Contact Lens Spectrum

September 2010

Document #178





(p. 14) Research Review: Is Keratoconus Genetic? By Loretta B. Szczotka-Flynn, OD, PhD, MS, FAAO



     (1)   Kenney MC, Brown DJ, Rajeev B. Everett Kinsey lecture. The elusive causes of keratoconus: a working hypothesis. CLAO J 2000 January;26(1):10-3.

     (2)   Yue BY, Sugar J, Benveniste K. Heterogeneity in keratoconus: possible biochemical basis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1984 March;175(3):336-41.

     (3)   Yue BY, Sugar J, Schrode K. Histochemical studies of keratoconus. Curr Eye Res 1988 January;7(1):81-6.

     (4)   Rahi A, Davies P, Ruben M, Lobascher D, Menon J. Keratoconus and coexisting atopic disease. Br J Ophthalmol 1977 December;61(12):761-4.

     (5)   Gasset AR, Hinson WA, Frias JL. Keratoconus and atopic diseases. Ann Ophthalmol 1978 August;10(8):991-4.

     (6)   Harrison RJ, Klouda PT, Easty DL, Manku M, Charles J, Stewart CM. Association between keratoconus and atopy. Br J Ophthalmol 1989 October;73(10):816-22.

     (7)   Ihalainen A. Clinical and epidemiological features of keratoconus genetic and external factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. Acta Ophthalmol Suppl 1986;178:1-64.

     (8)   RIDLEY F. The role of contact lenses and shells. Proc R Soc Med 1961 February;54:110-1.

     (9)   Bawazeer AM, Hodge WG, Lorimer B. Atopy and keratoconus: a multivariate analysis. Br J Ophthalmol 2000 August;84(8):834-6.

   (10)   Macsai MS, Varley GA, Krachmer JH. Development of keratoconus after contact lens wear. Patient characteristics. Arch Ophthalmol 1990 April;108(4):534-8.

   (11)   Edwards M, McGhee CN, Dean S. The genetics of keratoconus. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2001 December;29(6):345-51.

   (12)   Rabinowitz YS, Maumenee IH, Lundergan MK et al. Molecular genetic analysis in autosomal dominant keratoconus. Cornea 1992 July;11(4):302-8.

   (13)   Rabinowitz YS. The genetics of keratoconus. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 2003 December;16(4):607-20, vii.

   (14)   Kennedy RH, Bourne WM, Dyer JA. A 48-year clinical and epidemiologic study of keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 1986 March 15;101(3):267-73.

   (15)   Kennedy RH, Bourne WM, Dyer JA. A 48-year clinical and epidemiologic study of keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 1986 March 15;101(3):267-73.

   (16)   Nielsen K, Hjortdal J, Aagaard NE, Ehlers N. Incidence and prevalence of keratoconus in Denmark. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2007 December;85(8):890-2.

   (17)   Georgiou T, Funnell CL, Cassels-Brown A, O'Conor R. Influence of ethnic origin on the incidence of keratoconus and associated atopic disease in Asians and white patients. Eye 2004 April;18(4):379-83.

   (18)   Owens H, Gamble G. A profile of keratoconus in New Zealand. Cornea 2003 March;22(2):122-5.

   (19)   Wang Y, Rabinowitz YS, Rotter JI, Yang H. Genetic epidemiological study of keratoconus: evidence for major gene determination. Am J Med Genet 2000 August 28;93(5):403-9.

   (20)   Szczotka-Flynn L, Slaughter M, McMahon T et al. Disease Severity and Family History in Keratoconus. British Journal of Ophthalmology. In press 2008.

   (21)   Owens H, Gamble G. A profile of keratoconus in New Zealand. Cornea 2003 March;22(2):122-5.

   (22)   Al-Swailem SA, Al-Assiri AA, Al-Torbak AA. Woodhouse Sakati syndrome associated with bilateral keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 January;90(1):116-7.

   (23)   Shapiro MB, France TD. The ocular features of Down's syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1985 June 15;99(6):659-63.

   (24)   van Allen MI, Fung J, Jurenka SB. Health care concerns and guidelines for adults with Down syndrome. Am J Med Genet 1999 June 25;89(2):100-10.

   (25)   Tyynismaa H, Sistonen P, Tuupanen S et al. A locus for autosomal dominant keratoconus: linkage to 16q22.3-q23.1 in Finnish families. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002 October;43(10):3160-4.

   (26)   Brancati F, Valente EM, Sarkozy A et al. A locus for autosomal dominant keratoconus maps to human chromosome 3p14-q13. J Med Genet 2004 March;41(3):188-92.

   (27)   Hutchings H, Ginisty H, Le GM et al. Identification of a new locus for isolated familial keratoconus at 2p24. J Med Genet 2005 January;42(1):88-94.

   (28)   Heon E, Greenberg A, Kopp KK et al. VSX1: a gene for posterior polymorphous dystrophy and keratoconus. Hum Mol Genet 2002 May 1;11(9):1029-36.

   (29)   Bisceglia L, Ciaschetti M, De BP et al. VSX1 mutational analysis in a series of Italian patients affected by keratoconus: detection of a novel mutation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005 January;46(1):39-45.

   (30)   Mok JW, Baek SJ, Joo CK. VSX1 gene variants are associated with keratoconus in unrelated Korean patients. J Hum Genet 2008;53(9):842-9.

   (31)   Aldave AJ, Yellore VS, Salem AK et al. No VSX1 gene mutations associated with keratoconus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006 July;47(7):2820-2.

   (32)   Tang Y, Picornell Y, Li X, Rabinowitz Y. VSX1 Gene: Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (L159M, R166W and H244R) are not associated with keratoconus. 2006.

   (33)   Ferrini W, Willoughby C, Walter M, Heon E. Identification of a potential Keratoconus/PPCD Locus on 6p25. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46, E-abstract 4935. 2005.
Ref Type: Abstract

   (34)   Gajecka M, Winters D, Molinari A et al. Linkage Studies in an Ecuadorian Population with Keratoconus Exclude Known Loci. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46, E-abstract 4956. 2005.
Ref Type: Abstract

   (35)   Mok J, Kim H, Joo C. A Genetic Screening of VSX1 in Korean Patients with Keratoconus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48, E-abstract 1331. 2007.
Ref Type: Abstract

   (36)   Quinones-Emmert, Rivera D, Suarez R, Zenteno J. Molecular Screening of the VSX1, SOD1, and AQP5 Genes in Patients with Familial and Sporadic Keratoconus and Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48, E-abstract 1847. 2007.
Ref Type: Abstract

   (37)   Liskova P, Ebenezer ND, Hysi PG et al. Molecular analysis of the VSX1 gene in familial keratoconus. Mol Vis 2007;13:1887-91.

   (38)   Stabuc-Silih M, Strazisar M, Hawlina M, Glavac D. Absence of Pathogenic Mutations in VSX1 and SOD1 Genes in Patients With Keratoconus. Cornea 2009 December 17.

   (39)   Hosseini SM, Herd S, Vincent AL, Heon E. Genetic analysis of chromosome 20-related posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: genetic heterogeneity and exclusion of three candidate genes. Mol Vis 2008;14:71-80.

   (40)   Hughes AE, Dash DP, Jackson AJ, Frazer DG, Silvestri G. Familial keratoconus with cataract: linkage to the long arm of chromosome 15 and exclusion of candidate genes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003 December;44(12):5063-6.

   (41)   Blumenthal MN, Langefeld CD, Barnes KC et al. A genome-wide search for quantitative trait loci contributing to variation in seasonal pollen reactivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006 January;117(1):79-85.

   (42)   Ferreira MA, O'Gorman L, Le SP et al. Robust estimation of experimentwise P values applied to a genome scan of multiple asthma traits identifies a new region of significant linkage on chromosome 20q13. Am J Hum Genet 2005 December;77(6):1075-85.

   (43)   Kurz T, Altmueller J, Strauch K et al. A genome-wide screen on the genetics of atopy in a multiethnic European population reveals a major atopy locus on chromosome 3q21.3. Allergy 2005 February;60(2):192-9.

   (44)   Blumenthal MN, Langefeld CD, Beaty TH et al. A genome-wide search for allergic response (atopy) genes in three ethnic groups: Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma. Hum Genet 2004 January;114(2):157-64.

   (45)   Hakonarson H, Halapi E. Genetic analyses in asthma: current concepts and future directions. Am J Pharmacogenomics 2002;2(3):155-66.

   (46)   Hakonarson H, Bjornsdottir US, Halapi E et al. A major susceptibility gene for asthma maps to chromosome 14q24. Am J Hum Genet 2002 September;71(3):483-91.

   (47)   Haagerup A, Bjerke T, Schiotz PO, Binderup HG, Dahl R, Kruse TA. Asthma and atopy - a total genome scan for susceptibility genes. Allergy 2002 August;57(8):680-6.

   (48)   Haagerup A, Bjerke T, Schoitz PO, Binderup HG, Dahl R, Kruse TA. Allergic rhinitis--a total genome-scan for susceptibility genes suggests a locus on chromosome 4q24-q27. Eur J Hum Genet 2001 December;9(12):945-52.

   (49)   Laitinen T, Daly MJ, Rioux JD et al. A susceptibility locus for asthma-related traits on chromosome 7 revealed by genome-wide scan in a founder population. Nat Genet 2001 May;28(1):87-91.

   (50)   Enerback C, Holmqvist D, Inerot A et al. Cytogenetic analysis of 477 psoriatics revealed an increased frequency of aberrations involving chromosome region 11q. Eur J Hum Genet 1999 April;7(3):339-44.

   (51)   Wiltshire S, Bhattacharyya S, Faux JA et al. A genome scan for loci influencing total serum immunoglobulin levels: possible linkage of IgA to the chromosome 13 atopy locus. Hum Mol Genet 1998 January;7(1):27-31.

   (52)   Rahi A, Davies P, Ruben M, Lobascher D, Menon J. Keratoconus and coexisting atopic disease. Br J Ophthalmol 1977 December;61(12):761-4.

   (53)   Gasset AR, Hinson WA, Frias JL. Keratoconus and atopic diseases. Ann Ophthalmol 1978 August;10(8):991-4.

   (54)   Harrison RJ, Klouda PT, Easty DL, Manku M, Charles J, Stewart CM. Association between keratoconus and atopy. Br J Ophthalmol 1989 October;73(10):816-22.




(p. 20) Contact Lens Design & Materials: The Year in Silicone Hydrogels, By Neil Pence, OD, FAAO


  1. Sheardown H, Liu L.  Embedded wetting agent release from 1-Day Acuvue TruEye lenses. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009; 50;5: E-abstact 5654.
  2. Morgan P, Chanberlain P, et al. A daily disposable silicone hydrogel contact lens in neophyte wearers. Optom. Vis. Sci. 2009; 85; E-abstract 095814.



(p. 21) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: An Easier Way to View Lissamine Green Staining, By Milton M. Hom, OD, FAAO


1.     Hom MM  Fluorescein and lissamine green conjunctival staining in silicone hydrogel wearers. ARVO 2008 #5298/D740


  1. Korb DR, Herman JP, Finnemore VM. et al. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice. 34(1):61-64, January 2008.



(p. 24) Choosing the Right Toric Option, By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO


1.     Snyder C, Talley DK, Masking of astigmatism with selected spherical soft contact lenses, J Am Optom Assoc 1989;60(10):728-731.

2.     Richdale K, et al. Visual acuity with spherical and toric soft contact lenses in low-to-moderate astigmatic eyes, Optom Vis Science, 2007; 84(10):969-975.

3.     Bayer and Young, Fitting low astigmats with toric soft contact lenses-what are the benefits and how easily it is achieved?, Am. Academy of Optom. Scientific Poster, December 2005.

4.     CooperVision data on file.

5.     Linksz A, Determination of axis and amount of astigmatic error by rotation of trial cylinder.  Arch Opththalmol 1942;28:632-651.

6.     Brennen, NA.  Corneal oxygenation during toric contact lens wear. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, Poster #73, October 22, 2008.

7.     Jones L, May C, et al., In vitro evaluation of the dehydration characteristics of silicone-hydrogel and conventional hydrogel contact lens materials. Contact Lens & Ant Eye 2002; 25;147-156.

8.     Morgan PB, Efron N, In vivo dehydration of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens, 2003;29(3):173-176.

9.     Bergenske P, Correcting astigmatism: more or less.  Contact Lens Spectrum 2003;18(6):21.

10. Michaud L, et al, Optometry, 2009;80:375-383.

11. Harris MG, Chu CS, The effect of contact lens thickness and corneal toricity on flexure and residual astigmatism, Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1972;49:304-307.

12. Sarver MD, A toric base corneal contact lens with a spherical power effect. J Am Optom Assoc  year ??? 34 (14):1136-1137.

13. Quinn, TG, Guarding against RGP toric rotation, Contact Lens Spectrum 1999;14(8):19.

  1. Herman JP.  Flexure of rigid contact lenses on toric corneas as a function of base curve fitting relationship. J Am Optom Assoc 1983;54(3):209-213.
  2. Szczotka-Flynn L. GP problem solving: a material matter. Contact Lens Spectrum 2005:20(10).


(p. 30) The Technology Behind Refractive Surgery, By Marc Bloomenstein, OD, FAAO


1.Optometric Council on Refractive Technology. Available at: (Accessed December 2009).

2. Hom MM. Use of cyclosporine 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion

for contact lens-intolerant patients. Eye Contact Lens. 2006

March;32(2): 109-11.

3. Ta CN, Shine WE, McCulley JP, et al. Effects of minocycline

on the ocular flora of patients with acne rosacea or seborrheic

blepharitis. Cornea. 2003 Aug;22(6):545-8.

4. Akhyani M, Ehsani AH, Ghiasi M, Jafari AK. Comparison

of efficacy of azithromycin vs. doxycycline in the treatment

of rosacea: a randomized open clinical trial. Int J Dermatol.


5. Consumer Reports. Health Blog: Considering LASIK?

Watch for Our Upcoming Report. Available at: http://blogs.

getting-the-best-price-for-lasik-survey.html (Accessed

December 2009).

6. Ruiz LA, Cepeda L, Fuentes V. Intrastromal correction of

presbyopia with a femtosecond laser system. J Refract Surg.


7. Abbott Medical Optics. TECNIS Multifocal Foldable Acrylic

Intraocular Lens package insert.

8. Foulks, GN, Borchman, D, Yappert, CM, “Modification of Meibomian Gland Lipids by Azithromycin”, ARVO, 2009

9. Zhou, N, Ma, P, Li, DQ, Pflugfelder, SC, “Azithromycin suppresses pro-inflammatory mediators inducd by TLR2 ligand zymosan in human corneal epithelial cells”, ARVO, 200 9



(p. 36) A New Era of Specialty Soft Contact Lens Fitting, By Timothy O. Koch, COT, FCLSA


1.      Alvord L, Court J, Davis T, Morgan C, Schindhelm K, Vogt J, Winterton L. Oxygen permeability of a new type of high Dk soft contact lens material. Optom Vis Sci 1998;75:30-6.

2.      Tighe B. Contact lens materials. In: Phillips AJ, Speedwell S, eds. Contact Lenses. London:  Butterworth Heinemann; 2007:59-78.

3.      Dumbleton K, Jones L: Extended and continuous wear. In: Bennett E, Henry V, eds. Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008:410-3

4.      Papas EB, Vajdic CM, Austen R, et al. High-oxygen-transmissibility soft contact lenses do not induce limbal hyperaemia. Curr Eye Res 1997; 16:942-8.

5.      Fonn D, MacDonald KE, Richter D, et al. The ocular response to extended wear of a high Dk silicone hydrogel contact lens. Clin Exp Optom 2002; 85:176-82

6.      Stern J, Wong R, Naduvlilath TJ, et al. Comparison of the performance of 6- or 30-night extended wear schedules with silicone hydrogel lenses over 3 years. Optom Vis Sci 2004; 81:398-406.

7.      Dumbleton K, Keir N, Moezzi A, Yunwei F, Jones L, Fonn D. Objective and subjective responses in patients refitted to daily-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2006; 83:758-768

8.      Malet F, Pagot R, Peyre C, Subirana X, Lejeune S, George-Vicariot M-N, Bleshoy H, Long B. Clinical results comparing high-oxygen and low-oxygen permeable soft contact lenses in France. Eye Contact Lens 2003;29:50-54.

9.      Long B, McNally J. The clinical performance of a silicone hydrogel lens for daily wear in an Asian population. Eye Contact Lens. 2006;32:65-71.

10.  Fonn D, Dumbleton, K. Dryness and discomfort with silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2003; 29:S101-S104.

11.  Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R. Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon A). Eye Contact Lens 2006; 32:281-286.

12.  Morgan PB, Woods CA, Tranoudis I Efron N, Knajian R, Grupcheva CN, Jones D, Tan K, Pesinova A, Grein H-J, Ravn O, Santodomingo J, Vodnyanszky E, Montani G, Itoi M, Bendoriene J, van der Worp E, Helland M, Phillips G, González-Méijome JM, Radu S, Belousov V, Silih MS, Hsiao JC, Nichols JJ. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2008. Contact Lens Spectrum;2009:24;2:28-32.

13.  Koch TO, Smidt E, Clamp J, van der Worp E. Evaluation of a New Lathable Silicone Hydrogel Materials with the Ability to Manufacture Custom Made Contact Lenses for Specialty Lens Fits. Global Specialty Lens Symposium Poster SP41.




(p. 40) Making the Move to Silicone Hydrogels, By Timothy Giles, OD, MBA, FBCLA, FIACLE; Anne Austin Thompson, MS, OD; S. Barry Eiden, OD, FAAO; & Kelly Kerksick, OD


1.      1.   Newton, I.  Principia. 1687. Translation by Motte, A. 1846. New York. Adee D.

2.      Bergenske P, et al. Long-term clinical results:  3 Years of up to 30-night continuous wear of lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel and daily wear of low-Dk/t hydrogel lenses.  Eye & Contact Lens. 2007; 33(2):74-80.

3.      Stern J, et al. Comparison of the performance of 6-or 30-night extended wear schedules with silicone hydrogel lenses over 3 years.  Optom Vis Sci. 2004; 81(6):398-406.

4.      Efron N, Morgan P.  Trends in the use of silicone hydrogel contact lenses for daily wear. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye. 2008; 31:242-243.

5.      Dumbleton K, et al. Objective and subjective responses in patients refitted to daily-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006;83(10):758-768.

6.      Chalmers RL, et al. Improving contact-lens related dryness symptoms with silicone hydrogel lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2008;85(8):778-784.

7.      Jones L, et al.  Lysozyme and lipid deposition on silicone hydrogel contact lens materials.  Eye & Contact Lens. 2003;29(1suppl):S75-79.

8.      Morgan P, et al. International contact lens prescribing in 2008. CL Spectrum.  2009; 24(2) 28-32

9.      Data from Contact Lens Institute in Full Year 2008 report

10.  Sweeney DF.  Corneal exhaustion syndrome with long-term wear of contact lenses.  Optom Vis Sci. 1992;69(8):601-608.

11.  Holden B, et al.  The future of contact lenses: Dk really matters. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2006; Sp. Ed.;20-28

12.  Brennan NA.  Beyond flux:  total corneal oxygen consumption as an index of corneal oxygenation during contact lens wear.  Optom Vis Sci.  2005;82(6):467-472.

13.  Papas E.  On the relationship between soft contact lens oxygen transmissibility and induced limbal hyperaemia.  Exp Eye Res.  1998;67:125-131.

14.  Alvord L, et al.  Corneal oxygen distribution with contact lens wear. Cornea. 2007;26(6):654-664

15.  Bonanno J, et al. Tear oxygen under hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses in humans.  Optom Vis Sci. 2009;86(8):936-942

16.  Stapleton F, et al. Silicone hydrogel lenses and the ocular surface. The Ocular Surface. 2006;1:24-43.

17.  Mueller N, et al. A comparison of overnight swelling response with two high Dk silicone hydrogels. Optom Vis Sci. 2001;78(125)199

18.  Moezzi  A, et al.  Distribution of overnight central corneal swelling with high powered silicone hydrogel lenses.  [AAO Abstract, 2009]

19.  Chalmers, R.  The Role of Silicone Hydrogel Lenses in Patient Comfort. Contact Lens Spectrum.  April 2009:16

20.  McConville P.  Limitations of In Vitro Contact Lens Dehydration/Rehydration Data in Predicting On-Eye Dehydration.  CLAO Journal. 1997. 23(2): 117-121.

21.  Kerr J. Silicone hydrogels – Managing change. Did you miss the boat? March 2007. [Cited 2009 Nov 02] Available from:

22.  Schein O, et al. The incidence of microbial keratitis among wearers of a 30-day silicone hydrogel extended-wear contact lens. Ophthalmology. 2005;12(112):2172-2179

23.  Keay L, et al. Microcyst response to high Dk/t silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2000;77(11):582-585.

24.   Carney FP, et al. The adsorption of major tear film lipids in vitro to various silicone hydrogels over time. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(1):120-124

25.  Jones L, et al.  Asymptomatic corneal staining associated with the use of balafilcon silicone-hydrogel contact lenses disinfected with a polyamiopropyl biguanide-preserved care regimen. Optom Vis Sc.i 2002; 79(12):753-761

26.  Diec J, et al.  Solution induced corneal staining: a comparison of peroxide and multipurpose solutions with silicone hydrogel lenses. [AAO Abstract 2009]

27.  Szczotka-Flynn L. et al.  Risk of corneal inflammatory events with silicone hydrogel and low Dk hydrogel extended contact lens wear:  A meta-analysis.  Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84(4):247-256.

28.  Medina J.  Brain Rules – 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School.  April 2009, Pear Press / Perseus Books Group.



(p. 50) Pediatric and Teen CL Care: The Circle Lens Craze, By Christine W. Sindt, OD, FAAO


1.   Young G, Coleman S. Poorly fitting soft lenses affect ocular integrity. CLAO J. 2001 Apr;27(2):68-74.


2.   Saviola JF. Contact lens safety and the FDA: 1976 to the present. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 Nov;33(6 Pt 2):404-9; discussion 410-1.


  1. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden BA. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct;115(10):1655-62. Epub 2008 Jun 5.


  1. Fogel J, Zidile C. Contact lenses purchased over the internet place individuals potentially at risk for harmful eye care practices. Optometry. 2008 Jan;79(1):23-35.




(p. 52) Treatment Plan: Working to Prevent Age-Related Macular Degeneration, By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO


1.  Accessed July 14, 2010. 

2. Chu J., et al. Chin. Med. J. (Engl). 2008; 121, 2525–2533.

3. Francis P. J., et al. Hum. Hered. 2007 63, 212–218.

4. Hughes A. E., et al. 2007 PLoS Med. 4, e355.

5. Mori K., Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007 48, 5315–5319.

6. Neuner B.,et al. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2007; 15, 148–154.

7. Schmidt S, et al. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2006 ;78, 852–864.

8. Schaumberg D. A., et al.  Arch. Ophthalmol. 2007; 125, 55–62.

9.  Accessed July 14, 2010. 

10. Ferris FL, et al. A simplified severity scale for age-related macular degeneration: AREDS Report No. 18. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:1570-4.

11.  Accessed July 14, 2010. 

12. SanGiovanni JP , et al. The Relationship of Dietary -3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake With Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126(9):1274-1279.

13. AREDSRG Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121: 1621-24. 



(p. 56) Contact Lens Case Reports: Scleral Shape Revisited, By Patrick J. Caroline, FAAO, & Mark P. André, FAAO


Please e-mail for references.