Contact Lens Spectrum

July 2011

Document #188





(p. 16) Research Review: Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: All You Need to Know, By Eric Papas, PhD, MCOptom, DipCL, FAAO



Asbell, P. A., F. J. Stapleton, et al. (2011). "The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Clinical Trials Subcommittee." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 52(4): 2065-2085.

Geerling, G., J. Tauber, et al. (2011). "The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Subcommittee on Management and Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 52(4): 2050-2064.

Green-Church, K. B., I. Butovich, et al. (2011). "The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Subcommittee on Tear Film Lipids and Lipid–Protein Interactions in Health and Disease." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 52(4): 1979-1993.

Knop, E., N. Knop, et al. (2011). "The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Subcommittee on Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathophysiology of the Meibomian Gland." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 52(4): 1938-1978.

Nelson, J. D., J. Shimazaki, et al. (2011). "The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 52(4): 1930-1937.

Nichols, K. K. (2011). "The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Introduction." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 52(4): 1917-1921.

Nichols, K. K., G. N. Foulks, et al. (2011). "The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Executive Summary." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 52(4): 1922-1929.

Schaumberg, D. A., J. J. Nichols, et al. (2011). "The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Subcommittee on the Epidemiology of, and Associated Risk Factors for, MGD." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 52(4): 1994-2005.

Tomlinson, A., A. J. Bron, et al. (2011). "The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Diagnosis Subcommittee." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 52(4): 2006-2049.






(p. 20) GP Insights: Successfully Managing Ocular Surface Disease, By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO


  1. Schornack MM. Baratz, KH. Patel, SV. Maquire, LJ. Jupiter scleral lenses in the management of chronic graft versus host disease. Eye Contact Lens 2008 Nov;34(6):302-5.
  2. Rosenthal P. Cotter, J. The Boston Scleral Lens in the Management of severe ocular surface disease. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 2003 Mar;16(1):89-93.
  3. Visser, ES. Visser, R. JJ van Lier, H. Otten, HM. Modern Scleral Lenses Part II: Patient Satisfaction. Eye & Contact Lens 2007  33 (1): 21-25.
  4. Russo PA, Bouchard CS, Galasso JM. Extended-wear silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses in the management of moderate to severe dry eye signs and symptoms secondary to graft-versus-host disease. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 May;33(3):144-7.




(p. 21) Contact Lens Design & Materials: Contact Lens Dry Eye—What Triggers the Sensation? By Neil Pence, OD, FAAO


  1. Chalmers RL, Begley CG.  Dryness symptoms among an unselected clinical population with and without contact lens wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye, 2006.
  2. Begley CG, Caffery B, Nichols KK, Chalmers RL.  Response of contact lens wearers to a dry eye survey.  Optom Vis Sci, 2000; 77:40-46.
  3. Fonn D, Situ P, Simpson T.  Hydrogel lens dehydration and subjective comfort and dryness ratings in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci 1999; 76:700-4.
  4. Pritchard N, Fonn D.  Dehydration, lens movement and dryness ratings of hydrogel contact lenses.  Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 1995;15:281-6.
  5. De Wijk RA, Pring JF.  Mechanisms underlying the role of friction in oral texture.  Journal of Texture Studies 2006; 37:413-427.
  6. Green B. Oral astringency: A tactile component of flavor. Acta Psychologica, Vol 84(1), Oct 1993, 119-25.
  7. Ranc H, Servais C, et al.  Frictional behavior of silicone structured surfaces simulating tongue roughness.  European Cells & Materials Vol. 10, Suppl. 5, 2005; P.STE10.




(p. 24) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: The Dry Eye Pipeline in 2011, By William Townsend, OD, FAAO


Kato T, Araki H, Onogi F. et al. Clinical trial: rebamipide promotes gastric ulcer healing by proton pump inhibitor after endoscopic submucosal dissection—a randomized controlled study. J Gastroenterol. 2010 Mar;45(3):285-90.


Hasegawa S, Sekino H, Matsuoka O. et al. Bioequivalence of rebamipide granules and tablets in healthy adult male volunteers. Clin Drug Investig. 2003;23(12):771-9.


Kohashi M, Ishimaru N, Arakaki R, Hayashi Y. Source Effective treatment with oral administration of rebamipide in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Feb;58(2):389-400.


Ofri R, Lambrou GN, Allgoewer I, Graenitz U, Pena TM, Spiess BM, Latour E.

Clinical evaluation of pimecrolimus eye drops for treatment of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca: a comparison with cyclosporine A. Vet J. 2009 Jan;179(1):70-7


Meingassner,JG Fahrngruber H,  Bavandi A. Pimecrolimus Inhibits the Elicitation Phase but Does Not Suppress the Sensitization Phase in Murine Contact Hypersensitivity,in Contrast to Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine A1. J Invest

Dermatol 2003121:7- 80,


Novagali Pharma Completed a New Phase II With Cyclokat(R) in Dry Eye

Rx Times April 15, 2009


Dartt DA, Hodges RR, Li D, Shatos MA, Lashkari K, Serhan CN. Conjunctival goblet cell secretion stimulated by leukotrienes is reduced by resolvins D1 and E1 to promote resolution of inflammation. J Immunol. 2011 Apr 1;186(7):4455-66


Gupta C, Chauhan A. Ophthalmic delivery of cyclosporine A by punctal plugs.

J Control Release. 2011 Feb 28;150(1):70-6.




(p. 26) Dry Eye in Soft Contact Lens Wearers, By Heiko Pult, PhD, MSc, FAOO, FBCLA, FEAOO


(2007). 2007 report of the international dry eye workshop (DEWS). Ocul Surf Volume 5.

Begley, C., Caffery, B., Nichols, K., et al. (2000a). Results of a dry eye questionnaire from optometric practices in North America. Survey of Preferred Tests for Diagnosis of the Tear Film and Dry Eye. Cornea 19(6) Supplement 2, 75.

Begley, C. G., Caffery, B., Nichols, K. K. and Chalmers, R. (2000b). Responses of contact lens wearers to a dry eye survey. Optom Vis Sci 77, 40-46.

Begley, C. G., Chalmers, R. L., Mitchell, G. L., et al. (2001). Characterization of ocular surface symptoms from optometric practices in North America. Cornea 20, 610-618.

Benelli, U., Nardi, M., Posarelli, C. and Albert, T. G. (2010). Tear osmolarity measurement using the TearLab Osmolarity System in the assessment of dry eye treatment effectiveness. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 33, 61-67.

Berry, M., Pult, H., Purslow, C. and Murphy, P. J. (2008). Mucins and ocular signs in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci 85, E930-938.

Brennan, N. A., Coles, M. L., Comstock, T. L. and Levy, B. (2002). A 1-year prospective clinical trial of balafilcon a (PureVision) silicone-hydrogel contact lenses used on a 30-day continuous wear schedule. Ophthalmology 109, 1172-1177.

Brennan, N. A., Lowe, R., Efron, N., Ungerer, J. L. and Carney, L. G. (1987). Dehydration of hydrogel lenses during overnight wear. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 64, 534-539.

Cedarstaff, T. H. and Tomlinson, A. (1983). A comparative study of tear evaporation rates and water content of soft contact lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 60, 167-174.

Chalmers, R., Long, B., Dillehay, S. and Begley, C. (2008). Improving contact-lens related dryness symptoms with silicone hydrogel lenses. Optom Vis Sci 85, 778-784.

Chalmers, R. L., Begley, C. and Moody, K. (2009). Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire-8 (CLDEQ-8): Use of an 8-Item Habitual Symptom Score to Reflect Change in Overall Opinion on Contact Lens Performance. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50, 6337-.

Chalmers, R. L., Dillehay, S., Long, B., et al. (2005). Impact of previous extended and daily wear schedules on signs and symptoms with high Dk lotrafilcon A lenses. Optom Vis Sci 82, 549-554.

Chalmers, R. L., Moody, K., Young, G., Hickson-Curran, S. and Hunt, C. (2010). Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire-8 (CLDEQ-8) reflects status of and responds to change in overall opinion of CL performance. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 33, E-abstract: 256-300.

Craig, J. P., Purslow, C., Murphy, P. J. and Wolffsohn, J. S. (2010). Effect of a liposomal spray on the pre-ocular tear film. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 33, 83-87.

Dausch, D., Lee, S., Dausch, S., Kim, J. C., Schwert, G. and Michelson, W. (2006). Comparative study of treatment of the dry eye syndrome due to disturbances of the tear film lipid layer with lipid-containing tear substitutes. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 223, 974-983.

Dillehay, S. M. (2007). Does the level of available oxygen impact comfort in contact lens wear?: A review of the literature. Eye Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice 33, 148-155.

Dumbleton, K. A., Chalmers, R. L., Mcnally, J., Bayer, S. and Fonn, D. (2002). Effect of lens base curve on subjective comfort and assessment of fit with silicone hydrogel continuous wear contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 79, 633-637.

Efron, N., Brennan, N. A., Bruce, A. S., Duldig, D. I. and Russo, N. J. (1987). Dehydration of hydrogel lenses under normal wearing conditions. Clao J 13, 152-156.

Fonn, D. (2007). Targeting contact lens induced dryness and discomfort: What properties will make lenses more comfortable. Optom Vis Sci 84, 279-285.

Foulks, G. N. and Bron, A. J. (2003). Meibomian gland dysfunction: a clinical scheme for description, diagnosis, classification, and grading. Ocul Surf 1, 107-126.

Glasson, M. J., Stapleton, F., Keay, L., Sweeney, D. and Willcox, M. D. P. (2003). Differences in clinical parameters and tear film of tolerant and intolerant contact lens wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44, 5116-5124.

Gothwal, V. K., Pesudovs, K., Wright, T. A. and Mcmonnies, C. W. (2010). McMonnies questionnaire: enhancing screening for dry eye syndromes with Rasch analysis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51, 1401-1407.

Höh, H., Schirra, F., Kienecker, C. and Ruprecht, K. W. (1995). Lid-parallel conjunctival folds are a sure diagnostic sign of dry eye. Ophthalmologe 92, 802-808.

Hom, M. M. and Bruce, A. S. (2009). Prelens tear stability: relationship to symptoms of dryness. Optometry 80, 181-184.

Jackson, W. B. (2008). Blepharitis: current strategies for diagnosis and management. Can J Ophthalmol 43, 170-179.

Johnson, M. E. and Murphy, P. J. (2005). The Effect of instilled fluorescein solution volume on the values and repeatability of TBUT measurements. Cornea 24, 811-817.

Johnson, M. E., Murphy, P. J. and Boulton, M. (2006). Effectiveness of sodium hyaluronate eyedrops in the treatment of dry eye. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 244, 109-112.

Jones, L., Evans, K., Sariri, R., Franklin, V. and Tighe, B. (1997a). Lipid and protein deposition of N-vinyl pyrrolidone-containing group II and group IV frequent replacement contact lenses. CLAO Journal 23, 122-126.

Jones, L., Mann, S., Evans, K., Franklin, V. and Tighe, B. (1997b). The influence of replacement period on the deposition of FDA group II and group IV hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 38, ARVO E-Abstract: 983.

Khanal, S., Tomlinson, A., Mcfadyen, A., Diaper, C. and Ramaesh, K. (2008). Dry eye diagnosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49, 1407-1414.

Knop, E., Knop, N., Brewitt, H., et al. (2009). Meibomian glands : part III. Dysfunction - argument for a discrete disease entity and as an important cause of dry eye. Ophthalmologe 106, 966-979.

Knop, E., Korb, D. R., Blackie, C. A. and Knop, N. (2010). The lid margin is an underestimated structure for preservation of ocular surface health and development of dry eye disease. Dev Ophthalmol 45, 108-122.

Korb, D. R. and Blackie, C. A. (2010). Marx's Line of the Upper Lid is Visible in Upgaze Without Lid Eversion. Eye Contact Lens 36, 149-151.

Korb, D. R., Greiner, J. V., Herman, J. P., et al. (2002). Lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J 28, 211-216.

Korb, D. R., Herman, J. P., Greiner, J. V., et al. (2005). Lid wiper epitheliopathy and dry eye symptoms. Eye Contact Lens 31, 2-8.

Korb, D. R., Herman, J. P., Solomon, J. D., Greiner, J. V. and Blackie, C. A. (2006). Lid Wiper Staining and Sequential Fluorescein Instillation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47, ARVO E-Abstract: 242.

Ladage, P. M., Yamamoto, K., Ren, D. H., et al. (2001). Effects of rigid and soft contact lens daily wear on corneal epithelium, tear lactate dehydrogenase, and bacterial binding to exfoliated epithelial cells. Ophthalmology 108, 1279-1288.

Landers, A., Mowrey-Mckee, M., Nash, W. and Scott, R. (2011). Do contact lenses elevate tear osmolarity in the typical lens wearer? In: 6th International Conference on the Tear Film & Ocular Surface: Basic Science and Clinical Relevance, Florence, Italy.

Lievens, C. W., Hakim, N. and Chinn, A. (2006). The effect of multipurpose solutions on the ocular surface. Eye Contact Lens 32, 8-11.

Long, B. and Mcnally, J. (2006). The clinical performance of a silicone hydrogel lens for daily wear in an Asian population. Eye Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice 32, 65-71.

Lorentz, H. and Jones, L. (2007). Lipid deposition on hydrogel contact lenses: How history can help us today. Optom Vis Sci 84, 286-295.

Lorentz, H., Rogers, R. and Jones, L. (2007). The impact of lipid on contact angle wettability. Optom Vis Sci 84, 946-953.

Luensmann, D., Heynen, M., Liu, L., Sheardown, H. and Jones, L. (2010). The efficiency of contact lens care regimens on protein removal from hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses. Mol Vis 16, 79-92.

Mcdonald, M., D'aversa, G., Perry, H. D., Wittpenn, J. R., Donnenfeld, E. D. and Nelinson, D. S. (2009). Hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic inserts (lacrisert) reduce the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome and improve patient quality of life. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 107, 214-221.

Mcmonnies, C. W. (1986). Key questions in a dry eye history. J Am Optom Assoc 57, 512-517.

Mcmonnies, C. W. and Ho, A. (1987a). Patient history in screening for dry eye conditions. J Am Optom Assoc 58, 296-301.

Mcmonnies, C. W. and Ho, A. (1987b). Responses to a dry eye questionnaire from a normal population. J Am Optom Assoc 58, 588-591.

Menzies, K. L. B. S., Rogers, R. M. S. and Jones, L. P. D. (2010). In Vitro Contact Angle Analysis and Physical Properties of Blister Pack Solutions of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice 36, 10-18.

Messmer, E. M., Bulgen, M. and Kampik, A. (2010). Hyperosmolarity of the tear film in dry eye syndrome. Dev Ophthalmol 45, 129-138.

Michel, M., Sickenberger, W. and Pult, H. (2009). The effectiveness of questionnaires in the determination of Contact Lens Induced Dry Eye. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 29, 479-486.

Morgan, P. B., Efron, N., Helland, M., et al. (2010). Twenty first century trends in silicone hydrogel contact lens fitting: an international perspective. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 33, 196-198.

Nichols, J. J., Mitchell, G. L. and King-Smith, P. E. (2005). Thinning rate of the precorneal and prelens tear films. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46, 2353-2361.

Nichols, J. J., Mitchell, G. L., Nichols, K. K., Chalmers, R. and Begley, C. (2002). The performance of the contact lens dry eye questionnaire as a screening survey for contact lens-related dry eye. Cornea 21, 469-475.

Nichols, J. J. and Sinnott, L. T. (2006). Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47, 1319-1328.

Nichols, K. K., Foulks, G. N., Bron, A. J., et al. (2011). The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Executive Summary. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 1922-1929.

Nichols, K. K., Nichols, J. J., Mitchell, G. and Lynn, M. (2004a). The reliability and validity of McMonnies dry eye index. . Cornea 23(4), 365-371.

Nichols, K. K., Nichols, J. J. and Mitchell, G. L. (2004b). The lack of association between signs and symptoms in patients with dry eye disease. Cornea 23, 762-770.

Nichols, K. K. and Smith, J. A. (2002). Association of clinical diagnostic tests and dry eye surveys: the NEI-VFQ-25 and the OSDI. Adv Exp Med Biol 506, 1177-1181.

Pritchard, N. (2001). How can we avoid CL drop-outs? Optician 5825:222, 14-18.

Pult, H., Korb, D. R., Blackie, C. A. and Knop, E. (2010a). About Vital Staining of the Eye and Eyelids. I. The Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology of the Eyelid Margins and the Lacrimal Puncta by E. Marx. Optom Vis Sci 87, 718-724.

Pult, H., Murphy, P. J. and Purslow, C. (2009). A Novel Method to Predict Dry Eye Symptoms in New Contact Lens Wearers. Optom Vis Sci 86, E1042-1050.

Pult, H., Murphy, P. J. and Purslow, C. (2010b). Clide-index: a novel method to diagnose and measure contact lens induced dry eye. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 33, E-abstract: 256-300.

Pult, H., Purslow, C., Berry, M. and Murphy, P. J. (2008). Clinical tests for successful contact lens wear: relationship and predictive potential. Optom Vis Sci 85, E924-929.

Rajagopalan, K., Abetz, L., Mertzanis, P., et al. (2005). Comparing the discriminative validity of two generic and one disease-specific health-related quality of life measures in a sample of patients with dry eye. Value Health 8, 168-174.

Riley, C., Young, G. and Chalmers, R. (2006). Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a). Eye Contact Lens 32, 281-286.

Rosenberg, E. S. and Asbell, P. A. (2010). Essential Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Dry Eye. Ocul Surf 8, 18-28.

Sall, K., Stevenson, O. D., Mundorf, T. K. and Reis, B. L. (2000). Two multicenter, randomized studies of the efficacy and safety of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion in moderate to severe dry eye disease. CsA Phase 3 Study Group. Ophthalmology 107, 631-639.

Santodomingo-Rubido, J. and Rubido-Crespo, M. J. (2008). The clinical investigation of the base curve and comfort rate of a new prototype silicone hydrogel contact lens. Eye Contact Lens 34, 146-150.

Santodomingo-Rubido, J., Wolffsohn, J. and Gilmartin, B. (2008). Conjunctival epithelial flaps with 18 months of silicone hydrogel contact lens wear. Eye Contact Lens 34, 35-38.

Schafer, J. (2006). Choosing lens materials to solve dryness complaints. Contact Lens Spectrum 21; 3, 23.

Schafer, J., Mitchell, G. L., Chalmers, R. L., et al. (2007). The stability of dryness symptoms after refitting with silicone hydrogel contact lenses over 3 years. Eye Contact Lens 33, 247-252.

Schiffman, R. M., Christianson, M. D., Jacobsen, G., Hirsch, J. D. and Reis, B. L. (2000). Reliability and validity of the Ocular Surface Disease Index. Arch Ophthalmol 118, 615-621.

Schirra, F., Hoh, H., Kienecker, C. and Ruprecht, K. W. (1998). Using LIPCOF (lid-parallel conjunctival fold) for assessing the degree of dry eye, it is essential to observe the exact position of that specific fold. Adv Exp Med Biol 438, 853-858.

Senchyna, M., Jones, L., Louie, D., May, C., Forbes, I. and Glasier, M. A. (2004). Quantitative and conformational characterization of lysozyme deposited on balafilcon and etafilcon contact lens materials. Curr Eye Res 28, 25-36.

Sickenberger, W., Pult, H. and Sickenberger, B. (2000). LIPCOF and contact lens wearers - A new tool of forecast subjective dryness and degree of comfort of contact lens wearers. Contactologia 22, 74-79.

Sindt, C. W. and Longmuir, R. A. (2007). Contact lens strategies for the patient with dry eye. Ocul Surf 5, 294-307.

Springs, C. L. (2010). Novel hydroxypropyl-guar gellable lubricant eye drops for treatment of dry eye. Adv Ther 27, 681-690.

Stahl, U., Willcox, M. and Stapleton, F. (2010). Role of hypo-osmotic saline drops in ocular comfort during contact lens wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 33, 68-75.

Stevenson, D., Tauber, J. and Reis, B. L. (2000). Efficacy and safety of cyclosporin A ophthalmic emulsion in the treatment of moderate-to-severe dry eye disease: a dose-ranging, randomized trial. The Cyclosporin A Phase 2 Study Group. Ophthalmology 107, 967-974.

Subbaraman, L. N., Bayer, S., Gepr, S., et al. (2006). Rewetting drops containing surface active agents improve the clinical performance of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 83, 143-151.

Sullivan, B. D., Whitmer, D., Nichols, K. K., et al. (2010). An objective approach to dry eye disease severity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.

Tomlinson, A., Khanal, S., Ramaesh, K., Diaper, C. and Mcfadyen, A. (2006). Tear film osmolarity: determination of a referent for dry eye diagnosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47, 4309-4315.

Tomlinson, A., Mccann, L. C. and Pearce, E. I. (2010). Comparison of human tear film osmolarity measured by electrical impedance and freezing point depression techniques. Cornea 29, 1036-1041.

Tonge, S., Jones, L., Goodall, S. and Tighe, B. (2001). The ex vivo wettability of soft contact lenses. Curr Eye Res 23, 51-59.

Versura, P., Profazio, V., Balducci, N. and Campos, E. C. (2010a). Efficacy of two-month treatment with Xiloial eyedrops for discomfort from disposable soft contact lenses. Clin Ophthalmol 4, 1035-1041.

Versura, P., Profazio, V. and Campos, E. C. (2010b). Performance of tear osmolarity compared to previous diagnostic tests for dry eye diseases. Curr Eye Res 35, 553-564.

Vitale, S., Goodman, L. A., Reed, G. F. and Smith, J. A. (2004). Comparison of the NEI-VFQ and OSDI questionnaires in patients with Sjogren's syndrome-related dry eye. HealthQual Life Outcomes 2, 44.

Woods, C. A. and Morgan, P. B. (2004). Use of silicone hydrogel contact lenses by Australian optometrists. Clin Exp Optom 87, 19-23.





(p. 34) Fitting Scleral Lenses for Ocular Surface Disease, By Lynette K. Johns, OD, FAAO


1.     Ezekiel DF. Gas permeable haptic lenses. J Br. Contact Lens Assoc  1983; 6:  158-161.

2.     Schein OD, Rosenthal P, Ducharme C. A gas-permeable scleral contact lens for visual rehabilitation. Am J Ophthalmol  1990; 109:  318-322.

3.     Tan D, Pullum K.  Medical applications of scleral contact lenses:  1. A retrospective analysis of 343 cases.  Cornea 1995; 14:  121-129.

4.     Tan D, Pullum K.  Medical applications of scleral contact lenses:  2. Gas-permeable scleral contact lenses.  Cornea 1995; 14:  130-137.

5.     Pullum K, Whitting M, Buckley R.  Scleral contact lenses the expanding role.  Cornea  2005; 24: 269-277.

6.     Visser ES, Visser R, van Lier H, Otten H.  Modern scleral lenses Part I:  Clinical features.   Eye & Contact Lenses 2007; 33: 13-20.

7.     Schornack M, Patel S.  Scleral lenses in the management of keratoconus.  Eye & Contact Lens 2010; 36:  39-44.

8.     Romero-Rangel T, Stavrou P, Cotter J, Rosenthal P, Baltatzis S, Foster CS.  Gas permeable scleral contact lens therapy in ocular surface disease  Am J Ophthalmol  2000; 130: 25-32.

9.     Rosenthal P, Cotter J.  The Boston Scleral Lens in the management of severe ocular surface disease.  Ophthalmol Clin N Am 2003; 16:  89-93.

10. Rosenthal P, Croteau A.  Fluid-ventilated, gas-permeable scleral contact lens is an effective option for managing severe ocular surface disease and many corneal disorders that would otherwise require penetrating keratoplasty  Eye & Contact Lens 2005; 31:  130-134.

11. Rosenthal P, Jacobs D, Johns L. Fluid-ventilated gas permeable scleral lens: A new paradigm for the management of irregular corneal astigmatism and severe ocular surface disease.  Contemporary Ophthalmology 2006; 5:  1-8.

12. Jacobs D, Rosenthal P.  Boston Scleral Lens Prosthetic Device for treatment of severe dry eye in Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.  Cornea 2007; 26:  1195-1199.

13. Schornack M, Baratz K, Patel S, Maguire L.  Jupiter scleral lenses in the management of Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease.  Eye & Contact Lens  2008; 34:  302-305.

14. Tougeron-Brousseau B, Delcampe A, Gueudry J, Vera L, Doan S, Hoang-Xuan T, Muraine M.  Vision-related function after scleral lens fitting in ocular complications of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.  Am J Ophthalmol 2009; 148:  852-859.

15. Schornack M, Baratz K.  Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid:  The role of scleral lenses in disease management. Cornea 2009; 28:  1170-1172.

16. Gungor I, Schor K, Rosenthal P, Jacobs D.  The Boston Scleral Lens in the treatment of pediatric patients.  Journal of AAPOS  2008; 12: 263-267.

17. Rosenthal P, Cotter J, Baum J.  Treatment of Persistent Corneal Epithelial Defect with extended wear of a fluid-ventilated gas-permeable scleral contact lens.  Am J Ophthalmol  2000; 130:  33-41.

18. Gemoules G. A novel method of fitting scleral lenses using high resolution optical coherence tomography. Eye & Contact Lens 2008; 34:80-83.

19. Dua H, Azuara-Blanco A.  Limbal stem cells of the corneal epithelium. Surv Ophthalmol 2000; 44:  415-425.




(p. 40) A Closer Look at Corneal Stem Cells, By Katherine M. Mastrota, MS, OD, FAAO, & William Townsend, OD, FAAO


[1] Lavker RM, Tseng SC, Sun TT. Corneal epithelial stem cells at the limbus: looking at some old problems frm a new angle. Exp Eye Res. 2004;78:433-446.

[1] Dua HS, Shanmuganathan VA, Powell-Richards AO, Tighe PJ, Joseph A. Limbal epithelial crypts: a novel anatomical structure and a putative limbal stem cell niche. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89:529-532.

2a Daniels JT, Harris AR, Mason C. Corneal epithelial stem cells in health and disease. Stem Cell Rev. 2006;2(3):247-54. Review.

2b Li W, Hayashida Y, Chen YT, Tseng SC. Niche regulation of corneal epithelial stem cells at the limbus. Cell Res. 2007 Jan;17(1):26-36.

2c Majo F, Rochat A, Nicolas M, Jaoudé GA, Barrandon Y. Oligopotent stem cells are distributed throughout the mammalian ocular surface. Nature. 2008 Nov 13;456(7219):250-4.


[1] Essentials of Stem Cell Biology 2nd Ed. ,R Lanza,Editor.Academic Press, 2009, pg . xxiii

[1] Fuchs E, Segre JA. Stem cells: a new lease on life. Cell. 2000;100:143-155.

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17 Jeng, BH. et al. Management of Focal Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency Associated With Soft Contact Lens Wear. Cornea 2011;30:18–23




(p. 44) Contact Lens Practice Pearls: The Role of MGD in Lens Care, By Gregory J. Nixon, OD, FAAO


Knop E, Knop N, Millar T, Obata H, Sullivan DA. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the subcommittee on anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the meibomian gland. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(4):1938-78.


Nelson JD, Shimazaki J, Benitez-Del-Castillo JM, Craig JP, McCulley JP, Den S, et al. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the definition and classification subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(4):1930-7.


Tomlinson A, Bron AJ, Korb DR, Amano S, Paugh JR, Pearce EI, et al. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the diagnosis subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(4):2006-49.


Geerling G, Tauber J, Baudouin C, Goto E, Matsumoto Y, O'Brien T, et al. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the subcommittee on management and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(4):2050-64.




(p. 48) Pediatric and Teen CL Care: Rosacea: Not Just for Adults, By Christine W. Sindt, OD, FAAO


Bamford JT, Gessert CE, Renier CM, et al. Childhood stye and adult rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55: 951-955.


Berg M, Lidén S. An epidemiological study of rosacea. Acta Derm Venereol. 1989;69:419-423.


Cetinkaya A, Akova YA. Pediatric ocular acne rosacea: long-term treatment with systemic antibiotics. Am J Ophthalmol 2006; 142:816-820.


Crawford GH, Pelle MT, James WD. Rosacea: I. Etiology, pathogenesis, and subtype classification. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51:327-341.


Donaldson K, Karp CL, Dunbar MT. Evaluation and treatment of children with ocular rosacea. Cornea 2007;26:42-46.


Hong E, Fischer G. Childhood ocular rosacea: considerations for diagnosis and treatment. Australas J Dermatol 2009;50:272-275.


Jones SM, Weinstein JM, Cumberland P, Klein N, Nischal KK. Visual outcome and corneal changes in children with chronic blepharokeratoconjunctivitis. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:2271-2280.


Kroshinsky D, Glick SA. Pediatric rosacea. Dermatol Ther. 2006;19:196-201.


Mavrakanas N, Schutz JS, Dosso AA. Pediatric ocular rosacea. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2010;47:117-120.



(p. 50) Treatment Plan: Posterior Etiologies of Dry Eye, By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO


1.       Olson MC, Korb DR, Greiner JR. Evaluation of Warm Compress Therapy for Meibomian Gland Dysfunction .


2.        Nien CJ, Massei S, Lin G, et al. Effects of age and dysfunction on human meibomian glands. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:462-9.   


3.      Korb DR, Blackie CA.  Meibomian gland diagnostic expressibility: correlation with dry eye symptoms and gland location. Cornea. 2008;27:1142-7.


4.      Korb DR, Blackie CA.  Meibomian gland diagnostic expressibility: correlation with dry eye symptoms and gland location. Cornea. 2008;27:1142-7.


5.      Opitz DL, Tyler KF. Efficacy of azithromycin 1% ophthalmic solution for treatment of ocular surface disease from posterior blepharitis. Clin Exp Optom. 2011;94:200-6.


6.      Maskin SL. Intraductal meibomian gland probing relieves symptoms of obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction. Cornea. 2010;29:1145-52.



(p. 52) Reader and Industry Forum: Imaging the Structure of the Meibomian Glands, By Sruthi Srinivasan, PhD, BS Optom, FAAO; Luigina Sorbara, OD, MSc, FAAO (Dip CL); Lyndon W. Jones, PhD, FCOptoM, FAAO (Dip CL); & Wolfgang Sickenberger, Prof, MSc Optom, Dipl Ing (FH) AO


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