Wear Contact Lenses. 2004.

12.     Sweeney et al. Clinical performance of silicone hydrogel lenses. In Silicone Hydrogels: Continuous Wear Contact Lenses. 2004. p 180



(p. 50) Treatment Plan: A Realistic Look at Supplements, by Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

1.         Am J health-Syst Pharm 2004; 61: 1707.

2.         Fraunfelder FW. Am J Ophthalmol 2004; 138:639647

3.         Fed Regist 2003; 68: 12157-263