Contact Lens Spectrum

December 2010

Document #181





(p. 15) Prescribing for Astigmatism: Current Daily Disposable Torics, By Vishakha Thakrar, OD, FAAO


  1. Szczokta-Flynn LB, Pearlman E, and Ghannoum M. Microbial Contamination of Contact Lenses, Lens Care Solutions, and Their Accessories:  A Literature Review.  Eye and Contact Lens 2010; 36(2): 116-129.
  2. Hall BJ, Jones L. Contact lens cases: the missing link in contact lens safety? Eye and Contact Lens 2010; 36(2): 101-105.
  3. Dumbleton K, Woods C, Jones L, Fonn D, Sarwer DB. Patient and practitioner compliance with silicone hydrogel and daily disposable lens replacement in the United States. Eye and Contact Lens 2009; 35(4): 164-171.
  4. Morgan SL, Morgan PB, Efron N. Environmental impact of three replacement modalities of soft  contact lens wear. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye 2003; 23: 43-46.




(p. 19) Contact Lens Design & Materials: Are Bionic Contact Lenses in Our Future? By Ronald K. Watanabe, OD, FAAO


  1. Twa MD, Roberts CJ, Karol HJ, et al. Evaluation of a contact lens-embedded sensor for intraocular pressure measurement. J Glaucoma 2010;19(6):382-390.




(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: Keratoprosthesis: Rescue of Last Resort, By Timothy T. McMahon, OD, FAAO, & Jose De La Cruz, MD, MS


1.        Doane MG, Dohlman CH, Bearse G. Fabrication of a keratoprosthesis. Cornea 1996;15(2):179-84.

2.        Aldave AJ, Kamal KM, Vo RC, Yu F. The Boston type I keratoprosthesis: improving outcomes and expanding indications. Ophthalmology 2009;116(4):640-51.

3.            Dohlman CH, Dudenhoefer EJ, Khan BF, Morneault S. Protection of the ocular surface after keratoprosthesis surgery: the role of soft contact lenses. CLAO J 2002;28(2):72-4.

4.            Vajaranant TS, Blair MP, McMahon TT, et al. Special considerations for pars plana tube-shunt placement in Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis. Arch Ophthalmol (in press).




(p. 22) Corneal Dystrophy and Disease: Diagnosis and Management, By Jason Jedlicka, OD, FAAO, FSLS, & Evan Veire, OD


1.  American Academy of Ophthalmology.  External Disease and Cornea.  In:  Sutphin J, ed.  Basic and Clinical Sciences Course 2007-2008.  San Francisco, CA:  American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2007:  305 – 329.


2.  Weiss JS, et al.  The IC3D classification of the corneal dystrophies.  Cornea 2008 Dec; 27 Suppl 2:  S1-83


3. Dursun D, Kim MC, Solomon A, Pflugfelder SC.  Treatment of recalcitrant recurrent corneal erosions with inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-9, doxycycline and corticosteroids.  Am J Ophthalmol.  2001 Jul; 132(1) 8-13.


4.  Tabery HM.  Corneal stromal infiltrates in patients with recurrent erosions.  Acta Ophthalmol Scand.  1998 Oct; 76(5):  589-92.


5.  Kanpolat A, Ucakhan OO.  Therapeutic use of Focus Night & Day contact lens.  Cornea.  2003 Nov; 22(8):  726-34.


6.  Montero J, Sparholt J, Mely R.  Retrospective case series of therapeutic applications of a lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel soft contact lens.  Eye Contact Lens.  2003 Jan;29(1 Suppl): S54-6; discussion S57-9, S192-4.


7.  Lisch W, Wasielica-Poslednik J, Lisch C, Saikia P, Pitz S.  Contact lens-induced regression of Lisch epithelial corneal dystrophy.  Cornea.  2010 Mar;29(3):  342-5.


8.  Severin M, Konen W, Kirchhof B.  Granular corneal dystrophy:  treatment with soft contact lenses.  Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol.  1998 Apr;236(4): 291-4.


9.  Roters S, Severin M, Konen W, Krieglstein GK.  Treatment of granular dystrophy with soft contact lenses.  Ophthalmologica.  2004 jan-Feb;218(1):  70-2.


10.  Visser ES, Visser R, van Lier HJ, Otten H.   Modern scleral lenses part I:  clincal features.  Eye Contact Lens.  2007 Jan;33(1):  13-20.


11. Smolin and Thoft's The cornea: scientific foundations and clinical practice By Gilbert Smolin, Charles  pg 659.


12.  Reeves SW, Kang PC, Zlogar DF, Gupta PK, Stinnett S, Afshari NA. Recurrent Corneal Erosion Syndrome: A Study of 364 Episodes.  Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2010 Mar 9:1-2. doi: 10.3928/15428877-20100215-44.


13.  Reidy JJ, Paulus MP, Gona S.  Recurrent erosions of the cornea:  epidemiology and treatment.  Cornea 2000 Nov;19(6).  767-71.


14.  Orndahl MJ, Fagerholm PP.  Treatment of corneal dystrophies with phototherapeutic keratectomy.  J Refract Surg.  1998 Mar-Apr, 14(2):  129-35.


15.  Wagoner MD, Badr IA.  Phototherapeutic keratectomy for macular corneal dystrophy.  J Refract Surg.  1999 Jul-Aug.15(4):  481-4.


16.  Salouti R, Hosseini H, Eghtedari M, Khalili MR.  Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty with melles technique for granular corneal dystrophy.  Cornea. 2009 Feb;28(2):140-3.


17. Noble BA, Agrawal A, Collins C, Saldana M, Brogden PR, Zuberbuhler B. Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK): visual outcome and complications for a heterogeneous group of corneal pathologies.  Cornea. 2007 Jan;26(1):59-64.


18. Park KA, Ki CS, Chung ES, Chung TY. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in Korean patients with Avellino dystrophy.  Cornea. 2007 Oct;26(9):1132-5.


19  Jedlicka J, Awad O.  Differences in deep lamellar keratoplasties.  Review of Cornea and Contact Lenses.  2010 May pp 23-29.


20 Marcon AS, Cohen EJ, Rapuano CJ, Laibson PR. Recurrence of corneal stromal dystrophies after penetrating keratoplasty. Cornea. 2003 Jan;22(1):19-21.



(p. 30) Developments in Contact Lens Surfaces, By Ross Grant, MSc, FCOptom


Alonso-Caneiro, D., D. R. Iskander, et al. (2009) Tear film surface quality with soft contact lenses using dynamic-area high-speed videokeratoscopy. Eye & Contact Lens 35, 227 - 231


Cher, I. (2008). "A new look at lubrication of the ocular surface: fluid mechanics behind the blinking eyelids." The Ocular Surface 6(2): 79 - 86.


Cheung, S.-w., P. Cho, et al. (2007). "A comparative study of biweekly disposable contact lenses: silicone hydrogel versus hydrogel." Clin Exp Optom 90(2): 124 - 131.


Dart, J. K. J., F. Stapleton, et al. (1991). "Contact lenses and other risk factors in microbial keratitis." Lancet 338: 650 - 653.


Dumbleton, K., C. A. Woods, et al. (2008). "Comfort and adaptation to silicone hydrogel lenses for daily wear." Eye & Contact Lens 34(4): 215 - 223.


Gabriel, M. M. and R. E. Weisbarth (2009) Developing Antimicrobial Surfaces for Silicone Hydrogels. 


Gonzàlez-Méijome, J. M., A. López-Aleman, et al. (2005). "Microscopic Observation of Unworn Siloxane-Hydrogel Soft Contact Lenses by Atomic Force Microscopy." Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Appl Biomater 76B: 412 -418.


Grant, R. (1988). Disinfection of high water content extended wear hydrogel contact lenses. Department of Optometry. Manchester, University of Manchester. Master of Science: 267.


Guillon, J.-P. (1998). "Non-invasive tearscope plus routine for contact lens fitting." Contact Lens Anterior Eye 21(Supplement): 31 - 40.


Haddad, M. F., C. Maldonado-Codina, et al. (2010). In vitro versus in vivo contact angles of hydrogel contact lenses. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Jones, L. (2007) A New Silicone Hydrogel Lens Comes to Market. Contact Lens Spectrum 


Larke, J. (1985). The Eye in Contact Lens Wear, Butterworths.


Liu, H., L. Thibos, et al. (2010). "Measurement of the time course of optical quality and visual deterioration during tear breakup " Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 51(6): 3318 to 3326.


Lorentz, H. I., R. Rogers, et al. (2007). "The Impact of Lipid on Contact Angle Wettability." Optometry & Vision Science 84(10): 946 - 953.


McDougall, R. (2008). The science and technology behind antibacterial coatings. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Moody, K., H. Sheardown, et al. (2010). Friction Measurements on Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Materials. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Nash, W., K. B. Sentell, et al. (2008). The effect of surface modification on the in vitro contact angle of silicone hydrogel lenses. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Nash, W. L., K. B. Sentell, et al. (2010). The Effect of Surface Modification on the In Vitro Contact Angle of Silicone Hydrogel Lenses. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Nichols, J. and E. King-Smith (2006). Tear film thickness and thinning with silicone hydrogel lens wear and care. BCLA. UK.


Nichols, J. J., L.-. Mitchell, et al. (2005). "Thinning rate of the precorneal and prelens tear films." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46: 2353-2361.


Nicolson, P. C. and J. Vogt (2006). Contact Lenses: Silicone Hydrogels. Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Enginnering, Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. 1:1: 1-14.


Ozkan, J., H. Zhu, et al. (2009) Efficacy and Clinical Performance of Selenium Antibacterial Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses. 


Panaser, A. and B. J. Tighe (2010). The nature and fate of tear film lipids in contact lens wear. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Pruitt, J., T. Giles, et al. (2010). In Vitro Contact Angle and Coefficient of Friction Profiles of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Ramamoorthy , P. and J. Nichols (2008). "Mucins in Contact Lens Wear and Dry Eye Conditions." Optometry & Vision Science 85(8): E631 - E642.


Read, M. L., C. Maldonado-Codina, et al. (2010). The influence of wear on contact lens surface wetting characteristics. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Read, M. L., P. B. Morgan, et al. (2010). "Dynamic Contact Angle Analysis of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses." Journal of Biomaterials Applications 00-2010(doi: 10.1177/0885328210363505).


Read, M. L., P. B. Morgan, et al. (2009). "Measurement Errors Related to contact Angle Analysis of Hydrogel and Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses." Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Appl Biomater 91B: 662 - 668.


Ross, G. M., S. M. Carnell, et al. (2010). The extrinsic modification of contact lenses with poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) and related copolymers. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Schein, O. D., R. J. Glynn, et al. (1989). "The relative risk of ulcerative keratitis among users of DW and EW soft contact lenses: a case-control study." N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 773 - 778.


Schein, O. D. and E. C. Poggio (1990). "Ulcerative keratitis in contact lens wearers." Cornea 1(s): 55 - 58.


Sharma, R. (2008). Antimicrobial silver technology. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Teichroeb, J. H., J. A. Forrest, et al. (2008). "Imaging Protein Deposits on Contact Lens Materials." Optometry & Vision Science 85(12): 1151 - 1164.


Tighe, B. (2004). Silicone hydrogels: structure, properties and behaviour. Silicone hydrogels

Continuous-wear contact lenses. D. F. Sweeney, Butterworth Heinemann: 1-27.


Weisbarth, R. E., M. M. Gabriel, et al. (2007). "Creating Antimicrobial Surfaces and Materials for Contact Lenses and Lens Cases." Eye & Contact Lens 33(6): 426 - 429.


Wilcox, M. D. P. (2008). The clinical aspects of anti-bacterial coatings. BCLA. Birmingham, UK.


Winterton, L. C. and K. C. Su (2004). Chemistry and Processing of Contact Lens Materials.  In Bennett ES, Weissman BA:Clinical Contact Lens Practice. Lippincott Williams: 355 - 362.



(p. 36) Slowing Down Myopia With Contact Lenses, By Jeffrey J. Walline, OD, PhD, FAAO, & Eef van der Worp, BOptom, PhD, FIACLE, FAAO, FBCLA


1.         Vitale S, Sperduto RD, Ferris FL, 3rd. Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004. Arch Ophthalmol 2009;127:1632-9.

2.         Lin LL, Shih YF, Tsai CB, Chen CJ, Lee LA, Hung PT, Hou PK. Epidemiologic study of ocular refraction among schoolchildren in Taiwan in 1995. Optom Vis Sci 1999;76:275-81.

3.         Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res 2005;30:71-80.

4.            Swarbrick H, Alharbi A, Watt K, Lum E. Overnight orthokeratology lens wear slows axial eye growth in myopic children. IOVS 2010;51:E-abstract: 1721.

5.         Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol 2009;93:1181-5.

6.         Smith EL, 3rd, Kee CS, Ramamirtham R, Qiao-Grider Y, Hung LF. Peripheral vision can influence eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46:3965-72.

7.         Smith EL, 3rd, Hung LF, Huang J. Relative peripheral hyperopic defocus alters central refractive development in infant monkeys. Vision Res 2009;49:2386-92.

8.         Horner DG, Soni PS, Salmon TO, Swartz TS. Myopia progression in adolescent wearers of soft contact lenses and spectacles. Optom Vis Sci 1999;76:474-9.

9.         Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott L, Manny RE, Gaume A, Rah MJ, Chitkara M, Lyons S. A randomized trial of the effect of soft contact lenses on myopia progression in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008;49:4702-6.

10.       Katz J, Schein OD, Levy B, Cruiscullo T, Saw SM, Rajan U, Chan TK, Yew Khoo C, Chew SJ. A randomized trial of rigid gas permeable contact lenses to reduce progression of children's myopia. Am J Ophthalmol 2003;136:82-90.

11.       Walline JJ, Jones LA, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. A randomized trial of the effects of rigid contact lenses on myopia progression. Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122:1760-6.

12.            Charman WN, Mountford J, Atchison DA, Markwell EL. Peripheral refraction in orthokeratology patients. Optom Vis Sci 2006;83:641-8.

13.       Queiros A, Gonzalez-Meijome JM, Jorge J, Villa-Collar C, Gutierrez AR. Peripheral refraction in myopic patients after orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci 2010;87:323-9.

14.            Swarbrick HA, Alharbi A, Watt K, Lum. E. Overnight Orthokeratology Lens Wear Slows Axial Eye Growth in Myopic Children. In: ARVO. Ft Lauderdale, FL USA; 2010.

15.       Aller TA, Wildsoet C. Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: a case report involving identical twins. Clin Exp Optom 2008;91:394-9.

16.       Nour A, Benavente-Perez A, Troilo D. The Effect of Simultaneous ±5 D Defocus Imposed by Multizone Soft Contact Lenses on Eye Growth and Development of Refractive State in Marmosets. In: ARVO. Ft Lauderdale, FL USA; 2010.

17.       Phillips JR, Anstice NS. Myopic Retinal Defocus With a Simultaneous Clear Retinal Image Slows

Childhood Myopia Progression. In: ARVO. Ft Lauderdale, FL USA; 2010.

18.       Holden BA, Sankaridurg P, Jara PLdl, E.L. Smith I, Chen X, Kwan, Martinez A, Ho A, Ge J. Reduction in the Rate of Progress of Myopia With a Contact Lens Designed to

Reduce Relative Peripheral Hyperopia. In: ARVO. Ft Lauderdale, FL USA; 2010.

19.            Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M, Everett D, Norton TT, Kurtz D, Leske MC, Manny R, Marsh-Tootle W, Scheiman M. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44:1492-500.

20.       Chua WH, Balakrishnan V, Chan YH, Tong L, Ling Y, Quah BL, Tan D. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia. Ophthalmology 2006;113:2285-91.

21.            Wildsoet C, Wallman J. Choroidal and scleral mechanisms of compensation for spectacle lenses in chicks. Vision Res 1995;35:1175-94.

22.       Smith EL, 3rd, Huang J, Hung LF, Blasdel TL, Humbird TL, Bockhorst KH. Hemiretinal form deprivation: evidence for local control of eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:5057-69.

23.       Fan L, Jun J, Jia Q, Wangqing J, Xinjie M, Yi S. Clinical study of orthokeratology in young myopic adolescents. Int Contact Lens Clin 1999;26:113-6.



(p. 40) Treating Dry Eye With Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Ophthalmic Inserts, By Mile Brujic, OD


Management and therapy of dry eye disease: report of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007a). Ocul.Surf., 5, 163-178.

The epidemiology of dry eye disease: report of the Epidemiology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007b). Ocul.Surf., 5, 93-107.

Behrens, A., Doyle, J. J., Stern, L., Chuck, R. S., McDonnell, P. J., Azar, D. T. et al. (2006). Dysfunctional tear syndrome: a Delphi approach to treatment recommendations. Cornea, 25, 900-907.

Breslin, C., Katz, J., Kaufman, H. E., & Katz, I. (1977). Slow-release artificial tears. In Leopold IH & Burns RP (Eds.), Symposium on Ocular Therapy (pp. 77-83). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Katz, J. I., Kaufman, H. E., Breslin, C., & Katz, I. M. (1978). Slow-release artificial tears and the treatment of keratitis sicca. Ophthalmology, 85, 787-793.

Lacrisert [package insert]. Lawrenceville,NJ: Aton Pharma, Inc; 2007. 

Laurenzi, A. (2008). A Sustained-Release Insert for Moderate to Severe Dry Eye. Contact Lens Spectrum, 21.

Lemp, M. A. (2008a). Advances in understanding and managing dry eye disease. Am.J.Ophthalmol., 146, 350-356.

Lemp, M. A. (2008b). Management of dry eye disease. Am.J.Manag.Care, 14, S88-101.

Luchs, J. I., Nelinson, D.S., Macy, J. I., for the LAC-07-01 Study Group (2010). Efficacy of Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Ophthalmic Inserts (LACRISERT®) in Subsets of Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome (DES): Findings From a Patient Registry. Cornea: in press.

McDonald, M. B., D'Aversa, G., Perry, H. D., Wittpenn, J. R., Donnenfeld, E. D., & Nelinson, D. S. (2009). Hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic inserts (Lacrisert) reduce the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome and improve patient quality of life. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc., 107, 217-221.

McDonald, M. B., D'Aversa, G., Perry, H. D., Wittpenn, J. R., Nelinson, D., for the LAC-07-01 Study Group (2010). Correlating patient-reported response to hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic insert (LACRISERT®) therapy with clinical outcomes: Tools for predicting response.Curr Eye Res: in press.

Miljanovic, B., Dana, R., Sullivan, D. A., & Schaumberg, D. A. (2007). Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life. Am.J.Ophthalmol., 143, 409-415.

Moss, S. E., Klein, R., & Klein, B. E. (2008). Long-term incidence of dry eye in an older population. Optom.Vis.Sci., 85, 668-674.

Nelson, J. D., Helms, H., Fiscella, R., Southwell, Y., & Hirsch, J. D. (2000). A new look at dry eye disease and its treatment. Adv.Ther., 17, 84-93.

Nichols KK, Nichols JJ, Zadnick K. Frequency of dry eye diagnostic test procedures used in various modes of ophthalmic practice. Cornea, 19 (4): 477-482.

Nichols, K. K., Nichols, J. J., & Mitchell, G. L. (2004). The lack of association between signs and symptoms in patients with dry eye disease. Cornea, 23, 762-770.

Pflugfelder, S. C., Solomon, A., & Stern, M. E. (2000). The diagnosis and management of dry eye: a twenty-five-year review. Cornea, 19, 644-649.

Schaumberg, D. A., Dana, R., Buring, J. E., & Sullivan, D. A. (2009). Prevalence of dry eye disease among US men: estimates from the Physicians' Health Studies. Arch.Ophthalmol., 127, 763-768.

Schaumberg, D. A., Sullivan, D. A., Buring, J. E., & Dana, M. R. (2003). Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women. Am.J.Ophthalmol., 136, 318-326.

Schiffman, R. M., Christianson, M. D., Jacobsen, G., Hirsch, J. D., & Reis, B. L. (2000). Reliability and validity of the Ocular Surface Disease Index. Arch.Ophthalmol., 118, 615-621.

Trattler, W. B., Asbell, P., & Stein, J. (2009). Punctal Plugs/Ophthalmic Insert Can Alleviate Dry Eye. Cataract & Refractive Surgery Today, 62-67.

Wander, A. H. & Koffler, B. H. (2009). Extending the duration of tear film protection in dry eye syndrome: review and retrospective case series study of the hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic insert. Ocul.Surf., 7, 154-162.



(p. 49) Treatment Plan: Diagnosing and Managing Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome, By William L. Miller, OD, PhD, FAAO


1.     Choi JS and Shyn KH Development of toxic anterior segment syndrome immediately after uneventful phaco surgery. Korean J Ophthalmol. 22(4):220-227, 2008

2.     Ugurbas SC and Akova YA Toxic anterior segment syndrome presenting as isolated cystoid macular edema after removal of entrapped ophthalmic ointment. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 29(3):221-223, 2010




(p. 50) Reader and Industry Forum: Countering Noncompliance With Lens Care and Case Technology, By Brad Hall, BSc, & Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO


Amos, C. (2005). "Clinical testing of the MicroBlock antimicrobial lens case " Optician 229(6008): 16 - 20.

Amos, C. F. and M. D. George (2006). "Clinical and laboratory testing of a silver-impregnated lens case." Cont Lens Anterior Eye 29(5): 247-55.

Cho, P., S. Y. Cheng, et al. (2009). "Soft contact lens cleaning: rub or no-rub?" Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 29(1): 49-57.

Choate, W., F. Fontana, et al. (2000). "Evaluation of the PuriLens contact lens care system: an automatic care system incorporating UV disinfection and hydrodynamic shear cleaning." CLAO J 26(3): 134-40.

Collins, M. J. and L. G. Carney (1986). "Patient compliance and its influence on contact lens wearing problems." Am J Optom Physiol Opt 63(12): 952-956.

Count-it (2010). Count-it contact lens cases. 2010.

Dantam, J., H. Zhu, et al. (2010). "Biocidal Efficacy of Silver Impregnated Contact Lens Storage Cases In vitro." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci In press.

Dart, J. (1997). "The inside story: why contact lens cases become contaminated." Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 20(4): 113-118.

Dumbleton, K., D. Richter, et al. (2010). "Compliance with contact lens replacement in Canada and the United States." Optom Vis Sci 87(2): 131-9.

Dyavaiah, M., R. Ramani, et al. (2007). "Molecular characterization, biofilm analysis and experimental biofouling study of Fusarium isolates from recent cases of fungal keratitis in New York State." BMC Ophthalmology 7(1): 1.

Farber, B. F., H. C. Hsieh, et al. (1995). "A novel antibiofilm technology for contact lens solutions." Ophthalmology 102(5): 831-836.

Gosheger, G., J. Hardes, et al. (2004). "Silver-coated megaendoprostheses in a rabbit model--an analysis of the infection rate and toxicological side effects." Biomaterials 25(24): 5547-5556.

Gray, T. B., R. T. Cursons, et al. (1995). "Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens storage cases." Br J Ophthalmol 79(6): 601-605.

Gromacki, S. (2004). "An ultraviolet system for contact lens disinfection." Contact Lens Spectrum 19(8): 23.

Joyce, E. and L. Jones (2009). "Utility of a contact lens case pulsator to aid lysozyme removal from etafilcon A hydrogel lenses soaked in a no rub MPS regimen." American Academy of Optometry(E-Abstract 90650).

Lakkis, C., F. Anastasopoulos, et al. (2009). "Time course of the development of contact lens case and contact lens contamination." ARVO(E-Abstract 6352).

LENSALERT! (2010). How LENSALERT! Works. 2010.

McKenney, C. D. and M. Ajello (1991). "Comparative case contamination: Three disinfection systems." Int Contact Lens Clin 18(1-2): 14-20.

McLaughlin-Borlace, L., F. Stapleton, et al. (1998). "Bacterial biofilm on contact lenses and lens storage cases in wearers with microbial keratitis." Journal of Applied Microbiology 84(5): 827-838.

Nichols, J. J. (2006). "Deposition rates and lens care influence on galyfilcon A silicone hydrogel lenses." Optom Vis Sci 83(10): 751-7.

Novelens (2010). How does it work? 2009.

Pens, C. J., M. da Costa, et al. (2008). "Acanthamoeba spp. and bacterial contamination in contact lens storage cases and the relationship to user profiles." Parasitology Research 103(6): 1241-1245.

Samuel, U. and J. P. Guggenbichler (2004). "Prevention of catheter-related infections: the potential of a new nano-silver impregnated catheter." International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 23S1: S75-S78.

Stapleton, F., L. Keay, et al. (2008). "The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia." Ophthalmology 115(10): 1655-1662.

Stevens, K. N. J., O. Crespo-Biel, et al. (2009). "The relationship between the antimicrobial effect of catheter coatings containing silver nanoparticles and the coagulation of contacting blood." Biomaterials 30(22): 3682-3690.

Strathmann, M. and J. Wingender (2004). "Use of an oxonol dye in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy to monitor damage to Staphylococcus aureus cells during colonisation of silver-coated vascular grafts." International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 24(3): 234-240.

Sweeney, D., B. Holden, et al. (2009). "Best practice contact lens care: A review of the Asia Pacific Contact Lens Care Summit." Clin Exp Optom 92(2): 78-89.

Willcox, M. D., N. Carnt, et al. (2010). "Contact lens case contamination during daily wear of silicone hydrogels." Optom Vis Sci 87(7): 456-64.

Willcox, M. D., K. N. Power, et al. (1997). "Potential sources of bacteria that are isolated from contact lenses during wear." Optom Vis Sci 74(12): 1030-8.

Wilson, L. A., A. D. Sawant, et al. (1990). "Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and solutions." Am J Ophthalmol 110: 193-198.

Wu, Y. T., H. Zhu, et al. (2010). "Profile and frequency of microbial contamination of contact lens cases." Optometry & Vision Science 87(3): E152-E158.

Wu, Y. T., H. Zhu, et al. (2010). "Removal of biofilm from contact lens storage cases." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci In press.

Yung, A. M. S., M. V. Boost, et al. (2007). "The effect of a compliance enhancement strategy (self-review) on the level of lens care compliance and contamination of contact lenses and lens care accessories." Clin Exp Optom 90(3): 190-202.