Contact Lens Spectrum

October 2010

Document #179





(p. 14) Point/Counterpoint: Soft Versus GP Multifocals


Fit Soft Multifocals for Comfort, Ease of Fit, and Quick Adaptation, By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO


  1. Nichols, J, Contact Lenses 2009, CL Spectrum, 25(1), January 2010.
  2. Moss, SE et al, Long-term incidence of dry eye in an older population, Optom & Vision Sci, 85(8): 668-674, August 2008.
  3. Lyle, W. Changes in corneal astigmatism with age, Am. J Optom., 48:467, 1971.
  4. Baldwin, W and Mills, D, A longitudinal study of corneal astigmatism and total astigmatism. Am. J Optom & Physiol Optics, 58:206, 1981.
  5. Benoit, DP, Evolution of a GP multifocal, CL Spectrum, 17(10), October 2002.




(p. 21) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: Tear Film Osmolarity Revisited, By William Townsend, OD, FAAO


  1. Pflugfelder S. et al. Evaluation of subjective assessments and objective diagnostic tests for diagnosing tear-film disorders known to cause ocular irritation.


  1. Nichols KK, Nichols JJ, Mitchell GL. The relation between tear film tests in patients with dry eye disease. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 2003 23: 553560



  1. Nichols KK, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. The repeatability of clinical measurements of dry eye. Cornea. 2004 Apr;23(3):272-85.


  1. Liu H, Begley C, Chen C. et al. A link between tear instability and hyperosmolarity in dry eye. IOVS 2009, Vol. 50, No. 8


  1. Khanal S, Tomlinson A, McFadyen A. et al. Dry Eye Diagnosis. IOVS 2008, Vol. 49, No. 4
  2. McDonald M. Latest Trends in Dry Eye Treatments. EyeWorld 2010 Sept


  1. Tomlinson A. el al. Comparison of human tear film osmolarity measured by electrical impedance and freezing point depression techniques. Cornea 2010;29:10361041




(p. 23) Contact Lens Care & Compliance: Understanding MRSA Infections, By Susan J. Gromacki, OD, MS, FAAO


  1. Gromacki SJ. Standards of Contact Lens and Case Hygiene. Rev Cornea and Contact Lenses, pp. 20-22, Vol. 147, No. 4, May 2010.
  2. Fleiszig SMJ, Evans DJ. Pathogenesis of contact lens-associated microbial keratitis. Opt Vis Sci 2010; 87(4): 225-232.
  3. Donnenfeld ED, Olsen RJ, McDonnell P, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus and cataract surgery., April 2010. Accessed June 29, 2010.
  4. Asbell PA, Sahm DF, Shaw M, et al. Increasing prevalence in serious ocular infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in the United States: 2000 to 2005. J Cataract Refract Surg 2008;34(5):814-8.
  5. Moshirfar M, Feiz V, Vitale AT, et al. Endophthalmitis after uncomplicated cataract surgery with the use of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones: a retrospective observational case series. Ophthalmology 2007; 114:686-691.
  6. Gorwitz RJ, Kruszon-Moran D, McAllister SK et al. Changes in the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2001-2004. J Infect Dis 2008 May 1:197(9):1226-1234.
  7. Kuehnert MJ, Kruszon-Moran D, Hill HA et al. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in the United States, 2001-2002. J Infect Dis 2006 Jan 15:193(2):172-179. Epub 2005 Dec 15. 200
  8. (accessed February 18, 2010).
  9. Klevens RM, Morrison MA, Nadle J et al. Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States. JAMA 2007;298(15):1763-1771.




(p. 48) Contact Lens Practice Pearls: Managing Marginal Keratitis, By Gregory J. Nixon, OD, FAAO


Holden BA, Reddy MK, Sankaridurg PR, Buddi R, Sharma S, Willcox MD, Sweeney DF, Rao GN. Contact lens-induced peripheral ulcers with extended wear of disposable hydrogel lenses: histopathologic observations on the nature and type of corneal infiltrate. Cornea. 1999 Sep;18(5):538-43.

Dumbleton K. Adverse events with silicone hydrogel continuous wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2002 Sep;25(3):137-46.

M.D.P. Willcox and B.A. Holden , Contact lens related corneal infections. Biosci. Rep. 21 4 (2001), pp. 445461.

Thomas R, Melton R. 2010 Clinical Guide to Ophthalmic Drugs. Rev Optom.2010 June (Suppl.):30A.




(p. 48) Treatment Plan: The Partially Swollen Lid, By William L. Miller, OD, PhD, FAAO


Dutt S, Cartwright MJ and Nelson CC Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 9(4):295-299, 1992