Contact Lens Spectrum

October 2009

Document #167





(pp. 14) Point/Counterpoint: The Future of Orthokeratology


Point: Ortho-k Provides Many Benefits to Patients and Practitioners, By John Mark Jackson, OD, MS, FAAO


Hiraoka T, Okamoto C, Ishii Y, Kakita T, Okamoto F, Takahashi H, Oshika T. Patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes after overnight orthokeratology. Opt Vis Sci 2009; 86: 875-82.

Lipson MJ, Sugar A, Musch DC. Overnight corneal reshaping versus soft disposable contact lenses: vision related quality of life differences from a randomized clinical trial. Optom Vis Sci 2005; 82:886-91

Polse KA, Brand RJ, Schwalbe JS, Vastine DW, Keener RJ. The Berkeley Orthokeratology Study. Part II: efficacy and duration. Am J Physiol Opt 1983: 60;187-98.

Tahan N, Du Toit R, Papas E, Chung H, La Hood D, Holden B. Comparison of Reverse-Geometry Lens Designs for Overnight Orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci 2003; 80: 796-804.


Counterpoint: Orthokeratology: Proceed With Caution, By Danielle M. Robertson, OD, PhD, FAAO, FBCLA


Alharbi, A., and H. A. Swarbrick. 2003. The effects of overnight orthokeratology lens wear on corneal thickness. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44 (6):2518-2523.

Berntsen, D., G. Mitchell, and J. Barr. 2006. The effect of overnight contact lens corneal reshaping on refractive error-specific quality of life. Optom Vis Sci 83 (6):354-359.

Choy, C. K. M., P. Cho, I. F. F. Benzie, and V. Ng. 2004. Effect of one overnight wear of orthokeratology lenses on tear composition. Optom Vis Sci 81 (6):414-420.

Kobayashi, y., R. Yanai, N. Chikamoto, T.-I. Chikama, K. Ueda, and T. Nishida. 2008. Reversibility of effects of orthokeratology on visual acuity, refractive error, corneal topography, and contrast sensitivity. Eye & Contact Lens 34 (4):224-228.

Matsubara, M., Y. Kamei, S. Takeda, K. Mukai, Y. Ishii, and S. Ito. 2004. Histologic and histochemical changes in rabbit cornea produced by an orthokeratology lens. Eye & Contact Lens 30 (4):198-204.

Robertson, D., J. McCulley, and H. Cavanagh. 2007. Severe Acanthamoeba keratitis after overnight orthokeratology. Eye & Contact Lens 33 (3):121-123.

Stapleton, F., L. Keay, E. K, N. T, D. JK, B. G, and H. BA. 2008. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitits in Australia. Ophthalmology 115 (10):1655-1662.

Sun, X., H. Zhao, S. Deng, Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, R. Li, S. Luo, and X. Jin. 2006. Infectious keratitis related to orthokeratology. Ophthal Physiol Opt 26:133-136.

Walline, J., L. Jones, and L. Sinnott. 2009. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol 93 (9):1181-1185.

Watt, K. G., and H. A. Swarbrick. 2007. Trends in microbial keratitis associated with orthokeratology. Eye & Contact Lens 33 (6):373-377.



(p. 20) Contact Lens Materials: The Evolution of Contact Lens Wetting Agents, By Kathy Dumbleton, MSc, MCOptom, FAAO, & Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO



1.         Buhler N, Haerri H, Hofman M, Irrgang C, Muhlebach A, Muller B, Stockinger F: Nelfilcon A, a new material for contact lenses. Chimia 1999; 53; 269 - 274.

2.         Winterton LC, Lally JM, Sentell KB, Chapoy LL: The elution of poly (vinyl alcohol) from a contact lens: the realization of a time release moisturizing agent/artificial tear. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2007; 80;2: 424-32.

3.         Peterson RC, Wolffsohn JS, Nick J, Winterton L, Lally J: Clinical performance of daily disposable soft contact lenses using sustained release technology. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2006; 29;3: 127-34.

4.         Pruitt J, Lindley K, Winterton L: Triple-action moisturisers for increased comfort in daily disposable lenses. Optician 2007; 234;6128: 27-28.

5.         Giles T, Fahny M: Performance of daily disposable contact lenses with moisterising agents. Optician 2008; 235;6150: 31-33.

6.         Morris C: High technology contact lens materials and their biomimetic properties - part 2. Optician 2008; 235;6146: 14-16.

7.         Veys J, Meyler J: Do new daily disposable lenses improve patient comfort? Optician 2006; 231;6046: 34 - 36.

8.         Mack CJ: A new daily disposable design provides opportunity. Contact Lens Spectrum 2009; 24;1: 48-49.

9.         Szczotka-Flynn L: Chemical properties of contact lens rewetters. Contact Lens Spectrum 2006; 21;4: 40 - 42.

10.       Atkins N: Overall performance of the Safegel 1 day lens. Optician 2008; 235;March 7th: 40 - 43.

11.       de Martin G: A new lens for dry eye - comparative trial. Optician 2006; 232;6080: 30 - 31.

12.       van Beek M, Weeks A, Jones L, Sheardown H: Immobilized hyaluronic acid containing model silicone hydrogels reduce protein adsorption. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2008; 19;11: 1425-36.

13.       Van Beek M, Jones L, Sheardown H: Hyaluronic acid containing hydrogels for the reduction of protein adsorption. Biomaterials 2008; 29;7: 780-9.

14.       Fagnola M, Pagani MP, Maffioletti S, Tavazzi S, Papagni A: Hyaluronic acid in hydrophilic contact lenses: spectroscopic investigation of the content and release in solution. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2009; 32;3: 108-12.

15.       Steffen R, Schnider C: A next generation silicone hydrogel lens for daily wear. Part 1 - Material properties. Optician 2004; 227;5954: 23 - 25.

16.       Osborn K, Veys J: A new silicone hydrogel lens for contact lens-related dryness. Part 1 – Material properties. Optician 2005; 229;6004: 39 - 41.

17.       Ruston D, Meyler J: A new silicone hydrogel lens Part 2. Subjective clinical performance. Optician 2005; 230;6022: 37 - 39.

18.       Jones L, Woods C: An eye on the world’s first silicone hydrogel daily disposable contact lens. Optician 2008; 236;6172: 33 - 34.

19.       Jones L: Drug delivering contact lenses: A dream worth chasing? Contact Lens Spectrum 2009; 24;3: 18-19.




(p. 23) Contact Lens Care and Compliance: GP Care: Some Common Myths, By Susan J. Gromacki, OD, MS, FAAO


Norman C.  Solutions for keeping RGPs in top form.  CL Spectrum 1998 13(7):  .


Smythe JL.  Gas-permeable lens care and patient education.  In:  Hom MM and Bruce AS, eds.  Manual of Contact Lens Prescribing and Fitting.  Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, 2006; Chapter 12:  255-262.


Bennett ES.  Six keys to ensuring RGP compliance.  CL Spectrum 1996 11(6): 19 .




(p. 24) The SMART Study: Background, Rationale, and Baseline Results, By S. Barry Eiden, OD, FAAO; Robert L. Davis, OD, FAAO; Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO; and Julie O. DeKinder, OD, FAAO


1.     Vitale S, Ellwein L. Cotch MF, et al.  Prevalence of refractive error in the United States, 1999-2004.  Arch Ophthalmol  2008;126:1111-1119.

2.     Wang Q, Klein BE, Klein R, Moss SE.  Refractive status in the Beaver Dam Eye Study.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  1994;35:4344-4347.

3.     Sperduto RD, Seige D, Roberts J, Rowland M.  Prevalence of myopia in the United States.  Arch Ophthalmol  1983;101:405-407.

4.     Angie J, Wissmann DA.  The epidemiology of myopia.  Am J Epidemiol  1980;111:220-228.

5.     Katz J, Tieisch JM, Sommer A.  Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in an adult inner city population.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  1997;38:334-340. 

6.     Goss DA, Winkler RL.  Progression of myopia in youth: age of cessation.  Am J Optom Physiol Opt  1983;60:651-658.

7.     Kempen JH, Mitchell P, Lee KE, et al.  The prevalence of refractive errors among adults in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia.  Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122:495-505.

8.     Tokoro T, Sato A.  Results of investigation of pathologic myopia in Japan: report of myopic chorioretinal atrophy. Tokyo Ministry of Health and Welfare; 1982:32-35.

9.      Goss DA.  Cessation age of childhood myopia progression.  Ophthalmic Physiol Opt  1987;7(2):195-197.

10.                        Blum HL, Peters HB, Bettman JW.  Vision Screening for Elementary Schools: The Orinda Study.  Berkeley: University of California Press; 1959.

11.                        Zadnik K, Mutti DO, Friedman NE, et al.  Ocular predictors of the onset of juvenile myopia.  Invest Ophthamol Vis Sci  1999;40(9):1936-1943.

12.                        Parssinen O, Lyyra AL.  Myopia and myopic progression among schoolchildren: a three-year follow-up study.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  1993;34(9):2794-2802.

13.                        Goss DA, Cox VD.  Trends in the change of clinical refractive error in myopes.  J Am Optom Assoc  1985;56(8):608-613.

14.                        Walline JJ, Rah MJ, Jones LA.  The Children’s Overnight Orthokeratology Investigation (COOKI) Pilot Study.  Optom Vis Sci  2004;81(6):407-413.

15.                        The Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group:  Risk factors for idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.  Am J Epidemiol  1993;137:749-757.

16.                        Lai TYY.  Retinal complications of high myopia.  Hong Kong Medical Diary  2007;12(9):18-20.

17.                        Pierro L, Camesasca FI, Mischi M, Brancato R.  Peripheral retinal changes and axial myopia.  Retina  1992;12:12-17.

18.                        Celorio JM, Pruett RC.  Prevalence of lattice degeneration and its relation to axial length in severe myopia.  Am J Ophthalmol  1991;111:20-23.

19.                        Hyams SW, Neumann E.  Peripheral retina in myopia with particular reference to retinal breaks.  Br J Ophthalmol  1969;53:300-306.

20.                        Lam SY, Goh SH.  The incidence of refractive errors among school children in Hong Kong and its relations with the optical components.  Clin Exp Optom  1991;74:97-103.

21.                        Adams AJ.  Axial length elongation, not corneal curvature, as a basis of adult onset myopia.  Am J Optom Physiol Opt  1987;64:150-152.

22.                        Goss DA, Erickson P.  Effects of changes in anterior chamber depth on refractive error of the human eye.  Clin Vision Sci  1990;S:197-201.

23.                        Grosvenor T, Scott R.  Three-year changes in refraction and its components in youth-onset and early adult-onset myopia.  Optom Vis Sci  1993;70:677-683.

24.                        Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott L, et al.  A randomized trial of the effect of soft contact lenses on myopia progression in children.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  2008;49(11):4702-4706.

25.                        Leung JTM, Brown B.  Progression of myopia in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren is slowed by wearing progressive lenses.  Optom Vis Sci  1999;76:346-354.

26.                        Stone J.  The possible influence of contact lenses on myopia.  Br J Physiol Opt  1976;31:89-114. 

27.                        Khoo CY, Chong J, Rajan U.  A 3-year study on the effect of RGP contact lenses on myopic children.  Singapore Med J  1999;40:230-237.

28.                        Perrigin J, Perrigin D, Quintero S, Grosvenor T.  Silicone-acrylate contact lenses for myopia control: 3-year results.  Optom Vis Sci  1990;67:764-769.

29.                        Katz J, Schein OD, Levy B, et al.  A randomized trial of rigid gas permeable contact lenses to reduce progression of children’s myopia.  Am J Ophthalmol  2003;136:82-90.

30.                        Walline JJ, Jones LA, Mutti DO, et al.  A randomized trial of the effects of rigid contact lenses on myopia progression.  Arch Ophthalmol  2004;81(6):407-413. 

31.                        Woods CA, Jones DA, Jones LW, Morgan PB.  A seven year survey of the contact lens prescribing habits of Canadian optometrists.  Optom Vis Sci  2007;84:505-510.

32.                        Morgan PB, Woods CA, Tranoudis IG, et al.  International contact lens prescribing in 2008.  Contact Lens Spectrum  2009;24(2):

33.                        Ritchey ER, Barr JT, Mitchell GL.  The comparison of overnight lens modalities (COLM) Study.  Eye Contact Lens  2005;31:70-75.

34.                        Lipson MJ, Sugar A, Musch DC.  Overnight corneal reshaping versus soft disposable contact lenses: Vision-related quality-of-life differences from a randomized clinical trial.  Optom Vis Sci  2005;82(10):886-891.

35.                        Rah MJ, Bailey MD, Hayes J, et al.  Comparison of NEI RQL-42 scores in LASIK vs. CRT patients.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  2004;45 E-Abstract:,HWELTR.  Accessed 2/15/09. 

36.                        Berntsen DA, Mitchell LG, Barr JT.  The effect of overnight contact lens corneal reshaping on refractive error-specific quality of life.  Optom Vis Sci  2006;83(6):354-359.

37.                        Mountford J.  An analysis of the changes in corneal shape and refractive error induced by accelerated orthokeratology.  Int Contact Lens Clinic  1997;24:128-143.

38.                        Nichols JJ, Marsich MM, Nguyen M, et al.  Overnight orthokeratology.  Optom Vis Sci  2000;77:252-259.

39.                        Rah MJ, Jackson JM, Jones LA, et al.  Overnight orthokeratology: preliminary results of the Lenses and Overnight Orthokeratology (LOOK) study.  Optom Vis Sci  2002;79:598-605.

40.                        Soni PS, Nguyen TT, Bonanno JA.  Overnight orthokeratology: visual and corneal change.  Eye Contact Lens  2003;29:137-145.

41.                        Tahhan N, Du Toit R, Papas E, et al.  Comparison of reverse-geometry lens designs for overnight orthokeratology.  Optom Vis Sci  2003;80:796-804.

42.                        Joslin CE, Wu SM, McMahon TT, Shahidi M.  Higher-order wavefront aberrations in corneal refractive therapy.  Optom Vis Sci  2003;80:805-811.

43.                        Owens H, Garner LF, Craig JP, Gamble G.  Posterior corneal changes with orthokeratology.  Optom Vis Sci  2004;81:421-426.

44.                        Maldonado-Codina C, Efron S, Morgan P, et al.  Empirical versus trial set fitting systems for accelerated orthokeratology.  Eye Contact Lens  2005;31:137-147. 

45.                        Sorbara L, Fonn D, Simpson T, et al.  Reduction of myopia from corneal refractive therapy.  Optom Vis Sci  2005;82:512-518.

46.                        Berntsen DA, Barr JT, Mitchell GL.  The effect of overnight contact lens corneal reshaping on higher-order aberrations and best-corrected visual acuity.  Optom Vis Sci  2005;82:490-497.

47.                        Soni PS, Nguyen TT.  Overnight orthokeratology with XO material.  Eye Contact Lens  2006;32(1):39-45.

48.                        Subramaniam SV, Bennett ES, Lakshminanayanan V, Morgan BW.  Gas permeable (GP) versus non-GP lens wearers: accuracy of orthokeratology in myopia reduction.  Optom Vis Sci  2007;84:417-421.

49.                        El Hage S, Leach NE, Miller W, et al.  Empirical advanced orthokeratology through corneal topography: the University of Houston clinical study.  Eye Contact Lens.  2007;33:224-235.

50.                        Subramaniam SV, Bennett ES, Lakshminanayanan V, et al.  Comparison of overnight orthokeratology in RGP and non-RGP wearers.  Presented at the ARVO Annual Meeting.  Ft. Lauderdale, FL, May, 2003.

51.                        Fan L, Jun J, Jia Q, et al.  Clinical study of orthokeratology in young myopic adolescents.  Contact Lens Ant Eye  1999;26(5):113-116.

52.                        Chan B, Cho P, Cheung SW.  Orthokeratology practice in children in a university clinic in Hong Kong.  Clin Exp Optom  2008;91(5):453-460.

53.                        Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M.  The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong; a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control.  Curr Eye Res  2005;30:71-80.

54.                        Mika R, Morgan B, Cron M, et al.  Safety and efficacy of overnight orthokeratology in myopic children.  Optometry  2007;78:225-231.





(p. 34) Designing GPs from Corneal Topography, By Randy Kojima, FOAA, & Patrick Caroline, FAAO


HVID Study
The Effect of Corneal Diameter on Contact Lens Fitting, Caroline P.J., Andre M.P., Contact Lens Spectrum April 2002 page 56.

Building Lenses by CT
The Case for Adding Corneal Topography, Caroline P.J., Norman C.W., Review of Optometry, April  1997 pages 24-27.

Tear layer thickness references:
n  Brungardt, T. (1961) Fluorescein patterns: they are accurate and they can be mastered. J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 32;973-974.
n  2. Mandell, RB (1974) How valid is the fluorescein test? Int. Contact Lens Clin. 1. Fall, 25-27.
n  3. Osbourne, GN, Zantos, SG, Godio, LB, Jones, WF, Barr, JT. (1989) Aspheric rigid gas permeable contact lenses: practitioner discrimination of base curve increments using fluorescein pattern evaluation. Opt. Vis. Sc. 66: 4 209-213.