Contact Lens Spectrum

November 2007

Document #144




(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Do Your Research to Draw Conclusions From Research, By William Townsend, OD


  1. Chia EM, Mitchell P, Rochtchina E, Lee AJ, Maroun R, Wang JJ. Prevalence and associations of dry eye syndrome in an older population: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2003 Jun; 31(3):229-32


  1. Cermak JM, Papas AS, Sullivan RM, Dana MR, Sullivan DA. Nutrient intake in women with primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb; 57(2):328-34.


  1. Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Incidence of dry eye in an older population. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Mar;122(3):369-73.




(p. 24) Correcting Aberrations with Contact Lenses, By Pete S. Kollbaum, OD, PhD, FAAO, & Arthur S. Bradley, PhD


  1. Almeida, J. B. and A. M. Garcia (2005). "Theoretical calculation of a contact lens thickness designed to correct the eye's monochromatic aberrations." Optom Vis Sci 82(1): 59-63.
  2. Artal, P., L. Chen, et al. (2003). "Adaptive optics for vision: the eye's adaptation to point spread function." J Refract Surg 19(5): S585-7.
  3. Castejon-Mochon, J. F., N. Lopez-Gil, et al. (2002). "Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population." Vision Res 42(13): 1611-7.
  4. Cheng, X., N. L. Himebaugh, et al. (2003). "Validation of a clinical Shack-Hartmann aberrometer." Optom Vis Sci 80(8): 587-95.
  5. Cheng, X., N. L. Himebaugh, et al. (2004). "Test-retest reliability of clinical Shack-Hartmann measurements." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45(1): 351-60.
  6. de Brabander, J., N. Chateau, et al. (2003). "Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus." Optom Vis Sci 80(9): 637-43.
  7. Dietze, H. H. and M. J. Cox (2003). "On- and off-eye spherical aberration of soft contact lenses and consequent changes of effective lens power." Optom Vis Sci 80(2): 126-34.
  8. Dietze, H. H. and M. J. Cox (2004). "Correcting ocular spherical aberration with soft contact lenses." J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 21(4): 473-85.
  9. Guirao, A., J. Porter, et al. (2002). "Calculated impact of higher-order monochromatic aberrations on retinal image quality in a population of human eyes." J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 19(1): 1-9.
  10. Guirao, A., D. R. Williams, et al. (2001). "Effect of rotation and translation on the expected benefit of an ideal method to correct the eye's higher-order aberrations." J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 18(5): 1003-15.
  11. Ho, A. (2003). "Aberration correction with soft contact lens: is the postlens tear film important?" Eye Contact Lens 29(1 Suppl): S182-5; discussion S190-1, S192-4.
  12. Holden, B. A., J. A. Siddle, et al. (1976). "Soft lens performance models: The clinical significance of the lens flexure effect." Aust J Optom 59(117): 117-129.
  13. Jeong, T. M., M. Menon, et al. (2005). "Measurement of wave-front aberration in soft contact lenses by use of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor." Appl Opt 44(21): 4523-7.
  14. Kollbaum, P. and A. Bradley (2005). "Aspheric contact lenses: fact and fiction." Contact Lens Spectrum(March).
  15. Lopez-Gil, N., J. F. Castejon-Mochon, et al. (2002). "Aberration generation by contact lenses with aspheric and asymmetric surfaces." J Refract Surg 18(5): S603-9.
  16. Pantanelli, S., S. Macrae, et al. (2007). "Characterizing the Wave Aberration in Eyes with Keratoconus or Penetrating Keratoplasty Using a High-Dynamic Range Wavefront Sensor." Ophthalmology.
  17. Porter, J., A. Guirao, et al. (2001). "Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population." J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 18(8): 1793-803.
  18. Sabesan, R., T. M. Jeong, et al. (2007). "Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes." Opt Lett 32(8): 1000-2.
  19. Sarver, M. D. (1974). "Supplemental power effect of Bausch and Lomb Soflens contact lenses." ICLC 1: 101-9.
  20. Smirnov, M. S. (1962). "Measurement of the wave aberration of the human eye." Biophysics 7: 766-95.
  21. Thibos, L. N. (2000). "Principles of Hartmann-Shack aberrometry." J Refract Surg 16(5): S563-5.
  22. Thibos, L. N., A. Bradley, et al. (2002). "A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes." Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 22(5): 427-33.
  23. Thibos, L. N., X. Cheng, et al. (2003). "Design principles and limitations of wave-front guided contact lenses." Eye Contact Lens 29(1 Suppl): S167-70; discussion S190-1, S192-4.
  24. Thibos, L. N., X. Hong, et al. (2002). "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes." J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 19(12): 2329-48.
  25. Tomlinson, A., W. H. Ridder, 3rd, et al. (1994). "Blink-induced variations in visual performance with toric soft contact lenses." Optom Vis Sci 71(9): 545-9.
  26. Williams, D., G. Y. Yoon, et al. (2000). "Visual benefit of correcting higher order aberrations of the eye." J Refract Surg 16(5): S554-9.
  27. Yoon, G. Y. (2002). "Visual performance after correcting the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of the eye." J Opt Soc Am A 19(2): 266-75.



(p. 33) No-fee CE: Fitting Contact Lenses to Irregular Corneas, by Louise A. Sclafani, OD, FAAO


  1. Kenney, Cristina. Global Keratoconus Congress Presentation. Contact lens spectrum [0885-9175] yr:2007 vol:22 iss:3 pg:3
  2.  Fleiszig SM.The Pathogenesis of Contact Lens-Related Keratitis. Optom Vis Sci 2006:83:866-873.
  3.  Krachmer JH, Mannis MJ, Holland EJ: Cornea,ed. 2 Philadelphia, 2005, Elsevier Mosby
  4.  Narayanan, Raja MD *; Gaster, Ronald N MD, FACS *+; Kenney, M Cristina MD, PhD * Pseudophakic Corneal Edema: A Review of Mechanisms and Treatments. Cornea. 25(9):993-1004, October 2006
  5.  Udar, Nitin PhD; Kenney, M. Cristina MD, PhD; Chalukya, Meenal MA; Anderson, Tara BS; Morales, Liezel BS; Brown, Donald PhD; Nesburn, Anthony MD; Small, Kent MD Keratoconus-No Association with the Transforming Growth Factor [beta]-Induced Gene in a Cohort of American Patients. Cornea. 23(1):13-17, January 2004.
  6.  MARSACK, JASON D. MS; PARKER, KATRINA E. OD, FAAO; PESUDOVS, KONRAD PhD, FAAO; DONNELLY, WILLIAM J. III PhD; APPLEGATE, RAYMOND A. OD, PhD, FAAO Uncorrected Wavefront Error and Visual Performance During RGP Wear in Keratoconus. Optometry & Vision Science. 84(6):463-470, June 2007
  7.  BARR, JOSEPH T. OD, MS, FAAO, EDITOR Vision and Visual Acuity. Contact Lens Spectrum. 22(5):13, May 2007.
  8.  CHOI, JIN MD; WEE, WON RYANG MD, PhD; LEE, JIN HAK MD, PhD; KIM, MEE KUM MD, PhD Changes of Ocular Higher Order Aberration in On- and Off-Eye of Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lenses. Optometry & Vision Science. 84(1):42-51, January 2007
  9. Szczotka L. Fitting the Irregular Cornea. Contact Lens Spectrum. 18(5): 33-40.
  10. Riley C, Silbert J. Fitting Lenses Post-Op. Optometric Management 39(1).
  11. Edrington et al. Irregular Corneas Grand Round in Clinical Contact Lens Practice. Bennett E and Weissman B, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005.
  12. Zadnik K, Barr J. Keratoconus. Efron N, Contact Lens Practice, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002.
  13. Weissman B and Ho S. Post-Keratoplasty. Efron N, Contact Lens Practice, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002.



(p. 41) A Statistical Analysis of the Staining Grid, by Sally M. Dillehay, OD, EdD; Bill Long, BS, MBA; & Gary Cutter, PhD


1.        Hom M. The new math of corneal staining. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2007 (March):44-46.

2.        Lasswell, L, Huth S, Tran D. Deciphering Corneal Staining Scales. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2007 (April):36-40.

3.        Andrasko GJ, Ryen KA. A series of evaluations of MPS and silicone hydrogel lens combination. Review of Cornea and Contact Lenses. March 2007(March): 36-42.

4. Updated May 27, 2007. Accessed June 4, 2007.

5.        Distribution of color of M&M plain candies over the years. Accessed May 4,  2007.

6.        Donahue RMJ. Statistics in clinical research: Godsend or necessary evil ?   Accessed April 17, 2007.

7.        Dillehay, SM, Long BL, Rappon JM. Letter to the Editor. Review of Cornea and Contact Lenses, 2007; June:8.

8.        Andrasko G. Author's Response to Letter to the Editor. Review of Cornea and Contact Lenses, 2007; June:9.

9.        Korb, D. and J. Herman, Corneal staining subsequent to sequential fluorescein instillations. J Am Optom Assoc, 1979;50(3):361-367.

10.     Schwallie, J., et al., Corneal staining patterns in normal non-contact lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci, 1997; 74(2):92-98.

11.     Korb, D. and Exford J., Corneal staining prior to contact lens wearing. J Am Optom Assoc. 1970;41(3):228-232.

12.     Norn, M., Micropunctate fluorescein vital staining of the cornea. Acta Ophthalmol (Khb,. 1970; 48:108-118.

13.     Garofalo RJ, Dassanayake N, Carey C, Stein J, Stone R, David R. Corneal staining and subjective symptoms with multipurpose solutions as a function of time. Eye & Contact Len, 2005;31(4):166-174.

14.     Van Duzee B, Schlech B. The activity of a multi-purpose solution against Acanthamoeba. Optician, 1999;217(5700):34-35.

15.     Dassanayake, N., et al., Correlating biocide uptake and release profiles with corneal staining and subjective symptoms. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2005;46: E-abstract 915.

16.     Carnt NA, Willcox MDP, Evans V. et al. Corneal Staining with various lens care-silicone hydrogel combinations and its significant: The IER Matrix Study. Submitted to Contact Lens Spectrum July 2007.

17.     Portney LG, Watkins MP. Foundations of clinical research. Applications to practice. Second edition. Prentice Hall Health. Upper Saddle River, NJ. 2000:19.