Contact Lens Spectrum

April  2009

Document #161





(p. 15) Letters to the Editor: Don’t Forget UVR Protection for Aphakes, By Jan Bergmanson, OD, PhD, PhD, h.c., DSc


1. Pitts DG and Kleinstein RN (Editors). Environmental Vision. Interactions of the Eye, Vision and the Environment. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1993.


2. Bergmanson JPG. Clinical Ocular Anatomy and Physiology. 16th Edition. Texas Eye Research and Technology Center, Houston, 2009.


3. Bergmanson JPG, Walsh JE, Koehler LV, Harmey JH. When a contact lens is a healthier choice. Contact Lens Spectrum Special Supplement, 30-35, 2007.


4. Walsh JE, Bergmanson JPG, , Koehler LV, Doughty MJ, Fleming, Harmey JH. Fibre optic spectrophotometry for the in vitro evaluation of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) spectral transmittance of rabbit corneas. Physiological Measurement, 29, 375-388, 2008.




(p. 16) Point/Counterpoint: Silicone Hydrogels and Lens Comfort


The Role of Silicone Hydrogel Lenses in Patient Comfort, By Robin L. Chalmers, OD, FAAO


  1. Doughty MJ, Fonn D, Richter D, Simpson T, Caffery B, Gordon K. A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada.  Optom Vis Sci. 1997 74(8):624-31.


  1. Chalmers RL, McNally JJ, McKenney CD, Robirds SR.  The role of dryness symptoms in discontinuation of wear and unscheduled lens removals in extended wear of silicone hydrogel lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43s(2002).
  2. Chalmers RL, Dillehay S, Long B, Barr JT, Bergenske P, Donshik P, Secor G, Yoakum J.  Impact of previous extended and daily wear schedules on signs and symptoms with high Dk lotrafilcon A lenses.  2005  Optom Vis Sci 82(6)549-54.

4.      Chalmers RL, Long B, Dillehay SD, Begley CG.  Improving contact-lens related dryness symptoms with silicone hydrogel lenses. Optom Vis Sci 85(8):778-84.

5.      Chalmers RL, Hunt C. Hickson-Curran S, Young G.  Struggle with hydrogel CL wear increases with age in young adults.  Cont Lens Ant Eye 2009 (In Press).


  1. Young G, Riley CM, Chalmers RL, Hunt C.  Hydrogel lens comfort in challenging environments and the effect of refitting with silicone hydrogel lenses.  Optom Vis Sci 2007 84(4) 302-8. 
  1. Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R.  Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a).  Eye Contact Lens. 2006 32(6):281-6.



Are Silicone Hydrogel Lenses Really More Comfortable?  By Noel A. Brennan, MSCOptom, PhD, FAAO


Dillehay SM, Miller MB. Performance of Lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel contact lenses in experienced low-Dk/t daily lens wearers. Eye Contact Lens 2007; 33:272-277.
Dumbleton K, Keir N, Moezzi A, et al. Objective and subjective responses in patients refitted to daily-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2006; 83:758-768.
Long B, McNally J. The clinical performance of a silicone hydrogel lens for daily wear in an Asian population. Eye Contact Lens 2006; 32:65-71.
Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R. Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a). Eye Contact Lens 2006; 32:281-286.
Brennan NA, Coles M-LC, Connor HR, et al. Silicone hydrogel contact lens comfort. Optom Vis Sci 2007; 84:e-abstract 070037.
Andrasko G, Ryen K. Corneal staining and comfort observed with traditional and silicone hydrogel lenses and multipurpose solution combinations. Optometry 2008; 79:444-454.



(p. 20) Contact Lens Materials: Silicone Hydrogels — No Longer for Just a Select Few, by Kathy Dumbleton, MSc, MCOptom, FAAO, & Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO


1.         Nichols J: Contact lenses 2008. Contact Lens Spectrum 2009; 24;1: 24 - 32.

2.         Nash W, Sentell KB, Langford M, Gabriel M: The effect of surface modification on the in vitro contact angle of silicone hydrogel lenses. Contact Lens And Anterior Eye 2008; 31;5: 261.

3.         Chou B: The evolution of silicone hydrogel lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum 2008; 22;6: 37 - 39.

4.         Szczotka-Flynn L: Looking at silicone hydrogels across generations. Optometric Management 2008;May: 68 - 71.

5.         Dubow B: Honed comfort zone. Optometric Management 2008;May: 82.

6.         Jones L: Comfilcon A: a new silicone hydrogel material. Contact Lens Spectrum 2007; 22;8: 21.

7.         Woods J, Woods C, Fonn D: Comparison of the simplicity of completing an initial fit of symptomatic early presbyopes with monovision and an aspheric multifocal silicone hydrogel. Optom Vis Sci 2008; 85;E abstract 80089.

8.         Morgan PB, Woods C, Knajian R, Jones D, Efron N, Tan KO, Pesinova A, Grein H-J, Marx S, Santodomingo J, Runberg S, Tranoudis I, Chandrinos A, Itoi M, Bendoriene J, van der Worp E, Helland M, Phillips G, Gonzalez-Meijome JM, Belousov V, Mack C: International contact lens prescribing in 2007. Contact Lens Spectrum 2008; 23;1: 36 - 41.

9.         Jones L, Woods C: An eye on the world’s first silicone hydrogel daily disposable contact lens. Optician 2008; 236;6172: 33 - 34.

10.       Dumbleton K, Jones L: Don't compromise with your teenagers! Contact Lens Spectrum 2009; 24;2: 24.




(p. 24) Contact Lenses and Ocular Allergy, By William Townsend, OD, FAAO


1)      Arbes SJ et al. Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the U.S. population: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005; 116:377-383.

2)      Statistics on Contact Lens Wear in the U.S. Contact Lens Council website.*

3)      Solomon, A   et al. Advances in ocular allergy: basic mechanisms, clinical patterns and new therapies[Skin and eye].Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology: Volume 1(5)October 2001pp 477-482

4)      Lemp M., Bielory L. Contact Lenses and Associated Anterior Segment Disorders: Dry Eye Disease, Blepharitis, and Allergy. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008 Feb;28(1):105-17, vi-vii

5)      Korb DR, The Tear Film. British Contact Lens Association, Jennifer Craig, Michael J. Doughty, Jean-Pierre Guillon, George Smith, Alan Tomlinson

6)      Andrews PM. Microplicae: characteristic ridge-like folds of the plasmalemma. J Cell Biol. 1976 March 1; 68(3): 420–429.

7)      Nichols B, Dawson CR and Togni B.  Surface features of the conjunctiva and cornea. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 1983 Vol 24, 570-576,

8)      Collin HB, Collin SP. The corneal surface of aquatic vertebrates: microstructures with optical and nutritional function? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000 September 29; 355(1401): 1171–1176.

9)      Spurr-Michauda S, Argüesoa P, Gipson I. Assay of mucins in human tear fluid. Experimental Eye Research Volume 84, Issue 5, May 2007, Pages 939-950

10)   Watanabe,H. Significance of Mucin on the Ocular Surface Cornea 21(Suppl. 1): S17–S22, 2002.

11)  Feenstra RP, Tseng SC. What is actually stained by rose bengal? Arch Ophthalmol. 1992 Jul;110(7):984-93.

12)  Feenstra RP, Tseng SC. Comparison of fluorescein and rose bengal staining. Ophthalmology. 1992 Apr;99(4):605-17.

13)  Koufakis et al. Conjunctival Surface Changes in Patients with Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47 (2): 541.

14)  Lemp MA. Contact lenses and allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Oct;8(5):457-60.

15)  Ohashi Y et al. Laboratory findings in tear fluid analysis. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Jul 15;369(1):17-28.

16)  Bron AJ. et al. Functional aspects of the tear film lipid layer. Experimental Eye Research 78 (2004) 347–360.

17)  Mishima, S., Maurice, D.M., The oily layer of the tear film and evaporation from the corneal surface. 1961.Exp. Eye Res. 1, 39–45.

18)  Osgood JK,The role of wax and sterol esters of meibomian secretions in chronic blepharitis.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1989 Sep;30(9):1958-61.

19)  Gilbard, JP et al. Tear film and ocular surface changes after closure of the meibomian gland orifices in the rabbit. Ophthalmology 1989; 96, 1180–1186.

20)  Chigbu DG. The pathophysiology of ocular allergy: A review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2008 Sep 18.

21)  Borish L. Genetics of allergy and asthma.Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1999 May;82(5):413-24; quiz 424-6.

22)  Toebak MJ,  Dendritic cells: biology of the skin. Contact Dermatitis. 2009 Jan;60(1):2-20.

23)  Siddique M, et al. Allergy and Contact Lenses. Niederkorn JY, Kaplan HJ (eds): Immune Response and the Eye. Chem Immunol Allergy. Basel, Karger, 2007, vol 92, pp 166-175

24)  Leonardi A. Role of histamine in allergic conjunctivitis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand Suppl. 2000;(230):18-21.

25)  Bielory L. Ocular Allergy Overview.  Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008 Feb;28(1):1-23

26)  Butrus S, Portela R. Ocular allergy: diagnosis and treatment. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2005 Dec;18(4):485-92,

27)  Pitt AD. Et al. Economic and quality-of-life impact of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in Oxfordshire. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 2004, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 17–33

28)  Leonardi A. Case series of 406 vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients: a demographic and epidemiological study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2006 Jun;84 (3):406-10.

29)  Abelson MB, Smith L, Chapin M. Ocular Allergic Disease: Mechanisms, Disease Sub-types, Treatment. The Ocular Surface 1(3); July 2003, 127-149.

30)  Leonardi A. Secchi A. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2003 Winter;43(1):41-58.

31)  Brody J. Foster S. Vernal Conjunctivitis in: Ocular Infection and Immunity. Eds. Pepose J, Holland G, Wilhelmus K.  St. Louis: Mosby Year Book 1996

32)  Bielory L. Allergic and immunologic disorders of the eye. Part II: Ocular allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106(6 Pt 2):1019-32.

33)  Liesegang T. Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis in: Ocular Infection and Immunity. Eds. Pepose J, Holland G, Wilhelmus K.  St. Louis: Mosby Year Book 1996.

34)  Abelson MB, Baird RS, Allansmith MR. Tear histamine levels in vernal conjunctivitis and other ocular inflammations. Ophthalmology. 1980 Aug;87(8):812-4.

35)  Trocme SD. Neutrophil and eosinophil participation in atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Curr Eye Res. 2003 Jun;26(6):319-25

36)  Hu Y. et al. The differences of tear function and ocular surface findings in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Allergy, Volume 62, Number 8, August 2007 , pp. 917-925(9)

37)  Nichols et al. Thinning Rate of the Precorneal and Prelens Tear Films Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46:2353-2361.

38)  Yasueda S. et al. Decreased mucin concentrations in tear fluids of contact lens wearers. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Sep 1;39(1-2):187-95.

39)  Kopf al. Tear Film Surface Quality with Soft Contact Lenses Using Dynamic Videokeratoscopy. J Optom 2008;1:14-21

40)  Guillon M. Maissa C. Contact Lens Wear Affects Tear Film Evaporation. Eye & Contact Lens 2008 34(6): 326–330,

41)  Nichols JJ, Sinnott LT. Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:1319-1328.

42)  Glasson MJ. et al. The effect of short term contact lens wear on the tear film and ocular surface characteristics of tolerant and intolerant wearers. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye 29 (2006) 41–47.

43)  Fijishima Allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1996;80:994-997

44)   Suzuki S.Tear film lipid layer alterations in allergic conjunctivitis. Cornea 2006;

45)  Craig JP. Tomlinson A. Importance of the lipid layer in human tear film stability and evaporation. Opto Vis Sci1997;76:8-13.

46)   Sariri R. Ghafoor H.  Tear Proteins in Health, Disease, and Contact Lens Wear. Biochemistry (Moscow), 2008, Vol. 73, No. 4, pp. 381-392

47)  Hayes VY, Schneider CM,  Veys J. An evaluation of 1-day disposable contact lens wear in a population of allergy sufferers. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2003;26(2):85-93.

48)  Jones B, Sack R. Immunoglobulin deposition on soft contact lenses: relationship to hydrogel structure and mode of use and giant papillary conjunctivitis. CLAO J. 1990 Jan-Mar;16(1):43-8.

49)  Emch AJ, Nichols JJ. Proteins Identified From Care Solution Extractions of Silicone Hydrogels. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Jan 19. [Epub ahead of print]

50)  Cook E.B. et al Mechanisms of Antihistamines and Mast Cell Stabilizers in Ocular Allergic Inflammation. Current Drug Targets - Inflammation & Allergy, 2002, 1, 167-180 167

51)  Abelson MB, Gomes PJ. Olopatadine 0.2% ophthalmic solution: the first ophthalmic antiallergy agent with once-daily dosing. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):453-61.

52) website. Information Revised: 11/2007Alcon Laboratories

53)  Barnes PJ. How corticosteroids control inflammation: Quintiles Prize Lecture2005. British Journal of Pharmacology (2006) 148, 245–254.

54)  Carnahan MC, Goldstein DA. Ocular complications of topical, peri-ocular, and systemic corticosteroids. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2000 Dec;11(6):478-83.

55)  Bielory L . Allergic and immunologic disorders of the eye. Part II: Ocular allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000 Dec;106(6):1019-32.

56)  Bonini S. et al. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Eye (2004) 18, 345–351.

57)  Kashani‌ S. Mearza A. Uses and safety profile of ciclosporin in ophthalmology.  Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 2008; 7: 79-89.



(p. 34) Reducing Chair Time with Orthokeratology, By Robert W. Kirkpatrick, OD


1)                  Predicting success with orthokeratology lens: a retrospective analysis of ocular characteristics; NL Carkeet, JA Mountford, LG Carney - Optom Vis Sci, 1995

2)                  A Mathematical model for corneal shape changes associated with orthokeratology: Mountford and Noack, CLS1998

3)                  The Effects of Overnight Orthokeratology Lens Wear on Corneal Thickness;
A Alharbi, HA Swarbrick - Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 680 - ARVO




(p. 40) Fitting Tweens and Teens With Daily Disposables, By Joel A. Silbert, OD, FAAO, Dipl.


[1]  HPR  Contact Lens Report

[1] Walline JJ, Jones LA, Rah MJ, et al.  Contact lenses in pediatrics (CLIP) study: chair time and ocular

   health.  Optom Vis Sci 2001: 84(9): 896-902.

  [Note:  The CLIP Study was sponsored by VISTAKON®, a Division of Johnson & Johnson Vision Care,

  Inc. and was conducted by the Ohio State University College of Optometry, the New England College of

  Optometry, and the University of Houston College of Optometry.] 

[1] French ML. Contact lenses: kid friendly?  Rev Cornea Cont. Lens June, 2008: pp. 20-27

[1] Walline JJ,Gaume A, Jones LA, et al.  Benefits of contact lens wear for children and teens. Eye Cont Lens

  2007: 33(6): 317-321.

[1] Rochester Research Group:  Jocelyn  Goldberg-Schaible and Alex Duckles. Rochester, NY.




(p. 49) Treatment Plan: Managing Posterior Polymorphous Dystrophy, By William L. Miller, OD, PhD, FAAO


Cremona FA, Ghosheh FR, Rapuano CJ, Eagle RC Jr, Hammersmith KM, Laibson

PR, Ayres BD, Cohen EJ. Cornea. 2009 Feb;28(2):127-35





(p. 50) Reader and Industry Forum: How Marketing Can Influence the Care of Pediatric Patients, By Brian Chou, OD, FAAO



(1) "Thanks to Ads, Kids Won't Take No, No, No, No, No, No, No, No, No for an Answer," Center for a New American Dream, 2002,

(2) American Psychological Association, “Television Advertising Leads to Unhealthy Habits in Children; Says APA Task Force,” February 23, 2004,

(3) Walline JJ, Jones LA, Rah MJ, et al. Contact lenses in pediatrics (CLIP) Study: Chair time and ocular health. Optom Vis Sci 2007;84:896-902.




(p. 52) Reader and Industry Forum: A Toric Lens that Offers Comfort and Consistency, By James W. Kershaw, OD


No references available.