Contact Lens Spectrum

June 2011

Document #187





(p. 14) 25th Anniversary Perspective: The Next 25 Years: The Future of Contact Lenses, By Lyndon Jones, FCOPTOM, PhD, FAAO, &Eric Papas, PhD, MCOptom, DipCL, FAAO


1.         Dumbleton K, Richter D, Woods C, et al. Compliance with contact lens replacement in Canada and the United States. Optom Vis Sci 2010; 87;2:  131-9.

2.         Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R. Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a). Eye Contact Lens 2006; 32;6:  281-6.

3.         Weed K, Fonn D, Potvin R. Discontinuation of contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci 1993; 70;12s:  140.

4.         Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Contact Lens Clin 1999; 26;6:  157 - 162.

5.         Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, et al. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea 2007; 26;2:  168-74.

6.         Thissen H, Gengenbach T, du Toit R, et al. Clinical observations of biofouling on PEO coated silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Biomaterials 2010.

7.         Winterton LC, Lally JM, Sentell KB, et al. The elution of poly (vinyl alcohol) from a contact lens: the realization of a time release moisturizing agent/artificial tear. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2007; 80;2:  424-32.

8.         Pitt WG, Jack DR, Zhao Y, et al. Loading and Release of a Phospholipid From Contact Lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2011.

9.         Andrade-Vivero P, Fernandez-Gabriel E, Alvarez-Lorenzo C, et al. Improving the loading and release of NSAIDs from pHEMA hydrogels by copolymerization with functionalized monomers. J Pharm Sci 2007; 96;4:  802-13.

10.       Kim J, Chauhan A. Dexamethasone transport and ocular delivery from poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) gels. Int J Pharm 2008; 353;1-2:  205-22.

11.       Rashid S, Jin Y, Ecoiffier T, et al. Topical omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for treatment of dry eye. Arch Ophthalmol 2008; 126;2:  219-25.

12.       Jones L. Essential fatty acids and dry eye: What do we know? Contact Lens Spectrum 2009; 24;7:  14-15.

13.       Roncone M, Bartlett H, Eperjesi F. Essential fatty acids for dry eye: A review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2010; 33;2:  49-54; quiz 100.

14.       Rosenberg ES, Asbell PA. Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye. Ocul Surf 2010; 8;1:  18-28.

15.       Efron N, Morgan PB, Helland M, et al. Soft toric contact lens prescribing in different countries. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2011; 34;1:  36-8.

16.       Morgan PB, Efron N, Woods CA. An international survey of contact lens prescribing for presbyopia. Clin Exp Optom 2011; 94;1:  87-92.

17.       He M, Zheng Y, Xiang F. Prevalence of myopia in urban and rural children in mainland China. Optom Vis Sci 2009; 86;1:  40-4.

18.       Liang YB, Wong TY, Sun LP, et al. Refractive errors in a rural Chinese adult population the Handan eye study. Ophthalmology 2009; 116;11:  2119-27.

19.       Charman WN, Radhakrishnan H. Peripheral refraction and the development of refractive error: a review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2010; 30;4:  321-38.

20.       Sivak JG. The role of the lens in refractive development of the eye: animal models of ametropia. Exp Eye Res 2008; 87;1:  3-8.

21.       Smith EL, 3rd, Hung LF, Huang J. Relative peripheral hyperopic defocus alters central refractive development in infant monkeys. Vision Res 2009; 49;19:  2386-92.

22.       Choo JD, Holden BA. The prevention of myopia with contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens 2007; 33;6 Pt 2:  371-2; discussion 382.

23.       Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of Dual-Focus Soft Contact Lens Wear on Axial Myopia Progression in Children. Ophthalmology 2011.

24.       Sankaridurg P, Donovan L, Varnas S, et al. Spectacle lenses designed to reduce progression of myopia: 12-month results. Optom Vis Sci 2010; 87;9:  631-41.

25.       Dart JK, Radford CF, Minassian D, et al. Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses: a case-control study. Ophthalmology 2008; 115;10:  1647-54, 1654 e1-3.

26.       Chang DC, Grant GB, O'Donnell K, et al. Multistate outbreak of Fusarium keratitis associated with use of a contact lens solution. JAMA 2006; 296;8:  953-63.

27.       Joslin CE, Tu EY, Shoff ME, et al. The association of contact lens solution use and Acanthamoeba keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol 2007; 144;2:  169-180.

28.       Hall BJ, Jones L. Contact lens cases: the missing link in contact lens safety? Eye Contact Lens 2010; 36;2:  101-5.

29.       Szczotka-Flynn LB, Pearlman E, Ghannoum M. Microbial contamination of contact lenses, lens care solutions, and their accessories: a literature review. Eye Contact Lens 2010; 36;2:  116-29.

30.       Mathews SM, Spallholz JE, Grimson MJ, et al. Prevention of bacterial colonization of contact lenses with covalently attached selenium and effects on the rabbit cornea. Cornea 2006; 25;7:  806-14.

31.       Zhu H, Kumar A, Ozkan J, et al. Fimbrolide-coated antimicrobial lenses: Their in vitro and in vivo effects. Optom Vis Sci 2008; 85;5:  292-300.

32.       Willcox MD, Hume EB, Aliwarga Y, et al. A novel cationic-peptide coating for the prevention of microbial colonization on contact lenses. J Appl Microbiol 2008; 105;6:  1817-25.

33.       Weisbarth RE, Gabriel MM, George M, et al. Creating antimicrobial surfaces and materials for contact lenses and lens cases. Eye Contact Lens 2007; 33;6 Pt 2:  426-9; discussion 434.

34.       Liang H, Brignole-Baudouin F, Labbe A, et al. LPS-stimulated inflammation and apoptosis in corneal injury models. Mol Vis 2007; 13 1169-80.

35.       Wu YT, Zhu H, Willcox M, et al. Removal of biofilm from contact lens storage cases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; 51;12:  6329-33.

36.       Wu YT, Zhu H, Willcox M, et al. Impact of Air-Drying Lens Cases in Various Locations and Positions. Optom Vis Sci 2011; In press.

37.       Wu YT, Zhu H, Harmis NY, et al. Profile and Frequency of Microbial Contamination of Contact Lens Cases. Optom Vis Sci 2011; In press.

38.       Wu Y, Carnt N, Willcox M, et al. Contact lens and lens storage case cleaning instructions: whose advice should we follow? Eye Contact Lens 2010; 36;2:  68-72.

39.       Willcox MD, Carnt N, Diec J, et al. Contact lens case contamination during daily wear of silicone hydrogels. Optom Vis Sci 2010; 87;7:  456-64.

40.       Dantam J, Zhu H, Stapleton F. Biocidal Efficacy of Silver Impregnated Contact Lens Storage Cases In vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; In press.

41.       Xu J, Li X, Sun F. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ketotifen fumarate-loaded silicone hydrogel contact lenses for ocular drug delivery. Drug Deliv 2011; 18;2:  150-8.

42.       Schultz C, Breaux J, Schentag J, et al. Drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye through hydrogel contact lenses. Clin Exp Optom 2011; 94;2:  212-8.

43.       Ribeiro A, Veiga F, Santos D, et al. Bioinspired Imprinted PHEMA-Hydrogels for Ocular Delivery of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Drugs. Biomacromolecules 2011; 12;3:  701-9.

44.       White CJ, Byrne ME. Molecularly imprinted therapeutic contact lenses. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2010; 7;6:  765-80.

45.       Schultz CL, Morck DW. Contact lenses as a drug delivery device for epidermal growth factor in the treatment of ocular wounds. Clin Exp Optom 2010; 93;2:  61-5.

46.       Peng CC, Kim J, Chauhan A. Extended delivery of hydrophilic drugs from silicone-hydrogel contact lenses containing vitamin E diffusion barriers. Biomaterials 2010; 31;14:  4032-47.

47.       Kompella UB, Kadam RS, Lee VH. Recent advances in ophthalmic drug delivery. Ther Deliv 2010; 1;3:  435-456.

48.       Kim J, Peng CC, Chauhan A. Extended release of dexamethasone from silicone-hydrogel contact lenses containing vitamin E. J Control Release 2010.

49.       dos Santos JF, Alvarez-Lorenzo C, Silva M, et al. Soft contact lenses functionalized with pendant cyclodextrins for controlled drug delivery. Biomaterials 2009; 30;7:  1348-55.

50.       Ciolino JB, Hoare TR, Iwata NG, et al. A drug-eluting contact lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009.

51.       Boone A, Hui A, Jones L. Uptake and release of dexamethasone phosphate from silicone hydrogel and group I, II, and IV hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens 2009; 35;5:  260-7.

52.       Xinming L, Yingde C, Lloyd AW, et al. Polymeric hydrogels for novel contact lens-based ophthalmic drug delivery systems: a review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2008; 31;2:  57-64.

53.       Geever LM, Cooney CC, Lyons JG, et al. Characterisation and controlled drug release from novel drug-loaded hydrogels. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008; 69;3:  1147-59.

54.       Venkatesh S, Sizemore SP, Byrne ME. Biomimetic hydrogels for enhanced loading and extended release of ocular therapeutics. Biomaterials 2007; 28;4:  717-24.

55.       Li CC, Abrahamson M, Kapoor Y, et al. Timolol transport from microemulsions trapped in HEMA gels. J Colloid Interface Sci 2007; 315;1:  297-306.

56.       Janoria KG, Hariharan S, Dasari CR, et al. Recent patents and advances in ophthalmic drug delivery. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul 2007; 1;2:  161-70.

57.       Vistakon. Accessed April 15th 2011. 2011.

58.       Bertsch A, Leonardi M, Renaud P. The sensing contact lens. Med Device Technol 2006; 17;5:  19-21.

59.       Leonardi M, Pitchon EM, Bertsch A, et al. Wireless contact lens sensor for intraocular pressure monitoring: assessment on enucleated pig eyes. Acta Ophthalmol 2009; 87;4:  433-7.

60.       Sit AJ. Continuous monitoring of intraocular pressure: rationale and progress toward a clinical device. J Glaucoma 2009; 18;4:  272-9.

61.       Twa MD, Roberts CJ, Karol HJ, et al. Evaluation of a contact lens-embedded sensor for intraocular pressure measurement. J Glaucoma 2010; 19;6:  382-90.

62.       Sensimed. Accessed April 15th. 2011.

63.       March WF, Mueller A, Herbrechtsmeier P. Clinical trial of a noninvasive contact lens glucose sensor. Diabetes Technol Ther 2004; 6;6:  782-9.

64.       Domschke A, March WF, Kabilan S, et al. Initial clinical testing of a holographic non-invasive contact lens glucose sensor. Diabetes Technol Ther 2006; 8;1:  89-93.

65.       Yang X, Pan X, Blyth J, et al. Towards the real-time monitoring of glucose in tear fluid: holographic glucose sensors with reduced interference from lactate and pH. Biosens Bioelectron 2008; 23;6:  899-905.

66.       Evans V, Vockler C, Friedlander M, et al. Lacryglobin in human tears, a potential marker for cancer. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2001; 29;3:  161-3.

67.       de Freitas Campos C, Cole N, Dyk DV, et al. Proteomic analysis of dog tears for potential cancer markers. Res Vet Sci 2008; 85;2:  349-52.




Point/Counterpoint: Contact Lenses and Myopia Control: Evidence Versus Hype

(p. 18) Point: Correcting Lenses Can Alter Refractive Development, By Earl L. Smith III, OD, PhD, FAAO


Aller, T. A. and C. F. Wildsoet (2008). "Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: a case report involving identical twins." Clinical and Experimental Optometry 91: 394-399.

Anstice, N. S. and J. R. Phillips (2011). "Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children." Ophthalmology Epub ahead of print.

Atchison, D. A., N. Pritchard, et al. (2006). "Peripheral refraction along the horizontal and vertical visual fields in myopia." Vision Research 46: 1450-1458.

Charman, W. N., J. Mountford, et al. (2006). "Peripheral refraction in orthokeratology patients." Optometry and Vision Science 83: 641-648.

Cheng, D., K. L. Schmid, et al. (2010). "Randomized trial of effect of bifocal and prismatic bifocal spectacles on myopic progression." Archives of Ophthalmology 128: 12-19.

Cheung, S. W. and P. Cho (2010). "Baseline and 6 months results of the ROMIO study: A randomized clinical trial on myopic control using orthokeratology." 13th International Myopia Conference, Tubingen, Abstract S4T6.

Cho, P., S. W. Cheung, et al. (2005). "The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control." Current Eye Research 30: 71-80.

Gwiazda, J., M. S. P. H. Chandler, et al. (2011). "Progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses for slowing progression of myopia in children with high accommodative lag and near esophoria." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science doi:10.1167/iovs.10-6631.

Gwiazda, J., L. Hyman, et al. (2003). "A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 44: 1492-1500.

Hasebe, S., H. Ohtsuki, et al. (2008). "Effect of progressive addition lenses on myopia progression in Japanese children: a prospective, randomized, double-masked, crossover trial." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 49: 2781-2789.

Holden, B. A., P. Sankaridurg, et al. (2010). "Reduction in the rate of progress of myopia with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 50.: ARVO E-abstract 2220.

Kakita, T., T. Hiraoka, et al. (2011). "Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 52: 2170-2174.

Lam, C. S. Y., W. C. Tang, et al. (2010). "Randomized clinical trial of myopia control i myopic schoolchildren using the defocus incorporated soft contact (DISC) lens." 13th International Myopia Conference, Tubingen, Abstract S16T4.

Liu, Y. and C. F. Wildsoet (2010). "The effect of 2-zone concentric bifocal spectacle lenses on refractive error development and eye growth in young chicks." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science Epub ahead of print.

Santodomingo-Rubido, J., C. villa-Collar, et al. (2010). "Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain (MCOS): design, baseline findings and 18 month refractive & biometric data." 13th International Myopia Conference, Tubingen, Abstract S4T6.

Smith III, E. L. and L.-F. Hung (1999). "The role of optical defocus in regulating refractive development in infant monkeys." Vision Research 39: 1415-1435.

Smith III, E. L., C.-s. Kee, et al. (2005). "Peripheral vision can influence eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46: 3965-3972.

Swarbrick, H., A. Albharbi, et al. (2011). "Changes in axial length and refractive error during overnight orthokeratology for myopia control." ARVO e-abstracts #2837.

Walline, J. J., L. A. Jones, et al. (2009). "Corneal reshaping and myopia progression." British Journal of Ophthalmology 93: 1181-1185.

Wallman, J. and J. Winawer (2004). "Homeostasis of eye growth and the question of myopia." Neuron 43: 447-468.


(p. 18) Counterpoint: Peripheral Myopic Defocus May Not be the Answer, By Donald O. Mutti, OD, PhD


1. Katz J, Schein OD, Levy B, et al. A randomized trial of rigid gas permeable contact lenses to reduce progression of children's myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:82-90.

2. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. A randomized trial of the effects of rigid contact lenses on myopia progression. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:1760-1766.

3. Grosvenor T, Perrigin DM, Perrigin J, Maslovitz B. Houston Myopia Control Study: A randomized clinical trial. Part II. Final report by the patient care team. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987;64:482-498.

4. Fulk GW, Cyert LA, Parker DE. A randomized trial of the effect of single-vision vs. bifocal lenses on myopia progression in children with esophoria. Optom Vis Sci. 2000;77:395-401.

5. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M, et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:1492-1500.

6. Progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses for slowing progression of myopia in children with high accommodative lag and near esophoria. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;

7. Gimbel HV. The control of myopia with atropine. Can J Ophthalmol. 1973;8:527-532.

8. Tong L, Huang XL, Koh AL, et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia: effect on myopia progression after cessation of atropine. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:572-579.

9. Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Jones LA, et al. Accommodation, acuity, and their relationship to emmetropization in infants. Optom Vis Sci. 2009;68:666-676.

10. Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Hayes JR, et al. Accommodative lag before and after the onset of myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:837-846.

11. Berntsen DA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Zadnik K, Group TCS. Accommodative lag and juvenile-onset myopia progression in children wearing refractive correction. Vision Res. In Press;

12. Mutti DO, Sinnott LT, Mitchell GL, et al. Relative peripheral refractive error and the risk of onset and progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:199-205.

13. Sankaridurg P, Donovan L, Varnas S, et al. Spectacle lenses designed to reduce progression of myopia: 12-month results. Optom Vis Sci. 2010;87:631-641.

14. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1181-1185.





(p. 23) GP Insights: A Consensus: GP Multifocals Can Help Build Your Practice, By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO


1.     Jones L, Jones D, Langley C, et al.  Reactive or proactive contact lens fitting – does it make a difference?  J Br Contact Lens Assoc  1996;19(2):41-43. 

2.     Nichols JJ.  Contact lenses 2010.  Contact Lens Spectrum  2011;26(1).

3.     Situ P, du Toit R, Fonn D, et al.  Successful monovision contact lens wearers refitted into bifocal contact lenses.  Eye Contact Lens  2003;29(3):181-184. 

4.      Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low-astigmatic presbyopia. Optom Vis Sci  2006;83(5):266-273.

5.      Benjamin WJ.  Comparing multifocals and monovision.  Contact Lens Spectrum  2007;22(7).

6.      Kirschen DG, Hung CC, Nagano TR.  Comparison of suppression, stereoacuity and interocular differences in visual acuity in monovision, and Acuvue Bifocal contact lenses.  Optom Vis Sci 1999;76:832-837.

7.      Johnson J, Bennett ES, Henry VA, et al.  Multivision™ vs. monovision: a comparative study.  Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Contact lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Las Vegas, NV, February, 2000. 

8.         Rajagopalan AS, Bennett ES, Lakshminarayanan V.  Visual performance of subjects wearing presbyopic contact lenses.  Optom Vis Sci  2006;83(8):611-615.

9.        Bennett ES.  Researching GP multifocals.  Contact Lens Spectrum  2005;20(2).




(p. 27) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: Lens Intolerance and MGD, By Eric E. Schmidt, OD


Ong BL, Larke JR: Meibomian gland dysfunction: SOme clinical, biochemical and physical observations. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 1190, Vol 10, April, pp. 144-148

Arita R, et al. Contact lens wear is associated with decrease of meibomian glands. Ophthalmology Vol 116, No. 3, March 2009 pp. 379-384


Efficacy of Topical Azithromycin Ophthalmic Solution 1.0% in the Treatment of Contact Lens-Related Dry Eye (KM Bickle, KK Nichols, R Haque, RC Zink, M Schiewe. JJ Nichols)





(p. 29) Contact Lens Care & Compliance: Cleaning and Disinfecting

Hybrid Contact Lenses, By Susan J. Gromacki, OD, MS, FAAO


1.         Kaseburg, Kellie.  Personal communication.  April 7, 2011.




(p. 30) Laying the Groundwork for Successful Lens Wear, By Ernest L. Bowling, OD, MS, FAAO, Dipl.


Yung AMS, Boost MV, Cho P, et al. The effect of a compliance enhancement strategy (self-review) on the level of lens care compliance and contamination of contact lenses and lens care accessories. Clin Exp Optom 2007; 90: 190 –202.

de Oliveira PR, Temporini-Nastari ER, Ruiz Alves M, et al. Self-evaluation of contact lens wearing and care by college students and health care workers. Eye Contact Lens 2003; 29: 164 –167.

Koffler BH, Karpecki PM.  Positive Aspects of the Use of Multipurpose Disinfection Solutions.  Arch Ophthalmol 2009;127(11):1540 – 1543.


Dart JKG, Radford CF, Minassian D, et al. Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses. Ophthalmol  2008;115(10):1647-1654, e1-e3.

Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, et al. The incidence of contact lens–related microbial keratitis in Australia.  Ophthalmol  2008;115(10):1655-1662.


Gromacki S.  Hydrogel and Silicone hydrogel lens care.  Contact Lens Spectrum  2008;21(2):26 – 31.


Watanabe RK. Contact lens solutions update 2006. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2006;21(8):26-31.


Donshik PC, Ehlers WH, Anderson LD, et al. Strategies to better engage, educate, and empower patient compliance and safe lens wear: compliance: what we know, what we do not know, and what we need to know. Eye Contact Lens 2007;33(6, pt 2):430-433.


Turner FD, Gower LA, Stein JM, et al. Compliance and contact lens care: a new assessment method. Optom Vis Sci 1993;70(12):998-1004.


Woods C.  Compliance with lens care and contact lens case care and replacement.  Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Optometry, San Francisco, CA, Dec, 2010.


DiMatteo MR. Variations in patients’ adherence to medical recommendations: A quantitative review of 50 years of research. Med Care 2004;42:200–209.


Forister JF, Forister EF, Yeung KK, et al.  Prevalence of contact lens-related complications: UCLA contact lens study.  Eye Contact Lens 2009;35(4):176-80.


Morgan P. Contact lens compliance and reducing the risk of keratitis. OpticianOnLine Web site. Available at: Accessed March 11, 2011.


Cardona G, Llovet I. Compliance amongst contact lens wearers: Comprehension skills and reinforcement with written instructions. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2004; 27:75–81.


Carnt NA, Evans VE, Naduvilath TJ, et al.  Contact lens-related adverse events and the silicone hydrogel lenses and daily wear care system used.  Arch Ophthalmol 2009;127(12):1616-1623.




(p. 34) Technology to Optimize GP Comfort and Success, By Cary M Herzberg, OD, FOAA


1.      Bennett E. What’s new in GP materials. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium. January 2011, Las Vegas, NV.

2.      Kollbaum PS. Aberration correction part two. Review of Cornea & Contact Lenses  2009;146(2):34-37.

3.      van der Worp E. New technology in contact lens practice. Contact Lens Spectrum 2010;25(2):22-29.

4.      van der Worp E. What GP decline? Contact Lens Spectrum 2009;24(6):16.

5.      Potter R. The road to GP comfort. Contact Lens Spectrum 2008;23(10):37-41.

6.      Efron N. Why GP lenses are on the decline. Contact Lens Spectrum  2009;24(8):17.

7.      Nichols JJ. State of the contact lens industry. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium. January 2011, Las Vegas, NV.

8.      Coletta N. Correcting higher-order aberrations. Contact Lens Spectrum 2005;20(11):42-47.

9.      Laurenzi A. GP plasma treatment and dry eye patients. Contact Lens Spectrum 2008;23(10):27.

10. Personal interview with Bob Cotie, Owner, C& H Contact Lens. Dallas, TX,  March 24, 2011.

11. Personal interview with Mark Cosgrove, Director Of Operations, C&E GP Specialists, San Diego, California, February 12, 2011.

12. Personal interview with Chris Pantle. Sales Manager, DAC International, Tulsa, OK, February 18, 2011.

13. Personal interview with Jerry Legerton, President, The Epic Group. San Diego, California, February 12, 2011.

14. Davis R, Eiden,B: Hybrid contact lens management.

15. Davis R. Hybrid lens technology. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium. January 2011, Las Vegas, NV.

16. DeNaeyer,GW. Scleral lens design and fitting. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium. January 2011, Las Vegas, NV.

17. Personal interview with Jim Edwards and Scott Lewis.

18. Kojima R, Caroline P. Designing GPs from corneal topography. Contact Lens Spectrum 2009;24(10):34-40.

19. Personal interview with Randy Kojima, Director Technical Affairs, Precision Technology. San Diego, California, February 12, 2011




(p. 40) Implementing Sclerals Into Your Practice, By Jeffrey Sonsino, OD, FAAO, & Marsha Malooley, OD, FAAO


1. Visser ES, Visser R, van Lier HJ, Otten HM. Modern scleral lenses part I: clinical features. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 Jan;33(1):13-20.

2. Ogawa Y, Okamoto S, Wakui M, et al. Dry eye after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83:1125-1130.

3. Visser ES, Visser R, van Lier HJ, Otten HM. Modern scleral lenses part II: patient satisfaction. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 Jan;33(1):21-5.

4. Schornack MM, Patel SV. Scleral lenses in the management of keratoconus. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Jan;36(1):39-44.

5.  Schornack M. Scleral lenses in the management of Salzmann’s nodular degeneration. Optometry. 2009 Jun;80(6):293-4.

6. Jacobs DS. Update on scleral lenses. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008 Jul;19(4):298-301. Review.




(p. 54) Treatment Plan: Treating a Rare Corneal Disease, By William L. Miller, OD, PhD, FAAO


Hamada S, Darrad K and McDonnell PJ. Salzmann’s nodular corneal degeneration (SNCD): Clinical findings, risk factors, prognosis and the role of previous contact lens wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2011 Feb 22 Epub ahead of print.
Farjo AA, Halperin GI, Syed N, Sutphin JE, and Wagoner MD. Salzmann’s nodular degeneration clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes. Cornea 25(1):11-15, 2006
Bowers PJ, Price MO, Zeldes SS and Price FW. Superficial keratectomy with mitomycin-C for the treatment of Salzmann’s nodules. J. Cataract Refract Surg 29(7):1302-1306, 2003
Malta JB and  Soong HK. Diamond burr superficial keratectomy in the treatment of visually-significant anterior corneal lesions. Arg Bras Oftalmol 71(3):415-418.