Contact Lens Spectrum

September 2009

Document #166





(pp. 14) Research Review: Challenging Traditional Theories in Microbial Keratitis,” By Loretta B. Szczotka-Flynn, OD, MS, FAAO


1.        Mun JJ, Tam C, Kowbel D, Hawgood S, Barnett MJ, Evans DJ, Fleiszig SM. Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a healthy ocular surface involves surfactant protein D and is compromised by bacterial elastase in a murine null-infection model. Infect Immun. 2009 Jun;77(6):2392-8. Epub 2009 Apr 6.

2.        Delayed onset Pseudomonas Auruginosa Keratitis in a Rat Contact Lens Model. ARVO 2008 

3.        Factors that Impact Corneal Epithelial Resistance to Bacterial Penetration and Infection. ARVO 2008.

4.        A Single Low-Dose Inoculum of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Can Enable Keratitis in Low Dk Contact Lens Wearing Rats. ARVO 2009.




(p. 21) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: Meibomain Glands and Dry Eye: News From the Research Lab” By William Townsend, OD, FAAO


Henriquez AS, Korb DR. Meibomian glands and contact lens wear British Journal of Ophthalmology, 1981, 65, 108-111


Korb DR, Blackie CA. Meibomian Gland Diagnostic Expressibility: Correlation With Dry Eye Symptoms and Gland Location. Cornea, 2008 Dec;27(10):1142-7.


Blackie CA, Korb DR. Recovery time of an optimally secreting meibomian gland. Cornea, 2009,Apr,01;28(3):293-7.




(p. 26) Current Developments in Keratoconus Research, By Jan P.G. Bergmanson, OD, PhD, PhD h.c., DSc, & Jessica H. Mathew, OD



1.     Nottingham J. Practical Observations on Conical Cornea, and on the Short Sight, and Other Defects of Vision Connected with it. London, Churchhill, 1854.

2.     Hayes S, O’Brart DP, Lamdin LS, Doutch J, Samaras K, Marshall J, Meek KM. Effect of complete epithelial debridement before riboflavin-ultraviolet-A corneal collagen crosslinking therapy. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008;34(4):657-661.

3.     Bergmanson JPG. Clinical Ocular Anatomy and Physiology, 16th ed., 2009. ISBN-13: 978-0-9800708-1-1.*

4.     Wollensak G, Spoerl E, Seiler T.  Riboflavin/Ultraviolet-A-induced collagen crosslinking for the treatment of keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135(5):620-627.

5.     Coskunseven E, Jankov M, Hafezi F.  Contralateral eye study of corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin and UVA irradiation in patients with keratoconus. J of Refr. Surgery. 2009;25:371-376.

6.     Vinciguerra P, Albe E, Trazza S, Rosetta P, Vinciguerra R, Seiler T, Epstein D.  Refractive, topographic, tomographic, and aberrometric analysis of keratoconic eyes undergoing corneal cross-linking. Ophthalmol. 2009;116(3):369-378.

7.     Pitts DG, Bergmanson JPG, Chu LW, Waxler M, Hitchins VM.  Ultrastructural analysis of corneal exposure to UV radiation. Acta Ophthalmologica. 1987; 65:263-273.

8.     Wollensak G, Iomdina E, Dittert D, Herbst H.  Wound healing in the rabbit cornea after corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin and UVA. Cornea. 2007;26(5):600-605.

9.     Doughty MJ, Zaman ML. Human corneal thickness and its impact on intraocular pressure measures: a review and meta-analysis approach. Surv Ophthalmol. 2000;44(5):367-407.

10. Leibowitz HM, Waring GO. Corneal Disorders: Clinical Diagnosis and Management.  Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1998:349-370.

11. Rabinowitz Y. Ectatic Disorders of the Cornea. In The Cornea: Scientific Founations & Clinical Practice, 4th ed. Eds. CS Foster, DT Azar, CH Dohlman. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005:889-911.

12. Horne J, Bergmanson JPG, Goosey J.  Pathological and Morphometrical alterations in the keratoconic cornea.  Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007; 48: ARVO E-Abstract 1863.

13. Teng CC. Electron microscope study of the pathology of Keratoconus. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 1963;55:18-47.

14. Mathew JH, Goosey J, Bergmanson JPG.  The Undocumented Cells of Keratoconus. Optometry and Vision Science.  84(12s); 2009.

15. Nielson LM, Bergmanson JPG, Goosey JD, Mathew JH, Pass J, Prager TC, Chuang AZ.  Clinical Outcomes Comparison of Penetrating Keratoplasty and Lamellar Keratoplasty in Keratoconus. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009; 50: ARVO E-Abstract 642.

16. Mathew JH, Goosey JD, Bergmanson JPG.  Is Stromal Thinning in Keratoconus Explained by Lamellar Dropout? Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009; 50: ARVO E-Abstract 3535.



*Available for purchase from the non-profit organization: Texas Eye Research and Technology Center, University of Houston College of Optometry, 505 J Davis Armistead Bldg, Houston, Tx 77204-2020.




(p. 31) Minimizing Corneal Graft Rejections By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD


1.  The Eye Bank Association of America (EBAA).


2.      Kaufman, H. Barron, B. McDonald, M. The Cornea, 2nd Ed. Butterworth-Heinemann 1998.

3.      Sellami, D. Abid, S. et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for corneal graft rejection Transplant Proc. 2007 Oct;39(8):2609-11.

4.      Panda, A. Vanathi M. et al. Corneal graft rejection Surv Ophthalmol. 2007 Jul-Aug;52(4):375-96.

5.      de Freitas, AM. Melo, BC. et al. Causes and risk factors for graft failure in surgeries performed by physicians in fellowship training Cornea 2006 Apr;25(3):251-6.

6.      Taylor, AW. Ocular immune privilege Eye 2009 Jan 9(Epub ahead of print)

7.      Streilein, JW. J Leukoc Biol. 2003 Aug;74(2):179-85.

8.      Sangwan, VS. Ramamurthy, B. et al. Outcome of corneal transplant rejection: a 10-year study Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2005 Dec;33(6):623-7.

9.      Triqui, A. Smaoui, M. et al. Corneal graft rejection: donor and receiver implication J Fr Ophthalmol 2005 June;28(6):631-4.

10.   Nguyen, NX. Seitz, B. et al. Long-term topical steroid treatment improves graft survival following normal-risk penetrating keratoplasty Am J Ophthalmol 2007 Aug;144(2):318-9.

11.   Randleman, JB. Stulting, RD. Prevention and treatment of corneal graft rejection: current practice patterns (2004) Cornea 2006 Apr;25(3):286-90.

12.  Epstein, AJ. de Castro, TN. et al.  Risk factors for the first episode of corneal graft rejection in keratoconus Cornea 2006 Oct;25(9):1005-11.

13.  Rao, SK. Sudhir, RR. et al. Bilateral penetrating keratoplasty-indications, results and review of literature Int Ophthalmol 1999;23(3):161-6.

14.  Wagoner, MD. Ba-Abbad, R. et al. Corneal transplant survival after onset of severe endothelial rejection Ophthalmology 2007 Sep;114(9):1630-6.

15.   Ozbek, Z. Cohen, EJ. et al. Graft rejection risk and incidence after bilateral penetrating keratoplasty Eye Contact Lens 2008 May;34(3):174-8.

16.   Maris, PJ Jr. Correnti, AJ. et al. Intracameral triamcinolone acetonide as treatment for endothelial allograft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty Cornea 2008 Aug;27(7):847-50.

17.   Awadein, A. Subconjuctival bevacizumab for vascularized rejected corneal grafts J Cataract Refract Surg 2007 Nov;22(11):1991-3.

18.   The collaborative corneal transplantation studies (CCTS). Effectiveness of histocompatibility matching in high-risk corneal transplantation. The Collaborative Corneal Transplantation Studies Research Group Arch Ophthalmol 1992 Oct;110(10):1392-403.

19.  Reinhard, T. Bohringer, D. et al. Improvement of graft prognosis in penetrating normal-risk keratoplasty by HLA class I and II matching Eye 2004 Mar;18(3):269-77.

20.  Dunn, SP. Stark, WJ. et al. The Effect of ABO Blood Incompatibility on Corneal Transplant Failure in Conditions with Low-risk of Graft Rejection Am J Ophthalmol 2008 Dec. 2.(Epub ahead of print).

21.  Prakash, G. Jhanji, V. et al. Will Descemet’s stripping with automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) lower the rates of allograft rejection in corneal transplants for endothelial failure? Med Hypotheses 2007;69(5)1117-9.

22. Price, FW. Price, MO. Adult keratoplasty: has the prognosis improved in the        last 25 years? Int Ophthalmol 2008 Jun;28(3):141-6.

23.  Ngakeng, V. Hauck, MJ. AlphaCor keratoprosthesis: a novel approach to minimize the risks of long-term postoperative complications Cornea 2008 Sep;27(8):905-10.

24.  Geerards, AJ. Vreugdenhil, W. Khazen, A. Incidence of rigid gas-permeable contact lens wear after keratoplasty for keratoconus Eye Contact Lens 2006 Jul;32(4):207-10.




(p. 36) Biocompatibility and Silicone Hydrogels, By Gina M. Wesley, OD, MS, FAAO


  1.  Stapleton, F, et al. Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses and the Ocular Surface. The Ocular Surface 2006;4 (1):24-43.
  2. Stapleton F, Kasses J, Kasses S, et al. Effect of long term wear of highly oxygen permeable contact lenses on corneal epithelial cells [ARVO Abstract]. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43:Abstract # 1657
  3. Wolosin J, Xiong X, Schutte M, et al. Stem cells and differentiation stages in the limbo-corneal epithelium. Prog Retinal Eye Res 2000;19:223-55.
  4. Huang A, Tseng S, Kenyon K. Paracellular permeability of corneal and conjunctival eipthelia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1989;30:684-9.
  5. Jenkins C, Tuft S, Liu C, et al. Limbal transplantation in the management of chronic contact-lens associated epitheliopathy. Eye 1993;7(Pt 5):629-33.
  6. Sack RA, Tan KO, Tan A. Diurnal tear cycle: evidence for a nocturnal inflammatory constitutive tear fluid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1992;33:626-40
  7. Sack R, Sathe S, Hackworth L, et al. The effect of eye closure on protein and complement deposition on Group IV hydrogel contact lenses: relationship to tear flow dynamics. Curr Eye Res 1996;15:1092-100
  8. Willcox M, Morris C, Sack R. Complement and complement regulatory proteins in human tears. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997;38:1-8
  9. Thakur A, Willcox MD. Cytokine and lipid inflammatory mediator profile of human tears during contact lens associated inflammatory diseases. Exp Eye Res 1998;67:9-19
  10. Behlau I, Gilmore MS. Microbial biofilms in ophthalmology and infectious disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov;126(11):1572-81
  11. McLaughlin-Borlace L, et al. Bacterial biofilm on contact lenses and lens storage cases in wearers with microbial keratitis. Jour App Micro. 1998, 84, 827-838.
  12. Zegans, M et al. The role of bacterial biofilms in ocular infections. DNA and Cell Biology. 2002 May;21(5-6):415-420.
  13. Boyd A and Chakrabarty, A.M. (1995) Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms: role of the alginate exopolysaccharide. Journal of Indian Microbiology 15, 162-168.
  14. Jones L, et al. Lysozyme and lipid deposition on silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. Eye Contact Lens 2003;29:S75-9.
  15. Jenkinson H.F. (1995) Genetic analysis of adherence by oral streptococci. Journal of Indian Microbiology 15, 186-192.
  16. Lorentz, H and Jones L. Lipid deposition on hydrogel contact lenses: how history can help us today. Opt and Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84(4):286-295.
  17. Ghormley N, Jones L. Managing lipid deposition on silicone hydrogel lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum 2006;21:21.
  18. Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta. Lecture, Alcon campus. Jan 9, 2009.
  19. Sack RA, et al. The effect of eye closure on protein and complement deposition on Group IV hydrogel contact lenses: relationship to tear flow dynamics. Curr Eye Res. 1996 Nov;15(11):1092-100.
  20. Wilson, LA et al (1990). Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and solutions. Am Journ Ophthal 110, 193-198.
  21. Stapleton, F. et al. Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in contact lens wearers. Epidem and Infec 114, 395-402.
  22. Sczcotka-Flynn L et al. Predictive factors for corneal infiltrates with continuous wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Apr;125:488-492.
  23. Stapleton F et al. The epidemiology of contact-lens related infiltrates. Optom and Vis Sci. 2007 April;84(4):257-272.
  24. Sczcotka-Flynn L and Diaz M. Risk of corneal inflammatory events with silicone hydrogels and low Dk hydrogel extended contact lens wear: a meta analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 April;84(4):248-256.
  25. Schein OD et al. The incidence of microbial keratitis among wearers of a 30-day silicone hydrogel extended-wear contact lens. Ophthalmol. 2005;112:2172-9.
  26. Sczotka-Flynn L. An in-vitro model of silicone hydrogel contact lens-associated bacterial biofilms: utility in testing antibiofilm activities of care solutions. Poster presented at AAO; Oct 2008, Anaheim, CA.
  27. Chalmers R. et al. Risk factors for infiltrates in continuous wear contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2005. E-abstract 050076.
  28. Carnt, N et al. Solution toxicity in soft contact lens daily wear is associated with corneal inflammation. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 April;84(4):309-315.
  29. Jones L. et al. Asymptomatic corneal staining associated with the use of balafilcon silicone hydrogel contact lenses disinfected with a polyaminopropyl biguanide-preserved care regimen. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Dec;79(12):753-761.
  30. Andrasko GJ, Ryen KA, Evaluation of Ocular Response and Comfort with Solution and Lens Combinations – An Update.  Poster presented at AOA; June 2007; Boston, Ma.
  31. Epstein A.B. SPK with Daily Wear of Silicone Hydrogel Lenses and MPS. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2002;17(11): 30.




(p. 46) Pediatric and Teen CL Care, By Jeffrey J. Walline, OD, PhD, & Marjorie J. Rah, OD, PhD


Bennett E, Smythe J, Henry V, Bassi C, Morgan B, Miller W, Jeandervin M, Henderson B, Elliott L, Porter K, Barr J (1998) Effect of topical anesthetic use on initial patient satisfaction and overall success with rigid gas permeable contact lenses. Optometry and Vision Science 75:800-805.


Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M (2005) The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res 30:71-80.


Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT (2009) Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol 93:1181-1185.




(p. 50) Reader and Industry Forum: Should Patients Rinse Their GP Lenses With Tap Water, By Keith Parker, NCLEC


Cited study still in progress.




(p. 56) Contact Lens Case Reports: A Custom Soft Lens for Post-RK Hyperopic Shift, By Patrick J. Caroline, FAAO, & Mark P. André, FAAO


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