Contact Lens Spectrum

March 2010

Document #172





(p. 14) Letters to the Editor


Steroid Use With EKC, By William B. Potter, OD


1.                Onofrey's Ocular Therapeutics Handbook, second edition, p. 204.




Dr. Reid’s and Dr. Semes’ Response


1.  Sambursky R, Tauber S, Schirra F, Kozich K, Davidson R, Cohen EJ. The RPS adeno detector for diagnosing adenoviral conjunctivitis. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1758-64.


2.  Reinhard T. How to best treat adenoviral corneal opacities. (Letter) Cornea. 2005;24:363-4.


3.  Starr MB. How to best treat adenoviral corneal opacities. (Author reply) Cornea. 2005;24:364.


4.  Rubenstein JB, Virasch V. Conjunctivitis: Infectious and Noninfectious (Chapter 4.6). In: Yanoff & Duker: Ophthalmology, 3rd ed. Mosby 2008.


5.  Adenoviral infection (EKC).  Accessed Jan 14, 2010.



(p. 15) Research Review: Measuring Corneal Sensitivity in Contact Lens Wearers, By Eric Papas, PhD, MCOptom, DipCL


1.            Millodot, M. Effect of the length of wear of contact lenses on corneal sensitivity. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 54, 721-730 (1976).

2.         Knoll, H.A. & Williams, J. Effects of hydrophilic contact lenses on corneal sensitivity. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 47, 561-563 (1970).

3.            Douthwaite, W.A. & Connelly, A.T. The effect of hard and gas permeable contact lenses on refractive error, corneal curvature, thickness and sensitivity. Journal of The British Contact Lens Association 9, 14-20 (1986).

4.            Bergenske, P.D. & Polse, K.A. The effect of rigid gas permeable lenses on corneal sensitivity. J Am Optom Assoc 58, 212-215 (1987).

5.         Liu, Q., McDermott, A.M. & Miller, W.L. Elevated nerve growth factor in dry eye associated with established contact lens wear. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice 35, 232-237 (2009).

6.            Belmonte, C., Acosta, M.C. & Gallar, J. Neural basis of sensation in intact and injured corneas. Exp Eye Res 78, 513-525 (2004).

7.            Brennan, N.A. & Bruce, A.S. Esthesiometry as an indicator of corneal health. Optometry & Vision Science 68, 699-702 (1991).

8.            Belmonte, C., Acosta, M.C., Schmelz, M. & Gallar, J. Measurement of corneal sensitivity to mechanical and chemical stimulation with a CO2 esthesiometer. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40, 513-519 (1999).

9.         Acosta, M.C., Tan, M.E., Belmonte, C. & Gallar, J. Sensations evoked by selective mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation of the conjunctiva and cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42, 2063-2067 (2001).

10.       Feng, Y. & Simpson, T.L. Nociceptive sensation and sensitivity evoked from human cornea and conjunctiva stimulated by CO2. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 44, 529-532 (2003).

11.       Feng, Y. & Simpson, T.L. Characteristics of human corneal psychophysical channels. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 45, 3005-3010 (2004).

12.       Feng, Y. & Simpson, T.L. The inhibitory interaction between human corneal and conjunctival sensory channels.[erratum appears in Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 May;46(5):1556]. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46, 1251-1255 (2005).

13.       Situ, P., Simpson, T.L. & Fonn, D. Eccentric variation of corneal sensitivity to pneumatic stimulation at different temperatures and with CO2. Experimental Eye Research 85, 400-405 (2007).

14.       Patel, D.V. & McGhee, C.N. Mapping of the normal human corneal sub-Basal nerve plexus by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46, 4485-4488 (2005).

15.            Golebiowski, B., Papas, E.B. & Stapleton, F. Factors affecting corneal and conjunctival sensitivity measurement. Optom Vis Sci 85, 241-246 (2008).

16.            Murphy, P.J., Patel, S., Kong, N., Ryder, R.E.J. & Marshall, J. Noninvasive assessment of corneal sensitivity in young and elderly diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 45, 1737-1742 (2004).

17.       Situ, P., Simpson, T.L., Jones, L.W. & Fonn, D. Conjunctival and corneal hyperesthesia in subjects with dryness symptoms. Optometry & Vision Science 85, 867-872 (2008).

18.            Stapleton, F., et al. Corneal and conjunctival sensitivity to air stimuli. Br J Ophthalmol 88, 1547-1551 (2004).

19.            Golebiowski, B., Papas, E.B. & Stapleton, F. Ocular Surface Sensitivity Following Discontinuation of Low DK Extended Contact Lens Wear and Refitting with High DK Extended Wear. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 3705- (2003).




(p. 18) GP Insights: Corneal Thinning in GP Lens Wear, By Ann Laurenzi-Jones, OD, FAAO


1.      Liesegang T,  Physiologic Changes of the Cornea with Contact Lens Wear.  The CLAO Journal 28 (1): 12-27, 2002.

2.      Yeniad B, Bulent Y, Issever Halim, Bilgin LK.  Effects of Contact Lenses on Corneal Thickness and corneal Curvature During Usage.  Eye & Contact lens 29 (4): 223-229,2003.

3.      Lui Z, Pflugfelder,  The Effects of Long-Term Contact Lens wear on Corneal Thickness, Curvature, and Surface Regularity.  Ophthalmology 2000;107:105-111.

4.      Miller D.  Contact Lens-induced corenal curvature and thickness chanes. Arch Ophthalmol 1968;80;430-2.

5.      Iskelieli G. Oral AY Celikkol L.  Changes in corneal radus and thickness inresponse to exptended wear of rigid gas permeable contact lenses.  CLAO J 1996;22 133-5.

6.      Braun D, Anderson Penno E.  Effect of contact lens wear on Central corenal thickness measurements.  J cataract Refract Surg Vol 29, July 2003.

7.      Myrowitz E, Melia M, O’Brian T.  The relationship between Long-Term Contactt Lens Wear and Corneal Thickness.  The CLAO Journal 28 (4); 217-220,2002.

8.      Vreugdenhil W, Eggnik FAGJ, Beekhuis WH, Theeuwes A.  Changes in Corneal Thickness Under Four Different Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lenses for Daily Wear.  Optometry and Vision Science, Vol 67,No 9 pp.670-672.

9.      Pflugfelder S, Liu Z, Feuer W, Verm A.  Corneal Thickness Indices Discriminate between Keratoconus and Contact Lens-induced Corneal Thinning.  Ophthalmology Vol 109, number 12, Dec 2002.



(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: New Society Focuses on Ocular Surface Disease, By Jack L Schaeffer, OD


Korb DR, Greiner JV, Herman JP, Hebert E, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Glonek T, Olson MC. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J, 28:211-6, 2002



(p. 21) Contact Lens Care and Compliance: Understanding Seasonal Ocular Allergy, By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO


1.                 Clin Exp Immunol. 2008 September; 153(s1): 17–21.








5.                 Clin Exp Allergy. 1997 Sep;27(9):1060-6.


6.                 Mol Vis. 2008; 14: 1525–1532.

7.                 Published online 2008 August 22


8.                 Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2008, 8:438–444


9.                 CL Spectrum, September, 2009, Care & Compliance



(p. 22)  An Update on Orthokeratology, By Cary M. Herzberg, OD, FOAA


1. Watt KG, Swarbrick HA. Trends in microbial keratitis associated with orthokeratology. Eye Contact Lens. 2007(33):373-377.

2. Williams BT. Fitting post-LASIK progressive myopes with accelerated Ortho-K,

3. Yamada Y, Mitsui, and Yagi Y., OSEIRT/Ortho-K indication for the keratoconus patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46 E-abstract 4953.2005.

4. Morgan PB, et al. International contact lens prescribing. Contact Lens Spectrum 2008;23(1):

5. Bullimore MA, Jones L. The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses, American Academy of Optometry, Program Number 90583, Nov. 2009.

6. Walline JJ. Slowing myopia progression with lenses.

7. Roan S. Distance vision is all a blur to more of us.,0,6467519.story.

8. Cho P. Peripheral optics in myopia and orthokeratology.

9. The Berkeley Orthokeratology Study.

10.                    Cho P. Myopic control for high myopes using orthokeratology.

11.                    Fan DS, et al. Prevalence, incidence, and progression of myopia of school children in Hong Kong. Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Sciences,2004;45(4) 1071-1075.

12.                    Berke B. Corneal reshaping demystified. Vision by design 2009, Phoenix AZ, October 18, 2009.

13.                     Herzberg C. Corneal-Scleral lenses: Are they safe and efficacious in orthokeratology? Presented at the Global Orthokeratology Symposium, Toronto Canada, July 23, 2004.

14.                    Beerten R. Ortho-K: The Dutch Experience. Presented at the Global Orthokeratology Symposium, Toronto, Canada, July 23, 2004.

15.                     Jacobson J. Orthokeratology: The Global Perspective. Presented at the Global Orthokeratology Symposium, Chicago, Illinois,  July 23, 2005.

16.                    El Hage S. Cornea Cross Linking(CXL) and Orthokeratology(CKR). Vision By Design 2009, Phoenix, Arizona, October 18, 2009.

17.                     Smith E. Current research findings in controlling myopia. Vision By Design 2009, Phoenix, Arizona, October 17, 2009.

18.                     Walline J. Myopia control with corneal reshaping lenses. Vision By Design 2009, Phoenix, Arizona, October 16, 2009.

19.                     Maller K. Custom Orthokeratology(The Wave Approach). Vision By Design 2009, Phoenix Arizona, October 16, 2009.

20.                    Bullimore M. MK Incidence. Vision By Design 2009, Phoenix, Arizona, October 16, 2009.

21.                     Ernst S. Hyperopic correction with orthokeratology. Vision By Design 2009, Phoenix, Arizona, October 17, 2009.

22.                     Caroline P. Soft lenses in Ortho-K and Reverse Geo Lenses in KC. Reshaping The World, San Diego, California, April 19, 2008.

23.                     DeWoolfson B, Harris D. Stromal effects of orthokeratology. Reshaping The World, San Diego, California, April 20, 2008.

24.                    Mountford J. Orthokeratology Principles and Practice, Butterworth –Heinemann, 2004.

25.                    Cross,Christopher. Peripheral Refraction with Reverse Geometry lenses. Reshaping The World, San Diego California, April 20, 2009.

26.                    Lipson M. Long-term clinical outcomes for overnight corneal reshaping in adults and children. Vision By Design 2009, Phoenix, Arizona, October 16, 2009.

27.                    Morgan PB, Woods C, Jones D, et al.  International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2007. Contact Lens Spectrum 2008; 23;1:36-41.

28.                    Schein OD, McNally JJ, Katz J, et al. The incidence of microbial keratitis among wearers of 30-day silicone hydrogel extended wear contact lens. Ophthalmol 2005;112;2172-2179.

29.                    Eiden SB, Davis RL, Bennett ES, DeKinder JO. The SMART Study: Background, rationale, and baseline results. Contact Lens Spectrum 2009(24);10:24-31.

30.                    Hunt O, Lindsay J, Wolffsohn J. Current uses of rigid gas permeable lenses. 30-38.pdf.

31.                     Landau D. Orthokeratology For keratoconus.

32.  Cho P. Peripheral optics in myopia and orthokeratology.

33.  Mutti DO, Hayes JR, Mitchell GI, et al. Refractive error, axial length, and relative peripheral refractive error before and after the onset of myopia.



(p. 33) Diagnosing and Managing Lens-Related Complications, By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO


1.      Carnt, N. Jalbert, I. Stretton, S. et al.  Solution Toxicity in Soft Contact Lens Daily Wear Is Associated With Corneal Inflammation. Optom Vis Sci 2007;84:309-315.

2.      Andrasko, G. Ryen, K. Corneal staining and comfort observed with traditional and silicone hydrogel lenses and multipurpose solution combinations. Optometry. 2008 Aug;79(8):444-54

3.      Carnt, N. Evans, V. Naduvilath, T. et al. Contact Lens-Related Adverse Events and the Silicone Hydrogel Lenses and Daily Wear Care System Used. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(12):1616-1623.

4.      Caroline, P. Andre, M. A Closer Look at SEALs. Contact Lens Spectrum.\2009\august\cls_august_a20.html accessed February 1, 2010.

5.      Katelaris, CH. Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis- a review. Acta Ophthalmol Scand Suppl. 1999;(228):17-22.

6.      Stapleton, F. Stretton, S. Sankaridurg. PR. et al. Hypersensitivity responses and contact lens wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2003 Jun;26(2):57-6.

7.      Ballow, M. Donshik, PC. Rapacz, P. et al.  Immune response in monkeys to contact lens-induced GPC. CLAO J. 1989 Jan-Mar;15(1):64-70.

8.      Ehlers, WH. Donshik, PC. Gillies, C. Induction of inflammatory reaction (similar to GPC) by CF derived from conjunctival cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990;31: 251.

9.      Palmisano, PC. Ehlers, WH. Donshik, PC. et al. Causitive factors in unilateral GPC. CLAO J. 1993 April 192(2):103-7.

10.  Donshik, PC. Ehlers, WH. Ballow, MB. Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America 2008 February 28(1).

11.  Skotnitsky CC. Naduvilath, TJ. Seeney, DF. Sankaridurg, PR. Two Presentations of Contact Lens-Induced Papillary Conjunctivitis (CLPC) in Hydrogel Lens Wear: Local and General. Optom Vis Sci 2006;83:E27-E36.

12.  Donshik, PC. Porazinski, AD. Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis in frequent-replacement contact lens wearers: a retrospective study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 May;129(5)703.

13.  Donshik, PC. Giant Papillary conjunctivitis. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 92. 687-744.1994; Abstract

14.  Sankaridurg, PR. Sharma S. Wilcox, MDP. et al. Haemophilus influenza adherent to contact lenses is associated with the production of ocular inflammation. J. Clin. Micro. Volume:34, (1996), 2426-2431.

15.  Holden, BA. Hood DL. Grant T. et al. Gram-negative bacteria can induce contact lens related acute red eye (CLARE) responses. CLAO J., Volume:22,(1996) 47-52.

16.  Tan, KO. Sack, RA. Holden, BA. et al. Temporal sequence of changes in tear film composition during sleep. Curr Eye Res. 1993;12:1001-1007.

17.  Thakur, A. Willcox MDP. Contact lens wear alters the production of certain inflammatory mediators in tears. Exp Eye Res. 2000;70:255-259.

18.  Aasuri, MK. Venkata, N. Kumar, VM. Differential Diagnosis of Microbial Keratitis and Contact Lens-Induced Peripheral Ulcer. Eye & Contact Lens 2003 29(1S):S60-S62.

19.  Sweeney, DF. Jalbert, I. Covey, M. et al. Clinical Characterization of Corneal Infiltrative Events Observed with Soft Contact Lens Wear. Cornea 2003 Vol 22(5)435-442.

20.  Stapleton, F. Willcox, MDP. The Causes of and Cures for Contact Lens-Induced Peripheral Ulcer. Eye & Contact Lens 2003 29(1S):S63-S66.

21.  Sweeney, DF. Naduvilath, TJ. Are inflammatory events a marker for an increased risk of microbial keratitis? Eye Contact Lens 2007 Nov;33(6 Pt 2):383-7;discussion 399-400.

22.  Madigan MC. Holden BA. Reduced epithelial adhesion after extended wear contact lens wear correlates with reduced hemidesmosome density in at cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992 Feb;33(2):314-23.

23.  Mauger, TF. Hill, RM. Corneal epithelial healing under contact lenses: quantitative in the rabbit. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1992 Jun;70(3):361-5.

24.  Imayasu M. Petroll, WM. Jester, JV. et al. The relation between contact lens oxygen transmissibility and binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the cornea after overnight wear. Ophthalmology. 1994 Feb;101(2):371-388.

25.  Cavanaugh, HD. Ladage, PM. Yamamoto, K. et al. Effects of daily and overnight wear of hyper-oxygen transmissible rigid and silicone hydrogel lenses on bacterial binding to the corneal epithelium: 13-month clinical trials. Eye Contact Lens. 2003 Jan;29(1 Suppl):S14-16.

26.  Latkovic, S. Nilsson, SE. The effect of high and low Dk/L soft contact lenses on the glycocalyx layer of the corneal epithelium and on the membrane associated receptors for lectins. CLAO J. 1997 Jul;23(3):185-91.

27.  Thomas, R. A Higher Concentration Antibiotic. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2008(November).

28.  Jhanji, V. Sharma, N. Satpathy, G. Titiyal, J. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolone-resistant bacterial keratitis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007 Aug;22(8):1488-9.

29.  Betanzos-Cabrera G. Juarez-Verdayes, MA. Gonzalez-Gonzalez, G. Gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and balofloxacin resistance due to mutations in the gyrA and parC genes of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from patients with endophthalmitis, corneal ulcers and conjunctivitis. Ophthalmic Res. 2009;42(1):43-8.

30.  Hindman, HB. Patel SB. Jun, AS. Rationale for Adjunctive Topical Corticosteroids in Bacterial Keratitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Jan:127(1):97-102.

31.  Cohen, EJ. The Case Against the Use of Steroids in the Treatment of Bacterial Keratitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Jan;127(1):103-4.

32.  Wilhelmus, KR. Gee, L. Hauck, WW. et al. Herpetic Eye Disease Study: a controlled trial of topical corticosteroids for herpes simplex stromal keratitis. Ophthalmology. 1994;101(12):1883-1896.

33.  Dart, JKG. Saw, VPJ. Kilvington, S. Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Diagnosis and Treatment. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Oct;148(4):487-499.

34.  Loh, AR. Hong, K. Lee, S. et al. Practice patterns in the management of fungal corneal ulcers. Cornea. 2009 Sep;28(8):856-9.

35.  Dart, JKG. Radford, CF. Minassian, D. et al. Risk Factors for Microbial Keratitis with Contemporary Contact Lenses. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1647-1654.

36.  Radford, CF. Minassian, D. Dart. JKG. Lens Complications in an Ophthalmic Accident and Emergency Department. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:385-392.

37.  Gabriel, M. Weisbarth, R. Developing antimicrobial surfaces for silicone hydrogels. (accessed January 27, 2010).

38.  Stapleton, F. Keay, L. Edwards, K. et al. The incidence of Contact Lens-Related Microbial Keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1655-1662.

39.  Keay, L. Edwards, K, Naduvilath, T. et al. Factors affecting the morbidity of contact lens-related microbial keratitis: A population study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Oct;47(10):4302-8.

40.  Forster, RK. Conrad Berens Lecture. The management of infectious keratitis as we approach the 21st century. CLAO J. 1998 Jul;24(3):175-80.

41.  Dillehay, SM. Miller, MB. Performance of Lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel contact lenses in experienced low-Dk/t daily lens wearers. Eye Contact Lens 2007 Nov;33(6 Pt 1):272-7.

42.  Dumbleton, K. Keir, N. Moezzi, A. et al. Objective and subjective responses in patients refitted to daily-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses.  Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Oct;83(10):758-68.

43.   Edwards, K. Brian, G. Stretto al. (accessed January 28, 2010).

44.  Szczotka-Flynn, L. Brujic, M. Yeung, K. An Expert Perspective of Lens Care. Review of Optometry. September 2009 pp 77.


(p. 39) Global Perceptions and Vision Care Realities, By Colleen Riley, OD, MS, FAAO, Dipl CL


1.      Walline JJ, Gaume A, Jones LA, et al. Benefits of contact lens wear for children and teens. Eye Contact Lens 2007;33(6 Pt 1):317-21.

2.      Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott L, et al; the ACHIEVE Study Group. Randomized trial of the effect of contact lens wear on self-perception in children. Optom Vis Sci 2009;86(3).



(p. 44) Fitting Soft Center-Near Design Multifocal Lenses, By Jill Woods, BSc(Hons), MCOptom; Craig A. Woods, PhD, FAAO; & Desmond Fonn, MOptom, FAAO


1.  Dumbleton K, Keir N, Moezzi A,  Feng Y, Jones L, Fonn D. Objective and subjective responses in patients refitted to daily-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sc 2006:83:758-768.

2.  Bennett ES. Contact lens correction of presbyopia. Clin Exp Optom 2008;91:265-278.

3.  Woods CA, Roy A and Fonn D. Radial power profiles of single vision silicone hydrogel lenses. American Academy of Optometry 2006, E-abstract 065286.

4.   Collins M, Bruce A, Thompson B. Adaptation to monovision. Int Contact Lens Clin 1994;21:218-224.

5.  Erickson P, McGill EC. Role of visual acuity, stereoacuity and ocular dominance in monovision patient success. Optom Vis Sc 1992;69:761-764.

6.  Papas EB, Decenzo-Verbeten T, Fonn D, et al. Utility of short-term evaluation of presbyopic contact lens performance. Eye & Contact Lens 2009;35:144-148.

7.  Situ P, du Toit R, Fonn D, Simpson. Successful monovision contact lens wearers refitted with bifocal contact lenses. Eye & Contact Lens 2003;29:181-184.

8.  Richdale K, Mitchell GL,  Zadnik K. Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low-astigmatic presbyopia.  Optom Vis Sc 2006;83:266-273.

9.  Benjamin WJ. Comparing multifocals and monovision. Contact Lens Spectrum 2007;22:35-39.

10.              Gupta N, Naroo SA, Wolffsohn JS. Visual comparison of multifocal contact lens to monovision. Optom Vis Sc 2009;86:E98-105.

11.              Woods J, Woods CA, Fonn D. Early symptomatic presbyopes  — what correction modality works best?  Eye & Contact Lens 2009;35:221-226.

12.              Seijas O, Gomez de Liano P, Gomez de Liano R, Roberts CJ,  Piedrahita E, Diaz E. Ocular dominance diagnosis and its influence in monovision. Am J Ophthalmol 2007;144:209-216.




(p. 52) Treatment Plan: SCORE Study reports Detail Effectiveness if IVTA Injection, By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO


1.                Rehak J, Rehak M. Branch retinal vein occlusion: pathogenesis, visual prognosis, and treatment modalities. Curr Eye Res. 2008; 33: 111-31.


2.                Scott IU, Ip MS, VanVeldhuisen PC, Oden NL, Blodi BA, Fisher M, Chan CK, Gonzalez VH, Singerman LJ, Tolentino M; SCORE Study Research Group. A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone with standard care to treat vision loss associated with macular Edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion: the Standard Care vs Corticosteroid for Retinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE) study report 6. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009; 127: 1115-28.



3.                Ip MS, Scott IU, VanVeldhuisen PC, Oden NL, Blodi BA, Fisher M, Singerman LJ, Tolentino M, Chan CK, Gonzalez VH; SCORE Study Research Group. A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone with observation to treat vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: the Standard Care vs Corticosteroid for Retinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE) study report 5. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009; 127: 1101-14.


4.   SCORE: (Accessed October 29, 2009)