Contact Lens Spectrum

April 2011

Document #185





(p. 15) Letters to the Editor: Commenting on “Using Power Profiles to Evaluate Aspheric Lenses”, By Sotiris Plainis, MSc, PhD; David A. Atchison, PhD; and W. Neil Charman, DSc



1.            Bakaraju RC, Ehrmann K, Ho A, Papas E. Inherent ocular spherical aberration and multifocal contact lens optical performance. Optom Vis Sci 2010;87(12):1009-22.

2.             Bernard Y, Lopez-Gil N, Legras R. Subjective depth of field in presnece of 4th-order and 6th-order spherical aberration using adaptive optics technology. J Cataract Refract Surg 2010; 36(12): 2129-2138.

3.         Ginis HS, Plainis S, Pallikaris A. Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical Shack-Hartmann aberrometer. BMC Ophthalmol 2004;4:1.

4.            Kollbaum P, Jansen M, Thibos L, Bradley A. Validation of an off-eye contact lens Shack-Hartmann wavefront aberrometer. Optom Vis Sci 2008;85(9):E817-28.

5.         Plainis S, Charman WN. On-eye power characteristics of soft contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 1998;75(1):44-54.

6.            Plakitsi A, Charman WN. Comparison of the depth of focus with the naked eye and with three types of presbyopic contact lens correction. Br Cont Lens Ass 1995; 18(4): 119-125.

7.            Plakitsi A, Charman WN. Ocular spherical aberration and theoretical through-focus modulation transfer functions calculated for eyes fitted with two types of varifocal presbyopic contact lens. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 1997;20(3):97-106.

8.         Vogt A, Bateman K, Green T, Reindel B. Using Power Profiles to Evaluate Aspheric Lenses. Contact Lems Spectrum 2011(January issue).



(p. 17) Letters to the Editor: Dr. Vogt et al’s Response, By Alexis K. S. Vogt, PhD; Kirk Bateman, MS; Tim Green, MS; & Bill Reindel, OD, MS 



1.         Collins M, Goode A, Davis B, Tait A. A computer-interfaced vertometer system for contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 1997; 74(1):59-65.

2.         Plakitsi A, Charman WN. On the reliability of focimeter measurements of simultaneous-vision varifocal contact lenses.  J Br Contact Lens Assoc 1992;15(3):115-24.





(p. 18) Point/Counterpoint: Managing Lens-Related Dry Eye


Point: Consider Treating Lens-Related DryEye With Pharmaceuticals, By S. Barry Eiden, OD, FAAO


  1. Nichols JJ.2011 Annual Report. Contact Lens Spectrum, January 2011.
  2. Nichols JJ. 2010 Annual Dry Eye Report. Contact Lens Spectrum, July 2010.
  3. Lemp MA, Baudouin C, et al. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf 2007; 5: 75-92.
  4. Lemp MA and Nichols KK. Blepharitis in the United States 2009: a survey-based perspective on prevalence and treatment. Ocul Surf 2009; 7: S1-S14.
  5. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, et al. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea 2007; 26: 168-74.



Counterpoint: Pharmaceuticals Aren’t Always the Answer for Lens-Related Dry Eye, By Edward Williams, OD, FAAO


  1. Blackie, Korb, Knop, Bedi, Knop, Holland Nonobvious Obstructive Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Cornea: December 2010-Vol.29-Issue 12-pp.1333-1345.
  2. Thomas and Melton Eye Update 2010
  3. Hague, Torkilson, Gail,Brubaker, Kurt, Zink, Richard, Kowalski, Regis, Mah, Francis, Pflugfelder, Stephen Multicenter Open-Label Study Evaluating the Efficacy of Azithromycin Ophthalmic Solution 1% on the Signs and Symptoms of Subjects with Blepharitis.   Cornea 29(8):871-877, August 2010.
  4. Korb, Blackie Restoration of Meibomian Gland Functionality with Novel Thermodynamic Treatment Device: A Case Report.  Cornea 29(8): 930-933, August 2010.



(p. 25) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: Dry Eye’s Impact on Vision, By William Townsend, OD, FAAO


  1. Thai LC, Tomlinson A, Ridder WH. Contact lens drying and visual performance: the vision cycle with contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Jun;79(6):381-8.


  1. Begley CG, Robin L. Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, et al. Characterization of Ocular Surface Symptoms From Optometric Practices in North America. Cornea 2001; 20(6): 610–618.


  1. Ridder WH 3rd, LaMotte J, Hall JQ Jr, Sinn R, Nguyen AL, Abufarie L. Contrast sensitivity and tear layer aberrometry in dry eye patients. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Sep;86(9):E1059-68.


  1. Lohmann CP, Fitzke F, O'Brart D, Muir MK, Timberlake G, Marshall J. Corneal light scattering and visual performance in myopic individuals with spectacles, contact lenses, or excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993 Apr 15;115(4):444-53.


  1. Timberlake GT, Doane MG, Bertera JH. Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying. Optom Vis Sci. 1992 Oct;69(10):755-60.


  1. Friedman NJ. Impact of dry eye disease and treatment on quality of life. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 2010,21:310–316


  1. Doane MG. An instrument for in vivo tear film interferometry. Optom Vis Sci. 1989 Jun;66(6):383-8.



  1. Chen JJ, Rao K, Pflugfelder SC. Corneal epithelial opacity in dysfunctional tear syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep;148(3):376-82



  1. Tutt R, Bradley A, Begley C, Thibos LN. Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Dec;41(13):4117-23.
  2. Tsubota K. Tear dynamics and dry eye.  Progress in Retinal and Eeye research 1998;17(4):565-596.



(p. 34) Microbiology and Contact Lens Wear, By Mark D.P. Willcox, PhD


1.      Erie JC. Nevitt MP. Hodge DO. Ballard DJ.  Incidence of ulcerative keratitis in a defined population from 1950 through 1988.  Archives of Ophthalmology. 111: 1665-71, 1993

2.      Pachigolla G. Blomquist PH. Cavanagh HD. Letter to the Editor. Eye & Contact Lens 33: 207, 2007

3.      Dart JK. Stapleton F. Minassian D.  Contact lenses and other risk factors in microbial keratitis.  Lancet. 338: 650-3, 1991

4.      Ibrahim YW. Boase DL. Cree IA.  Epidemiological characteristics, predisposing factors and microbiological profiles of infectious corneal ulcers: the Portsmouth corneal ulcer study.  British Journal of Ophthalmology. 93: 1319-24, 2009

5.      Saeed A. D'Arcy F. Stack J. Collum LM. Power W. Beatty S. Risk factors, microbiological findings, and clinical outcomes in cases of microbial keratitis admitted to a tertiary referral center in Ireland. Cornea. 28: 285-92, 2009

6.      Bourcier T. Thomas F. Borderie V. Chaumeil C. Laroche L.  Bacterial keratitis: predisposing factors, clinical and microbiological review of 300 cases.  British Journal of Ophthalmology. 87: 834-8, 2003

7.      van der Meulen IJ. van Rooij J. Nieuwendaal CP. Van Cleijnenbreugel H. Geerards AJ. Remeijer L. Age-related risk factors, culture outcomes, and prognosis in patients admitted with infectious keratitis to two Dutch tertiary referral centers. Cornea. 27: 539-44, 2008

8.      Gebauer A. McGhee CN. Crawford GJ.  Severe microbial keratitis in temperate and tropical Western Australia. Eye. 10: 575-80, 1996

9.      Wong T. Ormonde S. Gamble G. McGhee CN.  Severe infective keratitis leading to hospital admission in New Zealand.  British Journal of Ophthalmology. 87: 1103-8, 2003

10.  Rajpal K. Hall R. Long H. Wells A.  Five-year experience of corneal scrapes at Wellington Eye Department, New Zealand.  New Zealand Medical Journal. 120: U2682, 2007

11.  Keay L. Edwards K. Naduvilath T. Taylor HR. Snibson GR. Forde K. Stapleton F.  Microbial keratitis predisposing factors and morbidity.  Ophthalmology. 113: 109-16, 2006

12.  Green M. Apel A. Stapleton F. A longitudinal study of trends in keratitis in Australia. Cornea. 27: 33-9, 2008a

13.  Green M. Apel A. Stapleton F. Risk factors and causative organisms in microbial keratitis. Cornea. 27: 22-7, 2008b

14.  Fong CF. Tseng CH. Hu FR. Wang IJ. Chen WL. Hou YC. Clinical characteristics of microbial keratitis in a university hospital in Taiwan.  American Journal of Ophthalmology. 137: 329-36, 2004

15.  Toshida H. Kogure N. Inoue N. Murakami A.  Trends in microbial keratitis in Japan. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice. 33: 70-3, 2007

16.  Preechawat P. Ratananikom U. Lerdvitayasakul R. Kunavisarut S. Contact lens-related microbial keratitis. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 90: 737-43, 2007

17.  Sirikul T. Prabriputaloong T. Smathivat A. Chuck RS. Vongthongsri A. Predisposing factors and etiologic diagnosis of ulcerative keratitis.  Cornea. 27: 283-7, 2008

18.  Moriyama AS. Hofling-Lima AL. Contact lens-associated microbial keratitis. Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia. 71: 32-6, 2008

19.  Poggio EC. Glynn RJ. Schein OD. Seddon JM. Shannon MJ. Scardino VA. Kenyon KR. The incidence of ulcerative keratitis among users of daily-wear and extended-wear soft contact lenses. New  Engl and Journal of  Medicine 321: 779–83, 1989

20.  Stapleton F. Dart JK. Minassian D. Risk factors with contact lens related suppurative keratitis. CLAO Journal 19: 204–10, 1993

21.  Schein OD. Glynn RJ. Poggio EC. Seddon JM. Kenyon KR. the Microbial Keratitis Study Group. The relative risk of ulcerative keratitis among users of daily-wear and extended-wear soft contact lenses. A case-control study. New  Engl and Journal of  Medicine 321: 773–8, 1989

22.  Efron N. Wohl A. Jones L. Toma NG. Lowe R. Pseudomonas corneal ulcers associated with daily wear of disposable hydrogel contact lenses. International Contact Lens Clinics 18: 46–51, 1989

23.  Radford CF. Minassian DC. Dart JK. Disposable contact lens use as a risk factor for microbial keratitis. British Journal of Ophthalmology 82: 1272–5, 1998

24.  Lam DS. Houang E. Fan DS. Lyon D. Seal D. Wong E. Incidence and risk factors for microbial keratitis in Hong Kong: comparison with Europe and North America. Eye 16: 608–18, 2002

25.  Cheng KH. Leung SL. Hoekman HW. Beekhuis WH. Mulder PG. Geerards AJ. Kijlstra A. Incidence of contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis and its related morbidity. Lancet 354: 181–5, 1999

26.  Keay L. Edwards K. Brian G. Stapleton F. Surveillance of contact lens related microbial keratitis in Australia and New Zealand: multi-source case-capture and cost-effectiveness. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 14: 343-50, 2007

27.  Chalupa E. Swarbrick HA. Holden BA. Sjostrand J. Severe corneal infections associated with contact lens wear. Ophthalmology 94: 17–22, 1987

28.  Stapleton F. Keay L. Edwards K. Naduvilath T. Dart JK. Brian G. Holden BA. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 115:1655-62, 2008

29.  Dart JK. Radford CF. Minassian D. Verma S. Stapleton F. Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses: a case-control study. Ophthalmology. 115: 1647-54, 2008

30.  Stapleton F. Keay LJ. Sanfilippo PG. Katiyar S. Edwards KP. Naduvilath T. Relationship between climate, disease severity, and causative organism for contact lens–associated microbial keratitis in Australia. American Journal of  Ophthalmology 144: 690-8, 2007

31.  Morgan PB. Efron N. Hill EA. Raynor MK. Whiting MA. Tullo AB. Incidence of keratitis of varying severity among contact lens wearers.  British Journal of Ophthalmology. 89: 430-6, 2005

32.  Schein OD. McNally JJ. Katz J. Chalmers RL. Tielsch JM. Alfonso E. Bullimore M. O'Day D. Shovlin J. The incidence of microbial keratitis among wearers of a 30-day silicone hydrogel extended-wear contact lens.  Ophthalmology. 112: 2172-9, 2005

33.  Musa F. Tailor R. Gao A. Hutley E. Rauz S. Scott RA. Contact lens-related microbial keratitis in deployed British military personnel.  British Journal of Ophthalmology. 94: 988-93, 2010

34.  Liesegang TJ. Forster RK. Spectrum of microbial keratitis in South Florida. American Journal of Ophthalmology 90: 38-47, 1980

35.  Wong TY. Ng TP. Fong KS. Tan DT. Risk factors and clinical outcomes between fungal and bacterial keratitis: a comparative study. CLAO Journal. 23: 275-81, 1997 

36.  Bharathi MJ. Ramakrishnan R. Meenakshi R. Padmavathy S. Shivakumar C. Srinivasan M. Microbial keratitis in South India: influence of risk factors, climate, and geographical variation. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 14: 61-9, 2007

37.  Tabbara KF. El-Sheikh HF. Aabed B. Extended wear contact lens related bacterial keratitis. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 84: 327-8, 2000

38.  Galentine PG. Cohen EJ. Laibson PR. Adams CP. Michaud R. Arentsen JJ. Corneal ulcers associated with contact lens wear. Archives of Ophthalmology. 102: 891-4, 1984

39.  Patrinely JR. Wilhelmus KR. Rubin JM. Key JE 2nd. Bacterial keratitis associated with extended wear soft contact lenses. CLAO Journal. 11: 234-6, 1985

40.  Schein OD. Ormerod LD. Barraquer E. Alfonso E. Egan KM. Paton BG. Kenyon KR. Microbiology of contact lens-related keratitis. Cornea. 8: 281-5, 1989

41.  Houang E. Lam D. Fan D. Seal D. Microbial keratitis in Hong Kong: relationship to climate, environment and contact-lens disinfection. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. 95: 361-7, 2001

42.  Schaefer F. Bruttin O. Zografos L. Guex-Crosier Y. Bacterial keratitis: a prospective clinical and microbiological study. British Journal of Ophthalmology 85: 842–7, 2001

43.  Alexandrakis G, Alfonso EC, Miller D. Shifting Trends in Bacterial Keratitis in South Florida and Emerging Resistance to Fluoroquinolones. Ophthalmology 107: 1497–502, 2000

44.  Melia B. Islam T. Madgula I. Youngs E. Contact lens referrals to Hull Royal Infirmary Ophthalmic A&E Unit. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye. 31: 195-9, 2008

45.  Edwards K. Keay L. Naduvilath T. Snibson G. Taylor H. Stapleton F. Characteristics of and risk factors for contact lens-related microbial keratitis in a tertiary referral hospital. Eye. 23: 153-60, 2009

46.  Stapleton F. Keay LJ. Sanfilippo PG. Katiyar S. Edwards KP. Naduvilath T. Relationship between climate, disease severity, and causative organism for contact lens-associated microbial keratitis in Australia.  American Journal of Ophthalmology. 144: 690-698, 2007

47.  Yu DK. Ng AS. Lau WW. Wong CC. Chan CW. Recent pattern of contact lens-related keratitis in Hong Kong.  Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice. 33: 284-7, 2007

48.  Seal DV. Kirkness CM. Bennett HGB. Peterson M.  Keratitis Study Group, 1999. Acanthamoeba keratitis in Scotland: risk factors for contact lens wearers, Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 23: 56–68, 1999

49.  Lam DS. Houang E. Fan DS. Lyon D. Seal D. Wong E. Hong Kong Microbial Keratitis Study Group. Incidence and risk factors for microbial keratitis in Hong Kong: comparison with Europe and North America. Eye. 16: 608-18, 2002

50.  Radford CF. Minassian DC. Dart JK. Acanthamoeba keratitis in England and Wales: incidence, outcome, and risk factors. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 86: 536-42, 2002

51.  Schaumberg DA. Snow KK. Dana MR. The epidemic of Acanthamoeba keratitis: where do we stand? Cornea.17: 3-10, 1998

52.  Murdoch D. Gray TB. Cursons R. Parr D. Acanthamoeba keratitis in New Zealand, including two cases with in vivo resistance to polyhexamethylene biguanide. Australia and New Zealand  Journal of Ophthalmology. 98;26:231–6, 1998

53.  Ku JY. Chan FM. Beckingsale P. Acanthamoeba keratitis cluster: an increase in Acanthamoeba keratitis in Australia. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 37: 181–90, 2009

54.  Joslin CE. Tu EY. McMahon TT. Passaro DJ. Stayner LT. Sugar J.  Epidemiological characteristics of a Chicago-area Acanthamoeba keratitis outbreak. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 142: 212-7, 2006

55.  Levy B. Heiler D. Norton S. Report on testing from an investigation of Fusarium keratitis contact lens wearers. Eye and Contact Lens. 32: 256-61, 2006

56.  Kilvington S. Heaselgrave W. Lally JM. Ambrus K. Powell H. Encystment of Acanthamoeba during incubation in multipurpose contact lens disinfectant solutions and experimental formulations. Eye and Contact Lens. 34: 133-9, 2008

57.  Gower EW. Keay LJ. Oechsler RA. Iovieno A. Alfonso EC. Jones DB. Colby K. Tuli SS. Patel SR. Lee SM. Irvine J. Stulting RD. Mauger TF. Schein OD. Trends in fungal keratitis in the United States, 2001 to 2007. Ophthalmology. 117: 2263-7, 2010

58.  Grant GB. Fridkin S. Chang DC. Park BJ. Postrecall surveillance following a multistate Fusarium keratitis outbreak, 2004 through 2006. JAMA. 298: 2867-8, 2007

59.  Jurkunas U. Behlau I. Colby K. Fungal keratitis: changing pathogens and risk factors. Cornea 28; 638-643, 2009

60.  Joslin CE. Tu EY. Shoff ME. Anderson RJ. Davis FG.  Shifting distribution of Chicago-area Acanthamoeba keratitis cases.  Archives of Ophthalmology. 128: 137-9, 2010

61.  Patel DV. Rayner S. McGhee CN. Resurgence of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Auckland, New Zealand: a 7-year review of presentation and outcomes. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 38: 15-20; 2010

62.  Efron N. Morgan PB. Soft contact lens care regimens in the UK. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye. 31: 283-284, 2008

63.  Kanpolat A. Kalayci D. Arman D. Duruk K. Contamination in contact lens care systems. CLAO J 18: 105–7, 1992

64.  Wilson LA. Sawant AD. Simmons RB, Ahearn DG. Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and solutions. American Journal of Ophthalmology 110: 193–8, 1990

65.  Devonshire P. Munro FA. Abernethy C. Clark BJ. Microbial contamination of contact lens cases in the west of Scotland. British Journal of Ophthalmology 77: 41–5, 1993

66.  Bowden FW III. Cohen EJ. Arentsen JJ. Laibson PR. Patterns of lens care practices and lens product contamination in contact lens associated microbial keratitis. CLAO Journal 15: 49–54, 1989

67.  Gray TB. Cursons RT. Sherwan JF. Rose PR. Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens storage cases. British Journal of  Ophthalmology 79: 601–5, 1995

68.  Willcox MDP. Carnt N. Diec J. Naduvilath T. Evans V. Stapleton F. Iskandar S. Harmis N. Lazon de la Jara P. Holden BA. Contact lens case contamination during daily wear of silicone hydrogels. Optometry and Vision Science. 87: 456-64, 2010

69.  Wu YT. Zhu H.  Harmis N. Iskander S. Willcox M. Stapleton F. Profile and frequency of microbial contamination of contact lens cases. Optometry and Vision Science. 87: E152-E158, 2010

70.  Amos CF. George MD. Clinical and laboratory testing of a silver impregnated lens case. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 29: 247–55, 2006

71.  Dantam J. Zhu H. Stapleton F. Biocidal efficacy of silver-impregnated contact lens storage cases in vitro. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 52: 51-7, 2011

72.  Stapleton F. Willcox MDP. Fleming CM. Hickson S. Sweeney DF. Holden BA. Changes in the ocular biota with time in extended and daily wear disposable contact lens use. Infection and Immunity 63: 4501-5, 1995

73.  Hovding G. The conjunctival and contact lens bacterial flora during lens wear. Acta Ophthalmologica (Copenhagen). 59: 387-401, 1981

74.  Fleiszig SM. Efron N. Microbial flora in eyes of current and former contact lens wearers. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 30: 1156-61, 1992

75.  Hart DE. Reindel W. Proskin HM. Mowrey-McKee MF. Microbial contamination of hydrophilic contact lenses: quantitation and identification of microorganisms associated with contact lenses while on the eye. Optometry and Vision Science. 70: 185-91, 1993

76.  Baleriola-Lucas C. Fukuda M. Willcox MDP. Sweeney DF. Holden BA. Fibronectin concentration in tears of contact lens wearers. Experimental Eye Research 64: 37-44, 1997

77.  Gopinathan U. Stapleton F. Sharma S. Willcox MDP. Sweeney DF. Rao N. Holden BA. Microbial contamination of hydrogel contact lenses during extended wear. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 82: 653-8, 1997

78.  Willcox M. Sankaridurg P. Lan J. Pearce D. Thakur A. Zhu H. Keay L. Stapleton F . Inflammation and infection and effects of the closed eye.  In:  Silicone Hydrogels: the rebirth of continuous wear contact lenses.  Ed. D Sweeney.  Butterworth-Heinemann.  Oxford, UK. pp45-75, 2000.

79.  Keay L. Willcox MD. Sweeney DF. Morris CA. Harmis N. Corrigan K. Holden BA. Bacterial populations on 30-night extended wear silicone hydrogel lenses. CLAO Journal. 27: 30-4, 2001

80.  Willcox MDP. Harmis NY. Holden BA. Bacterial populations on high-Dk silicone hydrogel contact lenses: effect of length of wear in asymptomatic patients. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 85: 172-5, 2002.

81.  Szczotka-Flynn LB. Bajaksouzian S, Jacobs MR, Rimm A. Risk factors for contact lens bacterial contamination during continuous wear. Optometry and Vision Science. 86: 1216-1226, 2009a

82.  Sankaridurg P. Sharma S. Willcox MDP. Sweeney DF. Holden BA. Rao GN. Bacterial colonization of disposable soft contact lenses is greater during corneal infiltrative events than during asymptomatic extended lens wear. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38: 4420-4, 2000.

83.  Sankaridurg PR. Sharma S. Willcox M. Sweeney DF. Naduvilath TJ. Holden BA. Rao GN. Colonization of hydrogel lenses with Streptococcus pneumoniae: risk of development of corneal infiltrates. Cornea 18: 289-95, 1999

84.  Sankaridurg PR. Willcox MDP. Sharma S. Gopinathan U. Janakiraman D. Hickson S. Vuppala N. Sweeney DF. Rao GN. Holden BA. Haemophilus influenzae adherent to contact lenses is associated with the production of acute ocular inflammation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 34: 2426-31, 1996

85.  Szczotka-Flynn L. Lass JH. Sethi A. Debanne S. Benetz BA. Albright M. Gillespie B. Kuo J. Jacobs MR. Rimm A. Risk factors for corneal infiltrative events during continuous wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 51: 5421-30, 2010

86.  Bruinsma GM. van der Mei HC. Busscher HJ. Bacterial adhesion to surface hydrophilic and hydrophobic contact lenses. Biomaterials. 22: 3217-24, 2001

87.  Taylor RL. Willcox MD. Williams TJ. Verran J. Modulation of bacterial adhesion to hydrogel contact lenses by albumin. Optometry & Vision Science. 75: 23-9, 1998

88.  Ahanotu EN. Hyatt MD. Graham MJ. Ahearn DG. Comparative radiolabel and ATP analyses of adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis to hydrogel lenses. CLAO Journal. 27: 89-93, 2001

89.  Borazjani RN. Levy B. Ahearn DG. Relative primary adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus to HEMA-type contact lenses and an extended wear silicone hydrogel contact lens of high oxygen permeability. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye. 27: 3-8, 2004

90.  Henriques M. Sousa C. Lira M. Elisabete M. Oliveira R. Oliveira R. Azeredo J. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis to silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. Optometry and Vision Science. 82: 446-50, 2005

91.  Kodjikian L. Casoli-Bergeron E. Malet F. Janin-Manificat H. Freney J. Burillon C. Colin J. Steghens  JP. Bacterial adhesion to conventional hydrogel and new silicone-hydrogel contact lens materials. Graefes Archives of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 246: 267-73, 2005

92.  Szczotka-Flynn LB. Imamura Y. Chandra J. Yu C. Mukherjee PK. Pearlman E. Ghannoum MA. Increased resistance of contact lens-related bacterial biofilms to antimicrobial activity of soft contact lens care solutions.  Cornea. 28: 918-26, 2009b

93.  Willcox MD. Harmis N. Cowell. Williams T. Holden. Bacterial interactions with contact lenses; effects of lens material, lens wear and microbial physiology. Biomaterials. 22: 3235-47, 2001

94.  Giraldez MJ. Resua CG. Lira M. Oliveira ME. Magarinos B. Toranzo AE. Yebra-Pimentel E. Contact lens hydrophobicity and roughness effects on bacterial adhesion. Optometry and Vision Science. 87: E426-31, 2010

95.  Hazlett LD. Role of innate and adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of keratitis. Ocular Immunology and  Inflammation. 13: 133-8, 2005

96.  Willcox MD. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and inflammation during contact lens wear: a review. Optometry and Vision Science. 84: 273-8, 2007

97.  Evans DJ. McNamara NA. Fleiszig SM. Life at the front: dissecting bacterial-host interactions at the ocular surface. The Ocular Surface. 5:213-27, 2007

98.  Willcox MDP. Review of resistance of ocular isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococci from keratitis to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and cephalosporins. Clinical and Experimental Optometry. DOI:10.1111/j.1444-0938.2010.00536.x, 2010

99.  Chawla B. Agarwal P. Tandon R. Titiyal JS. Sharma N. Agarwal T. Navak N. Satpathy G. In vitro susceptibility of bacterial keratitis isolates to fourth-generation fluoroquinolones. European Journal of Ophthalmology. 20: 300-5, 2010

100.                      Kaye S. Tuft S. Neal T. Tole D. Leeming J. Figueiredo F. Armstrong M. McDonnell P. Tullo A. Parry C. Bacterial susceptibility to topical antimicrobials and clinical outcome in bacterial keratitis. Investigative Ophthalmology and  Visual Science. 51: 362-8, 2010

101.                      Sueke H. Kaye S. Neal T. Murphy C. Hall A. Whittaker D. Tuft S, Parry C. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of standard and novel antimicrobials for isolates from bacterial keratitis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science. 51: 2519–24, 2010

102.                      Willcox MDP. New Strategies to Prevent Pseudomonas Keratitis. Eye and Contact Lens 33: 401–3, 2007

103.                      Weisbarth RE. Gabriel MM. George M. Rappon J. Miller M. Chalmers R. Winterton L.  Creating antimicrobial surfaces and materials for contact lenses and lens cases. Eye and Contact Lens. 33: 426-9, 2007

104.                      Mathews SM. Spallholz JE. Grimson MJ. Dubielzig RR. Gray T. Reid TW. Prevention of bacterial colonization of contact lenses with covalently attached selenium and effects on the rabbit cornea. Cornea 25: 806–14, 2006

105.                      Cole N. Hume EBH. Vijay AK. Sankaridurg P. Kumar N. Willcox MDP. In vivo performance of melimine as an antimicrobial coating for contact lenses in models of CLARE and CLPU. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science. 51: 390-5, 2010

106.                      Zhu H. Kumar A. Ozkan J. Bandara R. Ding A. Perera I. Steinberg P. Kumar N. Lao W. Griesser SS. Britcher L. Griesser HJ. Willcox MD et al. Fimbrolide-coated antimicrobial lenses: their in vitro and in vivo effects. Optometry and Vision Science. 85: 292-300, 2008

107.                      Nissen S. Furkert FH. Antimicrobial efficacy of a silver layer on hydrogel lenses. Ophthalmologe. 97: 640-3, 2000

108.                      Willcox MDP. Hume EBH. Vijay AK. Petcavich R. Ability of silver-impregnated contact lenses to control microbial growth and colonisation. Journal of Optometry. 3: 143-8, 2010




(p. 40) Contact Lens-Associated Infiltrative Keratitis and Multipurpose Solutions, By Andrew J. Sacco, OD, FAAO


1.      Bates AK, Morris RJ, Stapleton F, Minassian DC, Dart JK. 'Sterile' corneal infiltrates in contact lens wearers. Eye. 1989;3:803-810.

2.      Baum J, Dabezies OH Jr. Pathogenesis and treatment of "sterile" midperipheral corneal infiltrates associated with soft contact lens use. Cornea. 2000;19:777-781.

3.      Carnt NA, Evans VE, Naduvilath TJ, et al.  Contact lens-related adverse events and the silicone hydrogel lenses and daily wear care systems used.  Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:1616-1623.


4.     Carnt N, Jalbert I, Stretton S, Naduvilath T, Papas E. Solution toxicity in soft contact lens daily wear is associated with corneal inflammation. Optom Vis Sci. 2007a;84:309-315.


5.     Carnt NA, Keay L, Naduvilath T, Holden B, Willcox M. Risk factors associated with corneal inflammation in soft contact lens daily wear. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007b;48:E-Abstract 4326.


6.      Diec J, Evans V, Naduvilath T. Performance of Polyquad, PHMB and peroxide solutions with silicone hydrogel lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:E-abstract 5633—D942.


7.      Donshik PC, Suchecki JK, Ehlers WH. Peripheral corneal infiltrates associated with contact lens wear. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1995;93:49-60.


8.      Dumbleton K. Adverse events with silicone hydrogel continuous wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2002;25:137-146.


9.      Efron N, Morgan PB, Hill EA, Raynor MK, Tullo AB. The size, location, and clinical severity of corneal infiltrative events associated with contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:519-527.


10.  Gordon A, Kracher GP. Corneal infiltrates and extended-wear contact lenses. J Am Optom Assoc. 1985;56:198-201.


11.  Henriques M, Sousa C, Lira M, et al.  Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis to silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:446-450.


12.  Hine N. Hypersensitivity with silicone hydrogels: Material or solution effect? In the Practice. September 2008. Available at:


13.  Holden BA, Stephension A, Stretton S, et al. Superior epithelial arcuate lesions with soft contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2001;78:9-12.


14.  Jalbert I, Sweeney DF, Holden BA. Epithelial split associated with wear of a silicone hydrogel contact lens. CLAO J. 2001;27:231-233.


15.  Josephson JE, Zantos S, Caffery B, Herman JP. Differentiation of corneal complications observed in contact lens wearers. J Am Optom Assoc. 1988;59:679-85.


16.  Kislan TP, Hom MM.  Corneal infiltrates with multipurpose solutions and contact lens combinations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:E-Abstract 3424.


17.  Maldonado-Codina C, Morgan PB, Schnider CM, Efron N. Short-term physiologic response in neophyte subjects fitted with hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2004;81:911-921.


18.  Morgan PB, Efron N, Brennan NA, Hill EA, Raynor MK, Tullo AB. Risk factors for the development of corneal infiltrative events associated with contact lens wear. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005a;46:3136-3143.


19.  Morgan PB, Efron N, Maldonado-Codina C, Efron S. Adverse events and discontinuations with rigid and soft hyper Dk contact lenses used for continuous wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2005b;82:528-535.


20.  Morgan PB, Woods CA, Tranoudis IG, et al.  International contact lens prescribing in 2009.  Contact Lens Spectrum. 2010;25:30-36.


21.  Morgan PB, Woods CA, Tranoudis IG, et al.  International contact lens prescribing in 2010.  Contact Lens Spectrum. 2011;26:30-35.


22.  Robboy MW, Comstock TL, Kalsow CM. Contact lens-associated corneal infiltrates. Eye Contact Lens. 2003;29:146-154.


23.  Sacco A. Silicone hydrogel contact lenses, lens care and sterile infiltrates: is there a connection? Poster presented at: the Annual Global Specialty Lens Symposium; January 27-30, 2011; Las Vegas, NV.


24.  Skotnitsky CC, Sweeney DF, Naduvilath TJ, Sankaridurg PR. The incidence of local and general contact lens induced papillary conjunctivitis in silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46: E-Abstract 2064.


25.  Sorbara L, Jones L, Williams-Lyn D. Contact lens induced papillary conjunctivitis with silicone hydrogel lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2009;32:93-96.


26.  Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, et al.  The incidence of contact lens–related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1655–1662.


27.  Stapleton F, Keay L, Jalbert I, Cole N. The epidemiology of contact lens related infiltrates. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:257–272.


28.  Sweeney DF, Jalbert I, Covey M, et al. Clinical characterization of corneal infiltrative events observed with soft contact lens wear. Cornea. 2003;22:435-442.


29.  Szczotka-Flynn L, Debanne SM, Cheruvu VK, et al. Predictive factors for corneal infiltrates with continuous wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007a;125:488-492.


30.  Szczotka-Flynn L, Diaz M. Risk of corneal inflammatory events with silicone hydrogel and low dk hydrogel extended contact lens wear: a meta-analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2007b;84:247–256.


31.  Szczotka-Flynn L, Lass JH, Sethi AK, et al. Risk factors for corneal infiltrative events during continuous wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:5421-5430.


32.  Tan J, Keay L, Jalbert, I, Naduvilath TJ, Sweeney DF, Holden BA. Mucin balls with wear of conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2003;80:291-297.


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(p. 46) Contact Lens Practice Pearls: Managing Ocular Allergy in

Contact Lens Wearers, By Gregory J. Nixon, OD, FAAO


  1. Palmares J, Delgado L, Cidade M, Quadrado MJ, Filipe HP, Season Study Group. Allergic conjunctivitis: a national cross-sectional study of clinical characteristics and quality of life. Eur J Ophthalmol.2010 Mar-Apr; Vol. 20 (2), pp. 257-64.
  2. Figus M, Fogagnolo P, Lazzeri S, Capizzi F, Romagnoli M, Canovetti A, Iester M, Ferreras A, Rossetti L, Nardi M. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis: results of a 1-month, single-masked randomized study. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010 Sep-Oct; Vol. 20 (5), pp. 811-8.
  3. Young G, Bowers R, Hall B, Port M. Clinical comparison of Omafilcon A with four control materials. CLAO J 1997;23:249-58.
  4. Buckley RJ. Allergic eye disease--a clinical challenge. Clin Exp Allergy. 1998 Dec; Vol. 28 Suppl 6, pp. 39-43.
  5. Bielory L. Ocular allergy guidelines: a practical treatment algorithm. Drugs. 2002; Vol. 62 (11), pp. 1611-34.




(p. 48) The Business of Contact Lenses: Eye Care First, Contact Lenses Second, By Clarke D. Newman, OD, FAAO


  1. Rabbanikhah, Z., et. al., Association Between Acute Corneal Hydrops in Patients With Keratoconus and Mitral Value Prolapse, Cornea, 2011; 30:2, 154—157




(p. 50) Pediatric and Teen CL Care: Younger Patients can Succeed With Contact Lens Wear, By Mary Lou French, OD, MEd, FAAO


1. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Rah MJ,et al. Contact lenses in pediatrics (CLIP) study: chair time and ocular health. Optom Vis Sci 2007;(84):896-902.

2. Walline, JJ, Long S, Zadnik K. Daily disposable contact lens wear in myopic children. Optom Vis Sci. 2004;(81): 255-9.




(p. 47) Treatment Plan: Finding the Right Combination: The Art of Lowering IOP, By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO


1.     Realini T, Fechtner R.  Ophthalmology (editorial) 2002; 109: 1955-1956.

2.     Singh K, Lee BL, Wilson MR, et al. A panel assessment of glaucoma management: modification of existing RAND-like methodology for consensus in ophthalmology. Part II: Results and interpretation. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:575-581.

3.     Strom BL, Schinnar R, Apter AJ, et al. Absence of cross-reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and sulfonamide nonantibiotics.  N Engl J Med. 2003 Oct 23;349(17):1628-35

4.     Leske MC, Wu SY, Hennis A, Honkanen R, Nemesure B; BESs Study Group. Risk factors for incident open-angle glaucoma: the Barbados Eye Studies. Ophthalmology. 2008 ; 115: 85-93.

5.     Hayreh SS, Podhajsky P, Zimmerman MB. Beta-blocker eyedrops and nocturnal arterial hypotension. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:301-9.

6.     Caprioli J, Coleman AL;  Blood pressure, perfusion pressure, and glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149:704-12.

7.  Accessed December 31, 2010.



(p. 51) Reader and Industry Forum: How to Grow the Contact Lens Marketplace, By Barry A. Weissman, OD, PhD, FAAO (Dip CL)


  1. Forister J, Forister E, Yeung K, et al. Prevalence of contact lens-related complications: UCLA contact lens study. Eye & Contact Lens 2009; 35(4):176-180.


  1. Yeung K, Forister J, Forister E, et al. Compliance with soft contact lens replacement schedules and associated contact lens-related ocular complications: The UCLA Contact Lens Study. Optometry 2010; 81: 598-607.


  1. Wong A, Weissman B, and Mondino B. Bilateral corneal neovascularization and opacification associated with unmonitored contact lens wear. Am J Ophthalmol 2003;136:957-958.