Contact Lens Spectrum

March 2011

Document #184





(p. 12) 25th Anniversary Perspective: The Last 25 Years of Soft Lenses, By Brien Holden, PhD, DSc, OAM, FAAO, & Desmond Fonn, MOptom, FAAO


1. Wichterle O. Section 1 Historical Development: The beginning of the soft lens. Soft Contact Lenses: Clinical and Applied Technology. Ed. Montague Ruben. Bailliere Tindall London, 1978.

2. Bailey IL, Carney LG. Corneal changes from hydrophilic contact lenses. Am J Optom & Arch Am Acad Optom 50(4) 299-304, 1973.

3. Polse KA, Sarver MD, Harris MG. Corneal edema and vertical striae accompanying the wearing of hydrogel lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Optics 52:185-191, 1975.

4. Weissman BA, Mondino BJ, M.D., Pettit TH, Hofbauer JD. Corneal ulcers associated with extended-wear soft contact lenses. J Am Ophthalmol 97:476-481, 1984.

5. US 7,025,460 B2 Smith EL, Greeman N, Ho A, Holden BA. Methods and apparatuses for altering relative curvature of field and positions of peripheral off-axis focal positions. 2006.



(p. 14) Research Review: Contact Lens Noncompliance: It’s Only Human, By Eric Papas, PhD, MCOptom, DipCL, FAAO


Bui, T. H., H. D. Cavanagh, et al. (2010). "Patient compliance during contact lens wear: Perceptions, awareness, and behavior." Eye and Contact Lens 36(6): 334-339.

Carnt, N., L. Keay, et al. (2010). "Higher risk taking propensity of contact lens wearers is associated with less compliance." Contact Lens and Anterior Eye doi:10.1016/j.clae.2010.10.004.

Cho, P. and M. Boost (2009). "Rivers and mountains may change, human nature does not! (traditional Chinese saying)." Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 32(4): 155-156.

Dumbleton, K., C. Woods, et al. (2009). "Patient and practitioner compliance with silicone hydrogel and daily disposable lens replacement in the United States." Eye and Contact Lens 35(4): 164-171.

Dumbleton, K., C. Woods, et al. (2010). "Comfort and vision with silicone hydrogel lenses: Effect of compliance." Optometry and Vision Science 87(6): 421-425.

Najjar, D. M., S. G. Aktan, et al. (2004). "Contact lens-related corneal ulcers in compliant patients." American Journal of Ophthalmology 137(1): 170-172.

Wu, Y., N. Carnt, et al. (2010). "Contact lens and lens storage case cleaning instructions: whose advice should we follow?" Eye Contact Lens 36(2): 68-72.

Yeung, K. K., J. F. Y. Forister, et al. (2010). "Compliance with soft contact lens replacement schedules and associated contact lens-related ocular complications: The UCLA Contact Lens Study." Optometry (St Louis, Mo ) 81(11): 598-607.

Yung, A. M., M. V. Boost, et al. (2007). "The effect of a compliance enhancement strategy (self-review) on the level of lens care compliance and contamination of contact lenses and lens care accessories." Clinical & Experimental Optometry 90(3): 190-202.





(p. 18) GP Insights: Strategies for Decreasing the Impact of Scleral Lens Debris, By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO


Breece, Rob.  Email correspondence 2009.


Visser, ES. Visser, R. van Lier, JJ. Otten, HM. Modern Scleral Lenses Part II: Patient Satisfaction. Eye & Contact Lens 2007; 33(1): 21-25.




(p. 21) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: The Environment Surrounding Dry Eye, By Charles W. Ficco, OD


  1. Census Bureau. International database. Table 094. Midyear population, by age and sex. Available at
  2. Karpecki P, Devries D. Dry Eye Disease in Optometric Practice: Clinical Diagnosis, Patient Management, and Practice Integration. CE supplement sponsored by SUNY and Candeo Clinical Science Communications, LLC. 2009
  3. Lemp, M, et. al. The Definition and Classification of Dry Eye Disease: Report of the Definition and classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Work Shop (2007). The Ocular Surface. April 2007;5(2):75-92.
  5. Schaumberg DA, Dana R, Buring JE, Sullivan DA. Prevalence of dry eye disease among US men: estimates from the Physician’s Health Studies. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(6):763-768.
  6. Olson MC, Korb D, Grenier J. Increase in Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness Following Treatment with Warm Compresses in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Eye & Contact Lens. 2003;29(2):96-99.



(p. 23) Contact Lens Care & Compliance: Defenses Against MK, By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO


Bacterial Communication and Microbial Keratitis presented at Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Ward, MA , Las Vegas, January 2011


Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens storage cases.T B Gray

, R T Cursons, J F Sherwan and P R Rose Br J Ophthalmol 1995;79:601-605 doi:10.1136/bjo.79.6.601


Microwave treatment of contact lens cases contaminated with acanthamoeba.

Hiti K, Walochnik J, Faschinger C, Haller-Schober EM, Aspöck H. Cornea. 2001 Jul;20(5):467-70.




Contact Lens Case Contamination During Daily Wear of Silicone Hydrogels

Willcox, Mark D. P.; Carnt, Nicole; Diec, Jennie; Naduvilath, Thomas; Evans, Vicki; Stapleton, Fiona; Iskandar, Shamil; Harmis, Najat; de la Jara, Percy Lazon; Holden, Brien A.Optometry & Vision Science. 87(7):456-464, July 2010.


Incidence of contact-lens­associated microbial keratitis and its related morbidity. Cheng KH, et al.  Lancet July 17, 1999;354:181-5


Incidence and risk factors for microbial keratitis in Hong Kong: comparison with Europe and North America

D S C Lam1, E Houang2, D S P Fan1, D Lyon2, D Seal3 and E Wong4 the Hong Kong Microbial Keratitis Study Group Eye (2002) 16, 608–618.




(p. 30) Managing Corneal Dystrophies With Lenses, By Long D. Tran, OD, FAAO


1.      Amos D. The use of soft bandage lenses in corneal disease. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1975;52:524-533.


2.      Aquavella JV. New aspects of contact lenses in ophthalmology. Adv Ophthalmol 1976;32:2-34.


3.      Karlgard CC, Jones LW, Moresoli C. Ciprofloxacin interaction with silicon-based and conventional hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens 2003;29(2):83-9.

4.     Holden BA, Stephenson A, Stretton S, Sankaridurg PR, O'Hare N, Jalbert I, Sweeney DF. Superior epithelial arcuate lesions with soft contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2001;78(1):9-12.


5.      Weiss JS, Møller HU, Lisch W, Kinoshita S, Aldave AJ, Belin MW, Kivelä T, Busin M, Munier FL, Seitz B, Sutphin J, Bredrup C, Mannis MJ, Rapuano CJ, Van Rij G, Kim EK, Klintworth GK. The IC3d classification of the corneal dystrophies. Cornea 2008 Dec;27 supple 2:S1-83.


6.      Bennett ES, Tam C, Schnider CM, Grohe RM, Singh R. Gas-Permeable Extended Wear. In: Bennett ES, Weissman BA, editors. Clinical Contact Lens Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. 35:687.


7.      Rosenthal P, Cotter JM, Baum J. Treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defect with extended wear of a fluid-ventilated gas-permeable scleral contact lens. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;130(1):33-41.


8.      Visser ES, Visser R, van Lier HJ, Otten HM. Modern scleral lenses part II: patient satisfaction. Eye Contact Lens. 2007;33(1):21-5.


9.      Centre for Contact Lens Research (CCLR) and the Vision Cooperative Research Centre [Internet]. Waterloo (CA); 2007 October [Table 1], Editorial – Why is modulus important?; [cited 2011 Jan 7]; [about 2 screens]. Available from:




(p. 34) Case Closed: A Review of Contact Lens Case Care, By Nicole Olboeter, BSc, & Sibylle Scholtz, PhD


1        Dart JK, Stapleton F, Minassian D. Contact lenses and other risk factors in microbial keratitis. Lancet 1991;338:650-653.

2        Das S, Sheoreym H, Taylor HR, et al. Association between cultures of contact lens and corneal scraping in contact lens related microbial keratitis. Arch Ophthalmol 2007;125:1182-1185.

3        Martins EN, Farah ME, Alvarenga LS, et al. Infectious keratitis: correlation between corneal and contact lens cultures. CLAO J. 2002 Jul;28(3):146-8.

4        Mela EK, Giannelou IP, Koliopoulos JX, et al. Ulcerative keratitis in contact lens wearers. Eye Contact Lens. 2003 Oct;29(4):207-9.

5    Poggio EC, Glynn RJ, Schein OD, et al. The incidence of ulcerative keratitis among users of daily-wear and extended-wear soft contact lenses. N Engl J Med 1989;321:779–83.

6    Cheng KH, Leung SL, Hoekman HW, Incidence of contact-lens-associated microbial

keratitis and its related morbidity. Lancet 1999;354:181–5.

7    Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, et al.The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology 2008;115:1655–62.

8    Bates AK, Morris RJ, Stapleton F, et al.‘Sterile’ corneal infiltrates in contact lens wearers. Eye 1989;3(Pt 6):803–10.

9    Gray TB, Cursons RT, Sherwan JF. Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens storage cases. Br J Ophthalmol. 1995 Jun;79(6):601-5.

10  Pens CJ, da Costa M, Fadanelli C, et al. Acanthamoeba spp. and bacterial contamination in contact lens storage cases and the relationship to user profiles. Parasitol Res. 2008 Nov;103(6):1241-5.

11  Devonshire P, Munro FA, Abernethy C,et al. Microbial contamination of contact lens cases in the west of Scotland. Br J Ophthalmol. 1993 Jan;77(1):41-5.

12  Larkin DF, Kilvington S, Easty DL. Contamination of contact lens storage cases by Acanthamoeba and bacteria. Br J Ophthalmol. 1990 Mar;74(3):133-5.

13  Fleiszig SM, Efron N. Microbial flora in eyes of current and former contact lens wearers. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 May;30(5):1156-61.

14  Boost MV, Cho P. Microbial flora of tears of orthokeratology patients, and microbial contamination of contact lenses and contact lens accessories. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Jun;82(6):451-8.

15  Simmons PA, Edrington TB, Hsieh L, et al. Bacterial contamination rate of soft contact lens cases. Int Contact Lens Clin 1991;18:188-191

16  Yung MS, Boost M, Cho P, et al. Microbial contamination of contact lenses and lens care accessories of soft contact lens wearers (university students) in Hong Kong. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2007 Jan;27(1):11-21.

17  Jeong HJ, Yu HS. The role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2005;43:47-50

18  Lee SM, Choi YJ, Chung DI. Contamination of Acanthamoeba in contact lens care system. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 1997;38:756-761.

19  Clark BJ, Harkins LS, Munro FA, et al. Microbial contamination of cases used for storing contact lenses. J Infect. 1994 May;28(3):293-304.

20  Zhang S, Ahearn DG, Noble-Wang JA, et al. Growth and survival of Fusarium solani-F. oxysporum complex on stressed multipurpose contact lens care solution films on plastic surfaces in situ and in vitro. Cornea. 2006 Dec;25(10):1210-6.

21  Boost M, Cho P, Lai S, et al. Detection of acanthamoeba in tap water and contact lens cases using polymerase chain reaction. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Jul;85(7):526-30.

22  Ahearn DG, Zhang S, Stulting RD, et al. Fusarium keratitis and contact lens wear: facts and speculations. Med Mycol. 2008 Aug;46(5):397-410.

23  Margolis TP, Whitcher JP. Fusarium--A new culprit in the contact lens case. JAMA. 2006 Aug 23;296(8):985-7.

24  Chalupa E, Swarbrick HA, Holden BA, Severe corneal infections associated with contact lens wear. Ophthalmology. 1987 Jan;94(1):17-22.

25  Stapleton F, Dart J. Pseudomonas keratitis associated with biofilm formation on a disposable soft contact lens. Br J Ophthalmol. 1995 Sep;79(9):864-5.

26  Mc Laughlin-Borlace L, Stapleton F, Matheson M, et al. Bacterial biofilm on contact lenses and lens storage cases in wearers with microbial keratitis. J Appl Microbiol 1998;84:827-838

27  Illingworth CD, Cook SD. Acanthamoeba keratitis. Surv Ophthalmol. 1998 May-Jun;42(6):493-508.

28  Lorenzo-Morales J, Monteverde-Miranda CA, Jiménez C, et al. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba isolates from environmental sources in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2005;12(2):233-6.

29  Seal D, Stapleton F, Dart J. Possible environmental sources of Acanthamoeba spp in contact lens wearers. Br J Ophthalmol. 1992 Jul;76(7):424-7.

30  Page FC. Re-definition of the genus Acanthamoeba with descriptions of three species. J Protozool. 1967 Nov;14(4):709-24.

31  Alfonso EC, Cantu-Dibildox J, Munir WM, et al. Insurgence of Fusarium keratitis associated with contact lens wear. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;124(7):941-7.

32  Thomas PA. Current perspectives on ophthalmic mycoses. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003 Oct;16(4):730-97.

33  Ma SK, So K, Chung PH, A multi-country outbreak of fungal keratitis associated with a brand of contact lens solution: the Hong Kong experience. Int J Infect Dis. 2009 Jul;13(4):443-8. Epub 2008 Nov 18.

34  Costerton JW, Cheng KJ, Geesey GG, et al. Bacterial biofilms in nature and disease. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1987;41:435-64.

35  Dart J. The inside story: why contact lens cases become contaminated. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 1997;20(4):113-8.

36  Larragoiti ND, Diamos ME, Simmons PA, et al. A comparative study of techniques for decreasing contact lens storage case contamination. J Am Optom Assoc. 1994 Mar;65(3):161-3.

37  Seal DV, Dalton A, Doris D. Disinfection of contact lenses without tap water rinsing: is it effective? Eye (Lond). 1999 Apr;13 ( Pt 2):226-30.

38  Wu Y, Carnt N, Willcox M, Contact lens and lens storage case cleaning instructions: whose advice should we follow? Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Mar;36(2):68-72.

39  Mayo MS, Schlitzer RL, Ward MA, et al. Association of Pseudomonas and Serratia corneal ulcers with use of contaminated solutions. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Aug;25(8):1398-400.

40  Radford CF, Woodward EG, Stapleton F. Contact lens hygiene compliance in a University population. J Br Contact Lens Assoc 1993;16:105-111.

41  Czichos, J., What´s so funny about Microbiology?, Czichos Selbstverlag, 1. Auflage, 1987 (by Science Tech Publishers, Inc., Madison

42 ucm064695.htm

43 HomeHealthandConsumer/ConsumerProducts/ContactLenses/ucm062584.htm

44  -Amendment statements by Authors





(p. 38) Improving the Quality of Our Patients’ Vision: Aspheric Lens Designs, By Kathryn Richdale, OD, MS, FAAO


Allen, R. J., G. M. Saleh, et al. (2008). "Glare and halo with refractive correction." Clin Exp Optom 91(2): 156-160.

Charman, W. N. (1991). "Wavefront aberration of the eye: a review." Optom Vis Sci 68(8): 574-583.

Dietze, H. H. and M. J. Cox (2004). "Correcting ocular spherical aberration with soft contact lenses." J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 21(4): 473-485.

Kershner, R. M. (2003). "Retinal image contrast and functional visual performance with aspheric, silicone, and acrylic intraocular lenses. Prospective evaluation." J Cataract Refract Surg 29(9): 1684-1694.

Kolbaum, P. and A. Bradley (2005). "Aspheric Contact Lenses: Fact and Fiction." Contact Lens Spectrum(March).

Lindskoog Pettersson, A., C. Jarko, et al. (2008). "Spherical aberration in contact lens wear." Cont Lens Anterior Eye 31(4): 189-193.

Maeda, N. (2009). "Clinical applications of wavefront aberrometry - a review." Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 37(1): 118-129.

Mester, U., P. Dillinger, et al. (2003). "Impact of a modified optic design on visual function: clinical comparative study." J Cataract Refract Surg 29(4): 652-660.

Millward Brown (2010). PureVision 2.5 Product Test: Study 648.

Needs, Symptoms, Incidence, Global Eye Health Trends (NSIGHT) Study. Market Probe Europe: December 2009)

Piers, P. A., S. Manzanera, et al. (2007). "Use of adaptive optics to determine the optimal ocular spherical aberration." J Cataract Refract Surg 33(10): 1721-1726.

Porter, J., A. Guirao, et al. (2001). "Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population." J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 18(8): 1793-1803.

Thibos, L. N., X. Hong, et al. (2002). "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes." J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 19(12): 2329-2348.

Tran, L., R. Wyckoff, et al. (2005). "Evaluating the Visual Performance of an Aspheric Contact Lens." Contact Lens Spectrum(April).




(p. 46) Pediatric and Teen CL Care: Fighting Cataracts Worldwide, By Christine W. Sindt, OD, FAAO


Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008 Sep;19(5):403-8.

I         Pediatric ophthalmology in the developing world.

Maida JM, Mathers K, Alley CL.



Thylefors B. A global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness. Am J Ophthakmol 1998; 125: 90-93.


Foster A, Gilbert C, Rahi J. Epidemiology of cataract in childhood: a global perspective. J Cat Refract Surg 1997; 23:601–604


Kello AB, Gilbert C. Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in schools for the blind in Ethiopia. Br J Ophthalmol 2003; 87:526–530.


Ezegwui IR, Umeh RE, Ezepue UF. Causes of childhood blindness: results from schools for the blind in south eastern Nigeria. Br J Ophthalmol 2003; 87:20–23.


Waddell KM. Childhood blindness and low vision in Uganda. Eye 1998; 12(Part 2):184–192.


Foster A, Gilbert C, Rahi J. Epidemiology of cataract in childhood: a global perspective. J Cat Refract Surg 1997; 23:601–604.  accessed January 2, 2011




(p. 47) Treatment Plan: Finding the Right Combination: The Art of Lowering IOP, By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO


1.     Realini T, Fechtner R.  Ophthalmology (editorial) 2002; 109: 1955-1956.

2.     Singh K, Lee BL, Wilson MR, et al. A panel assessment of glaucoma management: modification of existing RAND-like methodology for consensus in ophthalmology. Part II: Results and interpretation. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:575-581.

3.     Strom BL, Schinnar R, Apter AJ, et al. Absence of cross-reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and sulfonamide nonantibiotics.  N Engl J Med. 2003 Oct 23;349(17):1628-35

4.     Leske MC, Wu SY, Hennis A, Honkanen R, Nemesure B; BESs Study Group. Risk factors for incident open-angle glaucoma: the Barbados Eye Studies. Ophthalmology. 2008 ; 115: 85-93.

5.     Hayreh SS, Podhajsky P, Zimmerman MB. Beta-blocker eyedrops and nocturnal arterial hypotension. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:301-9.

6.     Caprioli J, Coleman AL;  Blood pressure, perfusion pressure, and glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149:704-12.

7.  Accessed December 31, 2010.



(p. 51) Reader and Industry Forum: How to Grow the Contact Lens Marketplace, By Barry A. Weissman, OD, PhD, FAAO (Dip CL)


  1. Forister J, Forister E, Yeung K, et al. Prevalence of contact lens-related complications: UCLA contact lens study. Eye & Contact Lens 2009; 35(4):176-180.


  1. Yeung K, Forister J, Forister E, et al. Compliance with soft contact lens replacement schedules and associated contact lens-related ocular complications: The UCLA Contact Lens Study. Optometry 2010; 81: 598-607.


  1. Wong A, Weissman B, and Mondino B. Bilateral corneal neovascularization and opacification associated with unmonitored contact lens wear. Am J Ophthalmol 2003;136:957-958.