Contact Lens Spectrum

March 2009

Document #160





(p. 18) Research Review: Drug-Delivering Contact Lenses: A Dream Worth Chasing? By Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO


1. Waltman S, Kaufman H: Use of hydrophilic contact lenses to increase ocular penetration of drugs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1970; 9;4: 250 - 255.

2. Hui A, Boone A, Jones L: Uptake and release of ciprofloxacin-HCl from conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. Eye Contact Lens 2008; 34;5: 266-71.

3. Gulsen D, Chauhan A: Ophthalmic drug delivery through contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004; 45;7: 2342-7.

4. Xinming L, Yingde C, Lloyd AW, Mikhalovsky SV, Sandeman SR, Howel CA, Liewen L: Polymeric hydrogels for novel contact lens-based ophthalmic drug delivery systems: a review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2008; 31;2: 57-64.

5. Danion A, Doillon CJ, Giasson CJ, Djouahra S, Sauvageau P, Paradis R, Vermette P: Biocompatibility and light transmission of liposomal lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2007; 84;10: 954-61.

6. de Campos AM, Diebold Y, Carvalho EL, Sanchez A, Alonso MJ: Chitosan nanoparticles as new ocular drug delivery systems: in vitro stability, in vivo fate, and cellular toxicity. Pharm Res 2004; 21;5: 803-10.

7. Gulsen D, Chauhan A: Dispersion of microemulsion drops in HEMA hydrogel: a potential ophthalmic drug delivery vehicle. Int J Pharm 2005; 292;1-2: 95-117.

8. Hiratani H, Fujiwara A, Tamiya Y, Mizutani Y, Alvarez-Lorenzo C: Ocular release of timolol from molecularly imprinted soft contact lenses. Biomaterials 2005; 26;11: 1293-8.

9. Alvarez-Lorenzo C, Yanez F, Barreiro-Iglesias R, Concheiro A: Imprinted soft contact lenses as norfloxacin delivery systems. J Control Release 2006; 113;3: 236-44.

10. Ali M, Horikawa S, Venkatesh S, Saha J, Hong JW, Byrne ME: Zero-order therapeutic release from imprinted hydrogel contact lenses within in vitro physiological ocular tear flow. J Control Release 2007; 124;3: 154-62.

11. Ali M, Byrne ME: Controlled release of high molecular weight hyaluronic Acid from molecularly imprinted hydrogel contact lenses. Pharm Res 2009; 26;3: 714-26.

12. Hiratani H, Mizutani Y, Alvarez-Lorenzo C: Controlling drug release from imprinted hydrogels by modifying the characteristics of the imprinted cavities. Macromol Biosci 2005; 5; 728 - 733.

13. Winterton LC, Lally JM, Sentell KB, Chapoy LL: The elution of poly (vinyl alcohol) from a contact lens: the realization of a time release moisturizing agent/artificial tear. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2007; 80;2: 424-32.

14. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf 2007; 5;2: 75-92.

15. Sher NA, Frantz JM, Talley A, Parker P, Lane SS, Ostrov C, Carpel E, Doughman D, DeMarchi J, Lindstrom R: Topical diclofenac in the treatment of ocular pain after excimer photorefractive keratectomy. Refract Corneal Surg 1993; 9;6: 425-36.

16. Donnenfeld ED, Selkin BA, Perry HD, Moadel K, Selkin GT, Cohen AJ, Sperber LT: Controlled evaluation of a bandage contact lens and a topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in treating traumatic corneal abrasions. Ophthalmology 1995; 102;6: 979-84.

17. Schalnus R: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy in ophthalmology. Ophthalmologica 2003; 217;2: 89-98.

18. Durrie DS, Kennard MG, Boghossian AJ: Effects of nonsteroidal ophthalmic drops on epithelial healing and pain in patients undergoing bilateral photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Adv Ther 2007; 24;6: 1278-85.

19. Chen H, Chang X, Du D, Li J, Xu H, Yang X: Microemulsion-based hydrogel formulation of ibuprofen for topical delivery. Int J Pharm 2006; 315;1-2: 52-8.

20. Andrade-Vivero P, Fernandez-Gabriel E, Alvarez-Lorenzo C, Concheiro A: Improving the loading and release of NSAIDs from pHEMA hydrogels by copolymerization with functionalized monomers. J Pharm Sci 2007; 96;4: 802-13.

21. Geever LM, Cooney CC, Lyons JG, Kennedy JE, Nugent MJ, Devery S, Higginbotham CL: Characterisation and controlled drug release from novel drug-loaded hydrogels. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008; 69;3: 1147-59.

22. dos Santos JF, Alvarez-Lorenzo C, Silva M, Balsa L, Couceiro J, Torres-Labandeira JJ, Concheiro A: Soft contact lenses functionalized with pendant cyclodextrins for controlled drug delivery. Biomaterials 2009; 30;7: 1348-55.

23. Venkatesh S, Sizemore SP, Byrne ME: Biomimetic hydrogels for enhanced loading and extended release of ocular therapeutics. Biomaterials 2007; 28;4: 717-24.




(p. 25) GP Insights: Choosing the Right GP Material for Each Patient, By Ann Laurenzi, OD, FAAO


1. Nelson J, Henry V, Bennett E: Material Selection In Bennett E, Henry V, Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses. Philadelphia, Lippincott. Pp197-229.




(p. 27) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: A Contact Lens on a Dry Eye, by William Townsend, OD, FAAO


1)      Nichols JJ, Sinnott LT. Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:1319-1328.

2)      Craig JP. Tomlinson A. Importance of the lipid layer in human tear film stability and evaporation. Opto Vis Sci1997;76:8-13.

3)      Gilbard, JP et al. Tear film and ocular surface changes after closure of the meibomian gland orifices in the rabbit. Ophthalmology 1989; 96, 11801186.

4)      Lemp  MA. Contact lenses and associated anterior segment disorders:
dry eye, blepharitis, and allergy. Ophthalmol Clin N Am  2003;16: 463 469




(p. 37) Soft Toric Advances and Fitting Trends, By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO


1. Brennan, NA. Corneal oxygenation during toric contact lens wear. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, Poster #73, October 22, 2008.

2. Jones L, May C, et al. In vitro evaluation of the dehydration characteristics of silicone-hydrogel and conventional hydrogel contact lens materials. Contact Lens & Ant Eye 2002;25:147-156.

3. Morgan PB, Efron N. In vivo dehydration of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens 2003; 29;3:173-176.

4. Snyder C, Talley DK. Masking of astigmatism with selected spherical soft contact lenses. J. Am Optom Assoc 1989;60(10):728-731.


5. Bernstein PR, Gundel RE, Rosen JS. Masking corneal toricity with hydrogels: does it work? ICLC, 1991:18(3&4):67-70.


6. Kollbaum P, Bradley A. Aspheric contact lenses: fact and fiction, Contact Lens Spectrum 2005;20(3):34-38.


7. Bayer S, Young G. Fitting low astigmats with toric soft contact lenses-what are the benefits and how easily it is achieved?, Am. Academy of Optom. Scientific Poster, December 2005.


8. Richdale K, et al. Visual acuity with spherical and toric soft contact lenses in low-to-moderate astigmatic eyes. Optom Vis Sci 2007;84(10): 969-975.


9. Chin J, Moody K. Evaluation of fit and visual acuity of the Acuvue Oasys for Astigmatism on Asian eyes in a non-dispensing comparison to Soflens Toric and Acuvue 2, American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, Poster #57, October 22, 2008.

10. Watanabe, R. Managing the astigmat with contact lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum 1999:14(8).


11. Linksz A. Determination of axis and amount of astigmatic error by rotation of trial cylinder. Arch Opththalmol 1942;28:632-651.


12. Bergenske P. Correcting astigmatism: more or less. Contact Lens Spectrum 2003;18(6):21.


13. Pence N, et al. Rotation with Acuvue Advance for Astigmatism. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, Poster Session, 2005.


14. Pence N, Kovacich S. Rotational characteristics of Air Optix for Astigmatism Contact Lenses. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, Poster #44, October 22, 2008.


15. Lindsay RG, Bruce AS, Brennan NA, Pianta MJ. Determining axis misalignment and power errors of toric soft lenses. ICLC 1997;24:101-106.


16. Snyder C, Daum KM. Rotational position of toric soft contact lenses on the eye-clinical judgments. ICLC 1989;16(3).


17. Zikos, GA, et al. Rotational stability of toric soft contact lenses during natural viewing conditions. Optom Vis Sci 2007;84(11):1039-1045.


18. Young G, Mcllraith R, Toric soft contact lens visual acuity with abnormal gaze and posture. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, Poster #54, October 22, 2008.


19. Chamberlain P, Morgan P, Moody K, A vision chart to quantify disturbances in acuity during wear of toric contact lenses. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, Poster #85, October 22, 2008.



(p. 42) Comparing Hydrogel and Silicone Hydrogel Torics, By S. Barry Eiden, OD, FAAO, & Robert L. Davis, OD, FAAO


  1. Morgan P et al, International CL Prescribing in 2007. CL Spectrum, January 2008.
  2. Richdale K, Sinnott L, Skadahl E, and Nichols J, Frequency of and Factors Associated with Contact Lens Dissatisfaction and Discontinuation. Cornea, February 2007.
  3. Pritchard N, Fonn D, and Brazeau D, Discontinuation of Contact Lens Wear: a Survey. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye, November, 1999.
  4. Bailey GM, Shovlin JP, Compliance and Contact Lenses. Review of Cornea and Contact Lenses, March, 2006.
  5. Claydon BE, Efron N, Non-Compliance in Contact Lens Wear. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, April, 1994.
  6. Davis R, Eiden SB, and Hankin B, Comparing Two-Week Toric Contact Lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum, February, 2008.




(p. 48) Contact Lens Practice Pearls: Soft Toric Rotation: How Much is Too Much? By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO


1. Bayer and Young, Fitting low astigmats with toric soft contact lenses-what are the benefits and how easily it is achieved?, Am. Academy of Optom. Scientific Poster, December 2005.


2. Richdale K, et al., Visual acuity with spherical and toric soft contact lenses in low-to-moderate astigmatic eyes, Optom and Vision Science, 2007; 84(10): 969-975.


3. Chin J and Moody K, Evaluation of fit and visual acuity of the Acuvue Oasys for Astigmatism on Asian eyes in a non-dispensing comparison to Soflens Toric and Acuvue 2, American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, Poster #57, October 22, 2008.


2. Snyder, C. A review and discussion of crossed cylinder effects and over-refractions with toric soft contact lenses,ICLC, 1989;16(4):113-116.



(p. 52) Pediatric and Teen CL Care: Soft Bifocal Contact Lenses for Myopia Progression, By Jeffrey J. Walline, OD, PhD, & Marjorie J. Rah, OD, PhD


1. Troilo D, Wallman J. The regulation of eye growth and refractive state: an experimental study of emmetropization. Vision Res. 1991;31(7-8):1237-1250.

2. Smith EL, Hung LF, Harwerth RS. Effects of optically induced blur on the refractive status of young monkeys. Vision Res. 1994;34(3):293-301.

3. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M, et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44(4):1492-1500.

4. Edwards MH, Li RW, Lam CS, Lew JK, Yu BS. The Hong Kong progressive lens myopia control study: study design and main findings. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Sep 2002;43(9):2852-2858.

5. Fulk GW, Cyert LA, Parker DE. A randomized trial of the effect of single-vision vs. bifocal lenses on myopia progression in children with esophoria. Optom Vis Sci. 2000;77(8):395-401.

6. Chung K, Mohidin N, O'Leary DJ. Undercorrection of myopia enhances rather than inhibits myopia progression. Vision Res. Oct 2002;42(22):2555-2559.

7. Adler D, Millodot M. The possible effect of undercorrection on myopic progression in children. Clin Exp Optom. Sep 2006;89(5):315-321.

8. Smith EL, 3rd, Kee CS, Ramamirtham R, Qiao-Grider Y, Hung LF. Peripheral vision can influence eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Nov 2005;46(11):3965-3972.

9. Smith EL, 3rd, Ramamirtham R, Qiao-Grider Y, et al. Effects of foveal ablation on emmetropization and form-deprivation myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Sep 2007;48(9):3914-3922.

10. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res. Jan 2005;30(1):71-80.

11. Aller TA, Wildsoet C. Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: a case report involving identical twins. Clin Exp Optom. Jul 2008;91(4):394-399.






(p. 53) Treatment Plan: Diagnosing and Managing Allergic Dermatitis, By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO



Garrott HM, Walland MJ. Glaucoma from topical corticosteroids to the eyelids. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2004 Apr;32(2):224-6.


Garbe E, LeLorier J, Boivin JF, Suissa S. Risk of ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma in elderly patients on oral glucocorticoids. Lancet. 1997 Oct 4;350(9083):979-82.