Contact Lens Spectrum

May 2009

Document #162





(p. 18) Research Review: Biofilms and Contact Lenses, By Loretta B. Szczotka-Flynn, OD, MS, FAAO



1. McLaughlin-Borlace, L., F. Stapleton, M. Matheson, and J.K. Dart, Bacterial Biofilm on Contact Lenses and Lens Storage Cases in Wearers with Microbial Keratitis. J Appl Microbiol, 1998. 84(5): p. 827-38.

2. Stapleton, F. and J. Dart, Pseudomonas Keratitis Associated with Biofilm Formation on a Disposable Soft Contact Lens. Br J Ophthalmol, 1995. 79(9): p. 864-5.

3. Stapleton F, D., J., Matheson, M., Woodward G. , Bacterial Adherence and Glycocalyx Formation on Unworn Hydrogel Lenses. Journal of the British Contact Lens Association 1993. 16: p. 113-117.

4. Selan, L., S. Palma, G.L. Scoarughi, R. Papa, R. Veeh, D. Di Clemente, and M. Artini, Phosphorylcholine Impairs Susceptibility to Biofilm Formation of Hydrogel Contact Lenses. Am J Ophthalmol, 2009. 147(1): p. 134-9.

5. Imamura, Y., J. Chandra, P.K. Mukherjee, A.A. Lattif, L.B. Szczotka-Flynn, E. Pearlman, J.H. Lass, K. O'Donnell, and M.A. Ghannoum, Fusarium and Candida Albicans Biofilms on Soft Contact Lenses: Model Development, Influence of Lens Type, and Susceptibility to Lens Care Solutions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2008. 52(1): p. 171-82.

6. Vermeltfoort, P.B., J.M. Hooymans, H.J. Busscher, and H.C. van der Mei, Bacterial Transmission from Lens Storage Cases to Contact Lenses-Effects of Lens Care Solutions and Silver Impregnation of Cases. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2008. 87(1): p. 237-43.



(p. 25) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: Diabetes and Dry Eye Is There a Connection, By William Townsend, OD, FAAO


  1. Tumosa N. Eye Disease and the Older Diabetic .Clin Geriatr Med 24 (2008) 515527
  2. Fujishima H, Shimazaki J, Yagi Y, Tsubota K: Improvement of corneal sensation and tear dynamics in diabetic patients by oral aldose reductase inhibitor, ONO-2235: a preliminary study. Cornea 1996, 15:368-372.
  3. Seifart U, Strempel I: The dry eye syndrome and diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmologe 1994, 91(2):235-239.
  4. Akinci A, Cetinkaya E, Aycan Z. Dry eye syndrome in diabetic children. Eur J Ophthalmol 2007;17(6):873-8.




(p. 27) Contact Lens Care and Compliance: In Defense of Water: Another Look at Lenses and Water, by Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO


  1. Joslin, Tu et al AJO,142;212-7 2006
  2. Shovlin JP.ICLC.17;47-9 1990
  3. Davis LJ. ICLC. 23;177-82 1996




(p. 33) No-Fee CE: The New Dry Eye A Global Perspective, By Kelly K. Nichols, OD, PhD, & Gary N. Foulks, MD, FACS


1)  The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5(2):75-92.

2)  The epidemiology of dry eye disease: report of the Epidemiology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5(2):93-107.

3)  Methodologies to diagnose and monitor dry eye disease: report of the Diagnostic Methodology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5(2):108-52.

4)  Design and conduct of clinical trials: report of the Clinical Trials Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5(2):153-62.

5)  Management and therapy of dry eye disease: report of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5(2):163-78.

6)  Research in dry eye: report of the Research Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5(2):179-93.

7)  Lemp MA. Report of the National Eye Institute/Industry workshop on Clinical Trials in Dry Eyes. CLAO J. 1995 Oct;21(4):221-32.

8)  Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Long-term incidence of dry eye in an older population. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Aug;85(8):668-74.

9)  Li S, Sack R, Vijmasi T, Sathe S, Beaton A, Quigley D, Gallup M, McNamara NA. Antibody protein array analysis of the tear film cytokines. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Aug;85(8):653-60.

10)         Green-Church KB, Nichols KK, Kleinholz NM, Zhang L, Nichols JJ. Investigation of the human tear film proteome using multiple proteomic approaches. Mol Vis. 2008 Mar 7;14:456-70.

11)         Behrens A, Doyle JJ, Stern L, Chuck RS, et al. and the Dysfunctional tear syndrome study group. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: a Delphi approach to treatment recommendations. Cornea. 2006 Sep;25(8):900-7.

12)  Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26(2):168-74.