Contact Lens Spectrum

June 2009

Document #163





(p. 14) Point/Counterpoint: Hydrogen Peroxide Versus MPS


Peroxide Systems Provide Maximum Disinfection Efficacy, By Charlotte Joslin, OD, PhD



1.         Schein OD, Katz J. Comparing contact lens and refractive surgery risks. Arch Ophthalmol. Jun 2007;125(6):853-854; author reply 854-855.

2.            Mathers WD, Fraunfelder FW, Rich LF. Risk of Lasik surgery vs contact lenses. Arch Ophthalmol. Oct 2006;124(10):1510-1511.

3.         Cheng KH, Leung SL, Hoekman HW, et al. Incidence of contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis and its related morbidity. Lancet. Jul 17 1999;354(9174):181-185.

4.         Poggio EC, Glynn RJ, Schein OD, et al. The incidence of ulcerative keratitis among users of daily-wear and extended-wear soft contact lenses. N Engl J Med. Sep 21 1989;321(12):779-783.

5.         Schein OD, McNally JJ, Katz J, et al. The incidence of microbial keratitis among wearers of a 30-day silicone hydrogel extended-wear contact lens. Ophthalmology. Dec 2005;112(12):2172-2179.

6.            Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, et al. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. Oct 2008;115(10):1655-1662.

7.         Dart JK, Radford CF, Minassian D, Verma S, Stapleton F. Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses: a case-control study. Ophthalmology. Oct 2008;115(10):1647-1654, 1654 e1641-1643.

8.         CDC. Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with contact lenses--United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Jun 27 1986;35(25):405-408.

9.         CDC. Acanthamoeba keratitis multiple states, 2005-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Jun 1 2007;56(21):532-534.

10.       Chang DC, Grant GB, O'Donnell K, et al. Multistate outbreak of Fusarium keratitis associated with use of a contact lens solution. JAMA. Aug 23 2006;296(8):953-963.

11.       Joslin CE, Tu EY, Shoff ME, et al. The association of contact lens solution use and acanthamoeba keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. Aug 2007;144(2):169-180.

12.       Stehr-Green JK, Bailey TM, Brandt FH, Carr JH, Bond WW, Visvesvara GS. Acanthamoeba keratitis in soft contact lens wearers. A case-control study. JAMA. Jul 3 1987;258(1):57-60.

13.       Shoff ME, Joslin CE, Tu EY, Kubatko L, Fuerst PA. Efficacy of contact lens systems against recent clinical and tap water Acanthamoeba isolates. Cornea. Jul 2008;27(6):713-719.

14.            Johnston SP, Sriram R, Qvarnstrom Y, et al. Resistance of Acanthamoeba Cysts to Disinfection in Multiple Contact Lens Solutions. J Clin Microbiol. Apr 29 2009.

15.       Joslin CE, Tu EY, McMahon TT, Passaro DJ, Stayner LT, Sugar J. Epidemiological characteristics of a Chicago-area Acanthamoeba keratitis outbreak. Am J Ophthalmol. Aug 2006;142(2):212-217.



(p. 17) Prescribing for Astigmatism: Let Your Astigmatic Patients Try Soft Toric Lenses, By Timothy B. Edrington, OD, MS, FAAO


Holden BA. The principles and practice of correcting astigmatism with soft contact lenses. Aust J Optom 1975;58:279-99




(p. 19) Contact Lens Materials: Contact Lens Deposits — Patient or Material Driven? By Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO, & Kathy Dumbleton, MSc, MCOptom, FAAO


1.            Pritchard N, Fonn D, Weed K: Ocular and subjective responses to frequent replacement of daily wear soft contact lenses. CLAO J 1996; 22;1: 53-9.

2.            Gellatly KW, Brennan NA, Efron N: Visual decrement with deposit accumulation of HEMA contact lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1988; 65;12: 937-41.

3.            Mondino BJ, Salamon SM, Zaidman GW: Allergic and toxic reactions of soft contact lens wearers. Surv Ophthalmol 1982; 26;6: 337-44.

4.         Tighe BJ, Jones L, Evans K, Franklin V: Patient-dependent and material-dependent factors in contact lens deposition processes. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998; 438; 745-51.

5.         Minno GE, Eckel L, Groemminger S, Minno B, Wrzosek T: Quantitative analysis of protein deposits on hydrophilic soft contact lenses: I. Comparison to visual methods of analysis. II. Deposit variation among FDA lens material groups. Optom Vis Sci 1991; 68;11: 865-72.

6.         Fowler SA, Korb DR, Allansmith MR: Deposits on soft contact lenses of various water contents. CLAO J 1985; 11;2: 124-7.

7.            Baines MG, Cai F, Backman HA: Adsorption and removal of protein bound to hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 1990; 67;11: 807-10.

8.         Sack RA, Jones B, Antignani A, Libow R, Harvey H: Specificity and biological activity of the protein deposited on the hydrogel surface. Relationship of polymer structure to biofilm formation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1987; 28;5: 842-9.

9.            Minarik L, Rapp J: Protein deposits on individual hydrophilic contact lenses: Effects of water and ionicity. CLAO J 1989; 15;3: 185 -188.

10.       Garrett Q, Chatelier RC, Griesser HJ, Milthorpe BK: Effect of charged groups on the adsorption and penetration of proteins onto and into carboxymethylated poly(HEMA) hydrogels. Biomaterials 1998; 19;23: 2175-86.

11.       Garrett Q, Garrett RW, Milthorpe BK: Lysozyme sorption in hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999; 40;5: 897-903.

12.       Garrett Q, Laycock B, Garrett RW: Hydrogel lens monomer constituents modulate protein sorption. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000; 41;7: 1687-95.

13.       Leahy CD, Mandell RB, Lin ST: Initial in vivo tear protein deposition on individual hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 1990; 67;7: 504 -511.

14.            Luensmann D, Jones L: Albumin adsorption to contact lens materials: A review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2008; 31;4: 179-87.

15.       Jones L, Mann A, Evans K, Franklin V, Tighe B: An in vivo comparison of the kinetics of protein and lipid deposition on group II and group IV frequent-replacement contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2000; 77;10: 503-10.

16.       Keith DJ, Christensen MT, Barry JR, Stein JM: Determination of the lysozyme deposit curve in soft contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens 2003; 29;2: 79-82.

17.       Jones L, Senchyna M, Glasier MA, Schickler J, Forbes I, Louie D, May C: Lysozyme and lipid deposition on silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. Eye Contact Lens 2003; 29;1 Suppl: S75-S79.

18.            Subbaraman LN, Glasier MA, Senchyna M, Sheardown H, Jones L: Kinetics of in vitro lysozyme deposition on silicone hydrogel, PMMA, and FDA groups I, II, and IV contact lens materials. Curr Eye Res 2006; 31;10: 787-96.

19.            Suwala M, Glasier MA, Subbaraman LN, Jones L: Quantity and conformation of lysozyme deposited on conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials using an in vitro model. Eye Contact Lens 2007; 33;3: 138-43.

20.            Santos L, Rodrigues D, Lira M, Oliveira ME, Oliveira R, Vilar EY, Azeredo J: The influence of surface treatment on hydrophobicity, protein adsorption and microbial colonisation of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2007; 30;3: 183-8.

21.            Carney FP, Nash WL, Sentell KB: The adsorption of major tear film lipids in vitro to various silicone hydrogels over time. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008; 49;1: 120-4.

22.       Jones L, Evans K, Sariri R, Franklin V, Tighe B: Lipid and protein deposition of N-vinyl pyrrolidone-containing group II and group IV frequent replacement contact lenses. CLAO J 1997; 23;2: 122-6.

23.       Jones L, Franklin V, Evans K, Mann A, Tighe B: The influence of NVP on the deposition performance of group IV hydrogel materials. Optom Vis Sci 1998; 75;12s: 163.

24.            Maissa C, Franklin V, Guillon M, Tighe B: Influence of contact lens material surface characteristics and replacement frequency on protein and lipid deposition. Optom Vis Sci 1998; 75;9: 697-705.

25.            Ghormley N, Jones L: Managing lipid deposition on silicone hydrogel lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum 2006; 21;1: 21.

26.            Nichols JJ: Deposition rates and lens care influence on galyfilcon A silicone hydrogel lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2006; 83;10: 751-7.

27.            Cheung SW, Cho P, Chan B, Choy C, Ng V: A comparative study of biweekly disposable contact lenses: silicone hydrogel versus hydrogel. Clin Exp Optom 2007; 90;2: 124-31.

28.            Lorentz H, Jones L: Lipid deposition on hydrogel contact lenses: how history can help us today. Optom Vis Sci 2007; 84;4: 286-95.

29.       Hart DE, Lane BC, Josephson JE, Tisdale RR, Gzik M, Leahy R, Dennis R: Spoilage of hydrogel contact lenses by lipid deposits. Tear-film potassium depression, fat, protein, and alcohol consumption. Ophthalmology 1987; 94;10: 1315-21.

30.       Hart DE, Tidsale RR, Sack RA: Origin and composition of lipid deposits on soft contact lenses. Ophthalmology 1986; 93;4: 495-503.

31.            Morgan PB, Woods C, Tranoudis I, Efron N, Knajian R, Grupcheva CN, Jones D, Tan KO, Pesinova A, Ravn O, Santodomingo J, Vodnyanszky E, Montani G, Itoi M, Bendoriene J, van der Worp E, Helland M, Phillips G, Gonzalez-Meijome JM, Radu S, Belousov V, Silih M, Hsiao J, Nichols J: International contact lens prescribing in 2008. Contact Lens Spectrum 2009; 24;2: 28 - 32.




(p. 40) Soft Multifocals: Practice Growth Opportunity, By Joseph B. Studebaker, OD, FAAO


1. Data on file with Bausch & Lomb, 2007

2. Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik, K. Subjective and Objective Performance of the Bausch & Lomb SofLens Multifocal and Monovision. Optom Vis Sci 2005; 82:E-abstract 055134

3. du Toit R, Ferreira JT, Nel ZJ.  Visual and nonvisual variables implicated in monovision wear.  Optom Vis Sci 1998; 75: 119-25.

4. Gupta N, Naroo SA, Wolffsohn JS.  Visual Comparison of Multifocal Contact Lens to Monovision.  Optom Vis Sci 2009; 86:98-105  



(p. 50) Reader and Industry Forum: Corneal Staining: Dry Eye or Something More? By Debbie S. Murnan, OD, BS


  1. Kaiser PK, Friedman NJ, Pineda R. Conjunctiva and sclera. In: Andjelkovic N and Krehling H, eds. The Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Illustrated Manual of Ophthalmology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders, 2004: 116-8.
  2. Kanski JJ. The dry eye. In: Benson K, ed. Clinical Ophthalmology: A Systematic Approach (5th ed.). Edinburgh, London, New York, Oxford, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Sydney, Toronto: Butterworth Heinemann, 2003: 57-61.
  3. Albietz JM. Prevalence of dry eye subtypes in clinical optometry practice. Optom Vis Sci 2000; 77: 357-63.
  4. Weil BA. The dry eye. In: Milder B, Weil BA, eds. The Lacrimal System. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1983: 117–24.
  5. Doughty MJ, Fonn D, Richter D, Simpson T, Caffery B, Gordon K. A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada. Optom Vis Sci 1997; 74: 624–31
  6. Cornea. In: Kunimoto DY, Kanitkar KD, Makar MS, Friedberg MA, Rapuano CJ, eds. The Wills Eye Manual: Office and Emergency Room Diagnosis and Treatment of Eye Disease (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2004: 40-5.
  7. Maini RN. Rheumatology. In: Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD, Benz Jr EJ, eds. Oxford Textbook of Medicine (4th ed.). Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  8. Ericson S, Sundmark E. Studies on the sicca syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Rheumatol Scand 1970; 16: 60.
  9. Foster CS. Ocular manifestations of the nonrheumatic acquired collagen vascular diseases. In: Smolin, Thoft, eds. The Cornea: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Practice (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1994: 385.
  10. Tuft SJ, Watson PG. Progression of scleral disease. Ophthalmology 1991; 98: 467.
  1. 11.Godfrey WA. Acute Anterior Uveitis. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane’s Ophthalmology (4th vol.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.
  1. Bowden FW, Cohen EJ, Arentsen JJ, Laibson PR. Patterns of lens care practices and lens product contamination in contact lens associated microbial keratitis. CLAO J 1989; 15(1): 49-54.
  2. Bourcier T, Thomas F, Borderie V, Chaumeil C, Laroche L. Bacterial keratitis: predisposing factors, clinical and microbiological review of 300 cases. Br J Ophthalmol 2003; 87:834-8.
  3. Solomon OD, Loff H, Perla B, Kellis A, Belkin J, Roth AS, Zucker J. Testing hypotheses for risk factors for contact lens-associated infectious keratitis in an animal model. CLAO J 1994; 20(2): 109-12.
  4. Stern GA. Contact lens associated bacterial keratitis: past, present, and future. CLAO J 1998; 24(1): 52-55.
  5. Stern GA, Weitzenkorn D, Valenti J. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the mouse cornea. Arch Ophthalmol 1982; 100:1956-8.
  6. Nichols KK, Mitchell L, Stonebraker Simon KM, Chivers DA, Edrington TB. Corneal staining in hydrogel lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci 2002; 79(1): 20-30.
  7. Carnt N, Jalbert I, Stretton S, Naduvilath T, Papas E. Solutions toxicity in soft contact lens daily wear is associated with corneal inflammation. Optom Vis Sci 2007; 84(4): 309-15.
  8. Lievens CW, Hakim N, Chinn A. The effect of multipurpose solutions on the ocular surface. Eye & Contact Lens 2006; 32(1): 8-11.
  9. Garofalo RJ, Dassanayake N, Carey C, Stein J, Stone R, David R. Corneal staining and subjective symptoms with multipurpose solutions as a function of time. Eye & Contact Lens 2005; 31(4): 166-174.
  10. Lebow KA, Schachet JL. Evaluation of corneal staining and patient preference with use of three multi-purpose solutions and two brands of soft contact lenses. Eye & Contact Lens 2003; 29(4): 213-20.
  11. Andrasko GJ, Ryen KA, Garofalo RJ, Lemp JM. Ocular response observed with silicone hydrogel lenses and multi-purpose solution combinations. Optometry 2006; 77(6): 268.  Andrasko Corneal Staining Grid available on the world wide web at  Viewed on January 15, 2008.
  12. Johnson L, Weissman BA. Managing complications of contact lens wear. Practical Optometry 2000; 11(1): 12-8.
  13. Schlitzer RL. Preservative uptake by soft contact lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum 1992; 7(10): 41-3.
  14. Begley CG, Waggoner PJ, Jani NB, Meetz RE. The effects of soft contact lens disinfection solutions on rabbit corneal epithelium. CLAO J 1994; 20: 52-8.