Contact Lens Spectrum

July 2010

Document #176

 

References

 

 

(p. 11) Research Review: Assessing and Diagnosing Meibomian Gland Dysfunction, By Eric Papas, PhD, MCOptom, DipCL

 

ARITA, R., ITOH, K., INOUE, K. & AMANO, S. 2008. Noncontact infrared meibography to document age-related changes of the meibomian glands in a normal population. Ophthalmology, 115, 911-5.

ARITA, R., ITOH, K., INOUE, K., KUCHIBA, A., YAMAGUCHI, T. & AMANO, S. 2009. Contact lens wear is associated with decrease of meibomian glands. Ophthalmology, 116, 379-84.

FOULKS, G. N. & BRON, A. J. 2003. Meibomian gland dysfunction: a clinical scheme for description, diagnosis, classification, and grading. Ocul Surf, 1, 107-26.

GUILLON, J. P. 1998. Use of the Tearscope Plus and attachments in the routine examination of the marginal dry eye contact lens patient. Adv Exp Med Biol 438, 859-67.

GUILLON, M. & MAISSA, C. 2008. Contact lens wear affects tear film evaporation. Eye Contact Lens, 34, 326-30.

IBRAHIM, O. M., MATSUMOTO, Y., DOGRU, M., ADAN, E. S., WAKAMATSU, T. H., GOTO, T., NEGISHI, K. & TSUBOTA, K. 2010. The efficacy, sensitivity, and specificity of in vivo laser confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of meibomian gland dysfunction. Ophthalmology, 117, 665-72.

JESTER, J. V., RIFE, L., NIL, D., LUTTRULL, J. K., WILSON, L. & SMITH, R. E. 1982. In vivo biomicroscopy and photography of meibomian glands in a rabbit model of meibomian gland dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 22, 660-667.

KORB, D. R. & BLACKIE, C. A. 2008. Meibomian gland diagnostic expressibility: correlation with dry eye symptoms and gland location. Cornea, 27, 1142-7.

MATHERS, W. D. 2004. Evaporation from the ocular surface. Experimental Eye Research, 78, 389-394.

MATHERS, W. D., LANE, J. A., SUTPHIN, J. E. & ZIMMERMAN, M. B. 1996. Model for ocular tear film function. Cornea, 15, 110-9.

MCCANN, L. C., TOMLINSON, A., PEARCE, E. I. & DIAPER, C. 2009. Tear and meibomian gland function in blepharitis and normals. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice, 35, 203-8.

NICHOLS, J. J., BERNTSEN, D. A., MITCHELL, G. L. & NICHOLS, K. K. 2005. An assessment of grading scales for meibography images. Cornea, 24, 382-8.

SHIMAZAKI, J., SAKATA, M. & TSUBOTA, K. 1995. Ocular surface changes and discomfort in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction. Arch Ophthalmol 113, 1266 –1270.

YOKOI, N., MOSSA, F., TIFFANY, J. M. & BRON, A. J. 1999. Assessment of meibomian gland function in dry eye using meibometry. Archives of Ophthalmology, 117, 723-9.

YOKOI, N., TAKEHISA, Y. & KINOSHITA, S. 1996. Correlation of tear lipid layer interference patterns with the diagnosis and severity of dry eye. Am J Ophthalmol 122, 818-824.

 

 

(p. 17) Contact Lens Design and Materials: Material, Design, and Dry Eye, By Neil Pence, OD, FAAO

 

  1. Andrasko G, Ryen K. Corneal staining and comfort observed with traditional and silicone hydrogel lenses and multipurpose solution combinations. Optometry 2008; 79:444-454.

 

  1. ChalmersRL, Long B, Dillehay SD, Begley CG.  Improving contact-lens related dryness symptoms with silicone hydrogel lenses. Optom Vis Sci 85(8):778-84.

 

  1. Jalbert I, Carnt N, et al. The relationship between solution toxicity, corneal inflammation and ocular comfort in soft contact lens daily wear. Poster presented at ARVO 2006. Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.

 

  1. Moody K, Chalmers RL.  Evaluating a silicone hydrogel daily disposable contact lens.  CL Spectrum 2009 Sept.

 

  1. Nichols JJ, Sinnolt LT.  Tear film, contact lenses, and patient related factors associated with contact lens related dry eye.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Apr; 47(4): 1319-28.

2.      Riley C, Chalmers RL, Pence N. The impact of lens choice in the relief of contact lens related symptoms and ocular surface findings. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2005 Mar;28(1):13-9.

 

  1. Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R. Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a). Eye Contact Lens 2006; 32:281-286.

 

  1. Schafer J, Barr J, Mack C.  a characterization of dryness symptoms with silicone hydrogel contact lenses.  Optom & Vis Sci 2003.

 

 

(p. 18) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: Checking the Dry Eye Pipeline, By William Townsend, OD, FAAO

 

1.      Schein OD, Munoz B, Tielsch JM, Bandeen-Roche K, West S. Prevalence of dry eye among the elderly. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;124:723-728.

2.      Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K. Results of a population- based questionnaire on the symptoms and lifestyles associated with dry eye. Cornea. 1999;18:408-411.

3.      Miljanović B, Dana R, Sullivan DA, Schaumberg DA. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Mar;143(3):409-15.

4.      Mertzanis P, Abetz L, Rajagopalan K, Espindle D, Chalmers R, Snyder C, Caffery B, Edrington T, Simpson T, Nelson JD, Begley C. The relative burden of dry eye in patients' lives: comparisons to a U.S. normative sample. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jan;46(1):46-50.

5.      Gilbard J, Ferrris, L. SantamariaOsmolarity of Tear Microvolumes Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca. Arch Ophthalmol. 1978;96(4):677-681.

6.      Gilbard,JP  Farris RL Tear Osmolarity and Ocular Surface Disease in Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979;97(9):1642-1646s

7.      Sullivan DA, Sullivan BD, Androgen Deficiency, Meibomian Gland Dysfunction, and Evaporative Dry Eye Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Jun;966:211-22.

8.      Esmaeli B, Harvey JT, Hewlett B. Immunohistochemical evidence for estrogen receptors in meibomian glands. Ophthalmology. 2000 Jan;107(1):180-4.

 

 

(p. 22) 2010 Annual Report on Dry Eye Diseases, By Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO

 

  1. Albietz JM. Prevalence of dry eye subtypes in clinical optometry practice. Optom Vis Sci 2000; 77: 357-63.
  2. Begley CG, Caffery B, et al. Use of the dry eye questionnaire to measure symptoms of ocular irritation in patients with aqueous tear deficient dry eye. Cornea 2002; 21: 664-70.
  3. Begley CG, Caffery B, et al. Responses of contact lens wearers to a dry eye survey. Optom Vis Sci 2000; 77: 40-6.
  4. Begley CG, Chalmers RL, et al. Characterization of ocular surface symptoms from optometric practices in North America. Cornea 2001; 20: 610-8.
  5. Caffery BE, Richter D, et al. CANDEES. The Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology Study. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998; 438: 805-6.
  6. Doughty MJ, Fonn D, et al. A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada. Optom Vis Sci 1997; 74: 624-31.
  7. Hikichi T, Yoshida A, et al. Prevalence of dry eye in Japanese eye centers. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1995; 233: 555-8.
  8. Korb DR. Survey of preferred tests for diagnosis of the tear film and dry eye. Cornea 2000; 19: 483-6.
  9. Lee AJ, Lee J, et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye symptoms: a population based study in Indonesia. Br J Ophthalmol 2002; 86: 1347-51.
  10. Lemp MA, Baudouin C, et al. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf 2007; 5: 75-92.
  11. McCarty CA, Bansal AK, et al. The epidemiology of dry eye in Melbourne, Australia. Ophthalmology 1998; 105: 1114-9.
  12. Moss SE, Klein R, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 2000; 118: 1264-8.
  13. Nichols JJ, Ziegler C, et al. Self-reported dry eye disease across refractive modalities. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005; 46: 1911-4.
  14. Nichols KK, Nichols JJ, et al. Frequency of dry eye diagnostic test procedures used in various modes of ophthalmic practice. Cornea 2000; 19: 477-82.
  15. Schein OD, Munoz B, et al. Prevalence of dry eye among the elderly. Am J Ophthalmol 1997; 124: 723-8.
  16. Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, et al. Results of a population-based questionnaire on the symptoms and lifestyles associated with dry eye. Cornea 1999; 18: 408-11.

17.     Yazdani C, McLaughlin T, et al. Prevalence of treated dry eye disease in a managed care population. Clin Ther 2001; 23: 1672-82.

 

 

(p. 28) Ocular Surface Disease Update 2010, By Blair B. Lonsberry, MS, OD, MEd, FAAO

 

  1. Behrens A, Doyle JJ, Stern L, Chuck RS, McDonnell PJ, Azar DT, Dua HS, Hom M, Karpecki PM, Laibson PR, Lemp MA, Meisler DM, Del Castillo JM, O'Brien TP, Pflugfelder SC, Rolando M, Schein OD, Seitz B, Tseng SC, van Setten G, Wilson SE, & Yiu SC. 2006. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: a Delphi approach to treatment recommendations. Cornea. 25(8), 900-7.
  2. Brignole-Baudouin F, Ott AC, Warnet JM, & Baudouin C. 2004. Flow cytometry in conjunctival impression cytology: a new tool for exploring ocular surface pathologies. Experimental Eye Research. 78(3), 473-81.
  3. Bron AJ, Yokoi N, Gafney E, & Tiffany JM. 2009. Predicted phenotypes of dry eye: proposed consequences of its natural history. The Ocular Surface. 7(2), 78-92.
  4. DEWS: The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). 2007. The Ocular Surface. 5(2), 75-92.
  5. DEWS: The epidemiology of dry eye disease: report of the Epidemiology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). 2007. The Ocular Surface. 5(2), 93-107.
  6. DEWS: Management and therapy of dry eye disease: report of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). 2007. The Ocular Surface. 5(2), 163-78.
  7. Gaffney EA, Tiffany JM, Yokoi N, & Bron AJ. (2010). A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 29(1), 59-78.
  8. Gayton JL. 2009. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease. Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.). 3, 405-12.
  9. Jackson WB. 2009. Management of dysfunctional tear syndrome: a Canadian consensus. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie. 44(4), 385-94.
  10. Kim EC, Choi JS, & Joo CK. 2009. A comparison of vitamin a and cyclosporine a 0.05% eye drops for treatment of dry eye syndrome. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 147(2), 206-213.
  11. Kojima T, Higuchi A, Goto E, Matsumoto Y, Dogru M, & Tsubota K. 2008. Autologous serum eye drops for the treatment of dry eye diseases. Cornea. 27, S25-30.
  12. Leung EW, Medeiros FA, & Weinreb RN. 2008. Prevalence of ocular surface disease in glaucoma patients. Journal of Glaucoma. 17(5), 350-5.
  13. Luchs J. 2008. Efficacy of topical azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% in the treatment of posterior blepharitis. Advances in Therapy. 25(9), 858-70.
  14. Moore JE, Graham JE, Goodall EA, Dartt DA, Leccisotti A, McGilligan VE, & Moore TC. 2009. Concordance between common dry eye diagnostic tests. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 93(1), 66-72.
  15. Pflugfelder SC, de Paiva CS, Li DQ, & Stern ME. 2008. Epithelial-immune cell interaction in dry eye. Cornea. 27, S9-11.
  16. Quinto GG, Campos M, & Behrens A. 2008. Autologous serum for ocular surface diseases. Arquivos Brasileiros De Oftalmologia. 71(6), 47-54.
  17. Rajecki R.  Instrument helps quantify tear film osmolarity, may guide dry eye therapy. 2010.  Optometry Times, April (Vol. 2, Number 4), 12.
  18. Rolando M, Geerling G, Dua HS, Benítez-del-Castillo JM, & Creuzot-Garcher C. 2010. Emerging treatment paradigms of ocular surface disease: proceedings of the Ocular Surface Workshop. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 94, i1-9.
  19. Roncone M, Bartlett H, & Eperjesi F. 2010. Essential fatty acids for dry eye: A review. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye : the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association. 33(2), 49-54.
  20. Schaumberg DA, Sullivan DA, Buring JE, & Dana MR. 2003. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 136(2), 318-26.
  21. Schaumberg DA, Dana R, Buring JE, & Sullivan DA. 2009. Prevalence of dry eye disease among US men: estimates from the Physicians' Health Studies. Archives of Ophthalmology. 127(6), 763-8.
  22. Stern ME, Gao J, Siemasko KF, Beuerman RW, & Pflugfelder SC. 2004. The role of the lacrimal functional unit in the pathophysiology of dry eye. Experimental Eye Research. 78(3), 409-16.
  23. Subbaraman LN, Jones L.  What Influences Contact Lens-Related Dry Eye? 2009.  Contact Lens Spectrum, July, 39-43.
  24. Sullivan DA. 2004. Tearful relationships? Sex, hormones, the lacrimal gland, and aqueous-deficient dry eye. The Ocular Surface. 2(2), 92-123.
  25. Stern ME, Gao J, Siemasko KF, Beuerman RW, & Pflugfelder SC. 2004. The role of the lacrimal functional unit in the pathophysiology of dry eye. Experimental Eye Research. 78(3), 409-16.
  26. Tomlinson A, Khanal S, Ramaesh K, Diaper C, McFadyen A.  2006. Tear film osmolarity: determination of a referent for dry eye diagnosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:4309-15.
  27. Yokoi N, Komuro A, Maruyama K & Kinoshita S.  2004. New instruments for dry eye diagnosis. Seminars in Ophthalmolgy, 20: 63-70. 
  28. Yokoi N, & Komuro A. 2004. Non-invasive methods of assessing the tear film. Experimental Eye Research. 78(3), 399-407.
  29. Zoukhri D. 2006. Effect of inflammation on lacrimal gland function. Experimental Eye Research. 82(5), 885-98.

 

 

(p. 38) Current Findings on Blepharitis, By Daniel Powell, OD

 

  1. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Blepharitis preferred practice pattern. 2008. http://one.aao.org/CE/Practice Guidelines/PPP.aspx. Accessed May 9, 2010.

 

  1. American Optometric Association. Optometric  clinical practice guideline: care of the patient with ocular surface disorder. 2002. http://www.aoa.org/documents/CPG-10.pdf.  Accessed May 9, 2010.

 

  1. Arita R, Itoh K, Inoue K, Kuchiba A, Yamaguchi T, Amano S. Contact lens wear is associated with decrease of meibomian glands. Ophthalmology 2009;116:379-84.

 

  1. Aronowicz JD, Shine WE, Oral D, Vargas JM, McCulley JP. Short term oral minocycline treatment of meibomianitis. Br J Ophthalmol 2006;90:856-60.

 

  1. AzaSite® packaging insert. Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Durham, NC; 2007.

 

  1. Begley CG, Caffery B, Nichols KK, Chalmers R. Responses of contact lens wearers to a dry eye survey. Optom Vis Sci 2000;77:40-6.

 

  1. Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK, Caffery B, Simpson T, DuToit R, Portello J, Davis L. Characterization of ocular surface symptoms from optometric practices in North America. Cornea 2001;20:610-18.

 

  1. Bowman RW, Dougherty JM, McCulley JP. Chronic blepharitis and dry eyes. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1987;27:27-35.

 

  1. Bron AJ, Tiffany JM. The contribution of meibomian disease to dry eye. Ocul Surf 2004;2:149-65.

 

  1. Dougherty JM, McCulley JP. Comparative bacteriology of chronic blepharitis. Br J Ophthalmol 1984;68;524-8.

 

  1. Dougherty JM, McCulley JP, Silvany RE, Meyer DR. The role of tetracycline in chronic blepharitis. Inhibition of lipase production in staphylococci. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1991;32:297

 

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  1. Driver PJ, Lemp MA. Meibomian gland dysfunction. Surv Ophthalmol 1996;40:343-67.

 

  1. Asbell PA, Sahm DF, Shedden A. Longitudinal nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance in ocular isolates: Results from ocular TRUST 2006-2009 (#2411). Poster presented at ARVO 2010; May 3, 2010; Fort Lauderdale, FL
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  1. Foulks GN, Borchman D, Yappert CM. Modification of meibomian gland lipids by topical azithromycin. Poster presented at ARVO 2009; May 5, 2009; Fort Lauderdale, FL.
  2. Friedlaender MH, Protzko E. Clinical development of 1% azithromycin in DuraSite, a topical azalide anti-infective for ocular surface therapy. Clin Ophthalmol 2007;1:3-10.

 

  1. Geldis JR, Nichols JJ. The impact of punctal occlusion on soft contact lens wearing comfort and the tear film. Eye Contact Lens 2008;34:261-5.

 

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  1. Nichols KK. Ocular Surface Disease. Presented at the CLAO International Contact Lens Summit 2009; September 24, 2009; Montreal, Canada.
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  1. Papier A, Tuttle DJ, Mahar TJ. Differential diagnosis of the swollen red eyelid. Am Fam Physician 2007;76:1815-24.

 

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  1. Schultz CL, Kunert KS. Interleukin-6 levels in tears of contact lens wearers. J Interferon Cytokine Res 2000;20:309-10.

 

  1. Scoper SV, Kabat AG, Owen GR, Stroman DW, Kabra BP, Faulkner R, Kulshreshtha AK, Rusk C, Bell B, Jamison T, Bernal-Perez LF, Brooks AC, Nguyen VA. Ocular distribution, bactericidal activity and settling characteristics of TobraDex ST ophthalmic suspension compared with TobraDex ophthalmic suspension. Adv Ther 2008;25:77-88.

 

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  1. Sullivan BD, Evans JE, Cermak JM, Krenzer KL, Dana MR, Sullivan DA. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: effect on human meibomian gland secretions. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120:1689-99.

 

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  1. Sullivan BD, Evans JE, Krenzer KL, Reza Dana M, Sullivan DA. Impact of antiandrogen treatment on the fatty acid profile of neutral lipids in human meibomian gland secretions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:4866-73.

 

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(p. 45) Comfortable Contact Lenses: A Case of Mission Impossible? By Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO; Kara Menzies, BSc, MSC; & Lakshman Subbaraman, PhD, BSOptom, MSc, FAAO

 

 

1.         Weed K, Fonn D, Potvin R. Discontinuation of contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci 1993; 70;12s:  140.

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3.         Young G, Veys J, Pritchard N, et al. A multi-centre study of lapsed contact lens wearers. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2002; 22;6:  516-27.

4.            Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, et al. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea 2007; 26;2:  168-74.

5.            Chalmers RL, Hunt C, Hickson-Curran S, et al. Struggle with hydrogel CL wear increases with age in young adults. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2009; 32;3:  113-9.

6.         Nichols JJ, Ziegler C, Mitchell GL, et al. Self-reported dry eye disease across refractive modalities. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005; 46;6:  1911-4.

7.            Dumbleton K, Woods C, Jones L, et al. Patient and practitioner compliance with silicone hydrogel and daily disposable lens replacement in the United States. Eye Contact Lens 2009; 35;4:  164-71.

8.         Richter D, Dumbleton K, Guthrie S, et al. Patient and practitioner compliance with silicone hydrogel and daily disposable lens replacement in Canada. Can J Optom 2010; 72;1:  10-19.

9.         Fonn D. Targeting contact lens induced dryness and discomfort: what properties will make lenses more comfortable. Optom Vis Sci 2007; 84;4:  279-85.

10.       Young G, Holden B, Cooke G. Influence of soft contact lens design on clinical performance. Optom Vis Sci 1993; 70;5:  394-403.

11.            Dumbleton KA, Chalmers RL, McNally J, et al. Effect of lens base curve on subjective comfort and assessment of fit with silicone hydrogel continuous wear contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2002; 79;10:  633 - 637.

12.       Young G, Coleman S. Poorly fitting soft lenses affect ocular integrity. CLAO J 2001; 27;2:  68-74.

13.       Morgan PB, Woods C, Tranoudis I, et al. International contact lens prescribing in 2009. Contact Lens Spectrum 2010; 25;2:  30 - 53.

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16.       Young G, Bowers R, Hall B, et al. Six month clinical evaluation of a biomimetic hydrogel contact lens. CLAO J 1997; 23;4:  226-236.

17.       Hall B, Jones S, Young G, et al. The on-eye dehydration of proclear compatibles lenses. CLAO J 1999; 25;4:  233-7.

18.       Lemp MA, Caffery B, Lebow K, et al. Omafilcon A (Proclear) soft contact lenses in a dry eye population. CLAO J 1999; 25;1:  40-7.

19.       Young G, Bowers R, Hall B, et al. Clinical comparison of Omafilcon A with four control materials. CLAO J 1997; 23;4:  249-258.

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23.            Brennan NA, Efron N, Bruce AS, et al. Dehydration of hydrogel lenses: environmental influences during normal wear. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1988; 65;4:  277-81.

24.            McConville P, Pope JM. Diffusion limited evaporation rates in hydrogel contact lenses. CLAO J 2001; 27;4:  186-91.

25.       Jones L, May C, Nazar L, et al. In vitro evaluation of the dehydration characteristics of silicone hydrogel and conventional hydrogel contact lens materials. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2002; 25;3:  147-56.

26.            Gonzalez-Meijome JM, Lopez-Alemany A, Almeida JB, et al. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of the in vitro dehydration process of hydrogel contact lenses. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2007; 83;2:  512-26.

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32.       Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R. Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a). Eye Contact Lens 2006; 32;6:  281-6.

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37.       Ousler GW, 3rd, Anderson RT, Osborn KE. The effect of senofilcon A contact lenses compared to habitual contact lenses on ocular discomfort during exposure to a controlled adverse environment. Curr Med Res Opin 2008; 24;2:  335-41.

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42.       Valint PL, Jr., Grobe GL, 3rd, Ammon DM, Jr., et al. Plasma surface treatment of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Bausch & Lomb 2001;Patent number 6,193,369.

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44.       Lopez-Alemany A, Compan V, Refojo MF. Porous structure of Purevision versus Focus Night & Day and conventional hydrogel contact lenses. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomat) 2002; 63 319 - 325.

45.            Gonzalez-Meijome JM, Lopez-Alemany A, Almeida JB, et al. Microscopic observation of unworn siloxane-hydrogel soft contact lenses by atomic force microscopy. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2006; 76;2:  412-8.

46.            Teichroeb JH, Forrest JA, Ngai V, et al. Imaging protein deposits on contact lens materials. Optom Vis Sci 2008; 85;12:  1151-64.

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(p. 50) Contact Lens Practice Pearls: Become a Dry Eye Practitioner, By Gregory J. Nixon, OD, FAAO

 

  1. Smith JA, Albeitz J, Begley C et al. The epidemiology of dry eye disease: Report of the Epidemiology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf 2007; 5:93-107.

 

  1. Nichols JJ, Ziegler C, Mithcell GL, Nichols KK.  Self-reported dry eye disease across refractive modalities.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.  2005 Jun;46(6):1911-4

 

  1. Karpecki, P. Inflammation in Dry Eye Disease. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2009; Jul: 32-38.

4.   Lemp, MA, et al. The Definition and Classification of Dry Eye Disease: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Workshop (2007). Ocul Surf 2007; 5:75-92.

 

 

(p. 53) Pediatric and Teen CL Care: A Closer Look at Children’s Blink Rate and Tear Film, By Christine W. Sindt, OD, FAAO

 

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2.   Lawrenson J, Birhah R, Murphy P Thear film lipid layer morphology and corneal sensation in the development of blinking in neonates and infants.  J Anat (2005) 206, pp265-270

 

3.        Doughty MJ, Naase T. Further analysis of the human spontaneous eye blink rate by a cluster analysis-based approach to categorize individuals with ‘normal’ versus ‘frequent’ eye blink activity. Eye Contact Lens 2006;32:294–9.

 

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5.        Isenberg SJ, Del Signore M, Chen A, Wei J, Guillon JP. The lipid layer and stability of the preocular tear film in newborns and infants. Ophthalmology 2003;110:1408–11.

 

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  1. Factors Regulating Eye Blink Rate in Young Infants, Leigh F. Bacher* VOL. 87, NO. 5, PP. 337–343 OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE

 

 

(p. 54) Treatment Plan: Progress in Treating Dry Eye? By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

 

1.      Doughty MJ, Glavin S. Efficacy of different dry eye treatments with artificial tears or ocular lubricants: a systematic review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2009;29:573-83.

 

2.      Lemp MA.  The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007;5:75-92.

 

3.      Gipson IK.  Research in dry eye: report of the Research Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007;5:179-93.

 

4.      Johnson ME, Murphy PJ, Boulton M. Carbomer and sodium hyaluronate eyedrops for moderate dry eye treatment. Optom Vis Sci. 2008;85:750-7.

 

5.       de la Fuente M, Seijo B, Alonso MJ. Novel hyaluronic acid-chitosan nanoparticles for ocular gene therapy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:2016-24.

 

6.       Rolando M, Valente C. Establishing the tolerability  and performance of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) in treating dry eye syndrome: results of a clinical study.  BMC Ophthalmol 2007; 29:7-12.

 

7.      Liu L, Tiffany J, Dang Z, et al. Nourish and nurture: development of a nutrient ocular lubricant. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2932-9.

 

8.       Schrader S, Notara M, Beaconsfield M, Tuft SJ, Daniels JT, Geerling G. Tissue engineering for conjunctival reconstruction: established methods and future outlooks. Curr Eye Res. 2009;34:913-24.

 

9.       Notara M, Alatza A, Gilfillan J, et al. In sickness and in health: Corneal epithelial stem cell biology, pathology and therapy. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:188-95.

 

10.  Levis H, Daniels JT. New technologies in limbal epithelial stem cell transplantation. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2009;20:593-7.