Contact Lens Spectrum

August 2011

Document #189






Point/Counterpoint: Corneal Infiltrative Events

(p. 16) Point: Why Corneal Infiltrates are on the Rise, By Joseph P. Shovlin, OD, FAAO


1.   Shovlin JP, Efron N: Risk factors for non-infectious contact lens-associated corneal infiltrative events: Systematic literature review, Ocular Surface (in press).

2.   Morgan PB, Efron N, Hill EA, et al. Incidence of keratitis of varying severity among contact lens wearers. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89(4):430-6.

3.   Hine N (2008) Hypersensitivity with Silicone Hydrogels: Material or Solution Effect? In the Practice. Silicone Hydrogel Web-site (

4.   Kislan TP, Hom MM. Corneal infiltrates with multipurpose solutions and contact lens combinations (abstract). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010;51(suppl):E-Abstract 3424.

5.   Sacco A. Silicone hydrogel contact lenses, lens care and sterile infiltrates: is there a connection? . in Annual Global Specialty Lens Symposium. 2011. Las Vegas, NV.

6.   Morgan PB, Efron N, Hill EA, et al. Incidence of keratitis of varying severity among contact lens wearers. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89(4):430-6.

7.   Sweeney DF, Stern J, Naduvilath T, Holden BA. Inflammatory adverse event rates over 3 years with silicone hydrogel lenses (abstract). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43(suppl):E-abstract 976.


(p. 17) Counterpoint: Not Enough Evidence Supports That Infiltrates are on the Rise, By Michael S. Mayers, OD, FAAO


1.       Kislan TP. Case Characteristics of Persons Presenting With Contact Lens-associated Infiltrative Keratitis (CLAIK) With Multipurpose Solutions and Contact Lens Combinations. Poster presented at ARVO 2011.

2.       Sacco AJ. Contact Lens-Associated Infiltrative Keratitis and Multipurpose Solutions. Contact Lens Spectrum. April 2011.

3.       Hom M, Kislan T.  An Update on Contact Lens Care: Clarifications and Current Research.  Course T238. Optometry’s Meeting 2010.  Available at:  Accessed May 27, 2011.

4.       Kislan T, Hom M. Corneal infiltrates with multipurpose solutions and contact lens combinations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:E-Abstract 3424.

5.       Carnt NAEvans VENaduvilath TJWillcox MDPapas EBFrick KDHolden BA. Contact Lens–Related Adverse Events and the Silicone Hydrogel Lenses and Daily Wear Care System Used. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Dec;127(12):1616-23.

6.       Stapleton F, Keay L, Jalbert I, Cole N. The Epidemiology of Contact Lens Related Infiltrates. Optometry & Vision Sci.  2007 Apr; 84(4): 257-272.





(p. 20) GP Insights: Fitting Bitoric GP Lenses, By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO


1.     Michaud L, et al.  Empirical fitting of high astigmatism with GP versus soft toric lenses.  Optometry  2009;80(7).

2.     Mandell RB, Moore CF.  A bitoric lens guide that really is simple.  Contact Lens Spectrum  1988;3(11):83-85. 

3.     Blackmore K, Bachand N, Bennett ES, et al.  Gas permeable lens use and applications: survey of Section on Cornea and Contact Lens Diplomates of the American Academy of Optometry.  Optometry  2006;77(1):17-22.

4.     Pitts K, Pack L, Edmondson W, et al.  Putting a RGP lens fitting guide to the test.  Contact Lens Spectrum 2001;16(10):34-40.





(p. 21) Contact Lens Design & Materials: Comfort Part 2: Soft Lenses, By Ronald K. Watanabe, OD, FAAO


  1. Dumbleton KA, Woods CA, Jones LW, Fonn D. Comfort and Adaptation to Silicone Hydrogel Lenses for Daily Wear. Eye Contact Lens 2008; 34(3): 215-223.


  1. Dillehay SM, Miller MB. Performance of Lotrafilcon B Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses in Experienced Low Dk/t Daily Lens Wearers. Eye Contact Lens 2007; 33(6): 272-277.


  1. Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R. Prevalence of Ocular Surface Symptoms, Signs, and Uncomfortable Hours of Wear in Contact Lens Wearers: The Effect of Refitting with Daily-Wear Silicone Hydrogel Lenses (Senofilcon A). Eye Contact Lens 2006; 32(6): 281-286.





(p. 23) Dry Eye Dx and Tx: The Effects of Smoking on the Ocular Surface, By Katherine M. Mastrota, MS, OD, FAAO


1.      U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Smoking and Health: The Reports of the Surgeon General, Public Health Service Publication No. 1103. 1964

2.      [1] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  How Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General.  Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010

3.      [1] Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE.  Prevalence of risk and factors for dry eye syndrome.  Arch Ophthalmol. 2000 Sep;118(9):1264-8.

4.      [1] Satici A, Bitiren M, Ozardali I, Kilic A, Guzey M. The effects of chronic smoking on the ocular surface and tear characteristics: a clinical, histological and biochemical study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003 Dec;81 (6);583-7.

5.      [1] Yoon KC, Song BY, Seo MS.  Effects of smoking on tear film and ocular surface.  Korean J Ophthalmol. 2005 Mar:19(1):18-22.

6.      [1] Matsumoto Y, Dogru M, Goto E, Sasaki Y, Inoue H, Saito I, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K. Aterations of the tear film and ocular surface health in chronic smokers. Eye (Lond). 2008 Jul;22(7):961-8.  Epub 2008 Apr 18

7.      [1] Altinors DD, Akca S, Akova YA, Bilezikci B, Goto E, Dogru M, Tsubota K. Smoking associated with damage to the lipid layer of the ocular surface. Am J Ophthalmol.2006 Jun;141(6):1016-1021

8.      [1] Grus FH, Sabuncuo P, Augustin A, Pfeiffer N.  Effect of smoking o ear proteins.  Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002 Nov;240(11):889-92.

9.      [1] National Cancer Institute, U.S. National Institutes of Health, Secondhand Smoke and Cancer FactSheet. Accessed February 22, 2010

10.  [1] Rummenie VT, Matsumoto Y, Dogru M, Wang Y, Hu Y, Ward SK, Igarashi A, Wakamatsu T, Ibrahim O, Goto E, Luyten G, Inoue H, Saito I, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K.  Tear cytokine and ocular surface alterations following brief passive cigarette smoke exposure.  Cytokine. 2008 Aug;43(2):200-8. Epub Jul 3

11.  [1]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Smoking and Tobacco Use.  Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimate. Accessed February 22, 2010




(p. 25) Contact Lens Care & Compliance: Effects of Using Generic and

Private-Label Care Solutions, By Karen K. Yeung, OD, FAAO


1.     Nielsen FDMexWM  week ending 04/16/2011

2.     Claydon BE, Efron N, Woods C. A prospective study of the effect of education on non-compliant behavior in contact lens wear. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 1997;17(2):137-46.

3.     Miller J, Powell S, Espejo L, et al.  Solution recommendations for soft contact lens wearers.  Poster presented at: AOA; June 2010; Orlando, Fl.

4.     Bui TH, Cavanagh HD, Robertson DM. Patient compliance during contact lens wear: perceptions, awareness, and behavior. Eye & contact lens. 2010;36(6):334-9.

5.     Forister JF, Forister EF, Yeung KK, et al. Prevalence of contact lens-related complications: UCLA contact lens study. Eye & Contact Lens. 2009;35(4):176-80.

6.     Yeung KK, Forister JY, Forister EF, et al. Compliance with soft contact lens replacement schedules and associated contact lens-related ocular complications: the UCLA contact lens study. Optometry. 2010;82:598-607.

7.     Andrasko G, Ryen K. Corneal staining and comfort observed with traditional and silicone hydrogel lens and multipurpose solution combinations. Optometry. 2008(79):444-54.

8.     Rosenthal RA, Dassanayake NL, Schlitzer RL, et al. Biocide uptake in contact lenses and loss of fungicidal activity during storage of contact lenses.  Eye & contact lens. 2006;32(6):262-66.





(p. 28) A Closer Look at Corneal Cross-Linking, By James P. Owen, OD, FAAO, MBA, & William J. Tullo, OD, FAAO



1.     Kennedy RH, Bourne WM, Dyer JA.  A 48 year clinical and epidemiologic study of keratoconus.  Am J Ophthalmol  1986; 101:267-273.

2.     Nielson K, Hjortal J, Aagaard Nohr E, et al.  Incidence and prevalence of keratoconus in Denmark.  Acta Ophthalmol Scand  2007;85:890-892.

3.     Georgiou T, Funnell CL, Cassels-Brown A, et al.  Influence of ethnic origin on the incidence of keratoconus and associated atopic disease in Asians and white patients.  Eye  2004;18:379-383.

4.     Zadnik K, Barr JT, Edrington TB, et al.  Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) study.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  1998;39(13):2537-2546.

5.     Assiri AA, Yousif BI, Quantock AJ, et al.  Incidence and severity of keratoconus in Asir province, Saudi Arabia.  Br J Ophthalmol  2005;89(11):1403-1406.

6.     Lee LR, Readshaw G, Hirst LW.  Keratoconus: the clinical experience of a Brisbane ophthalmologist.  Ophthalmic Epidemiol  1996;3(3):119-125.

7.     Rabinowitz YS, Garbus J, McDonnell PJ.  Computer-assisted corneal topography in family members of patients with keratoconus.  Arch Ophthalmol  1990;108(3):365-371.

8.     Tuft SJ, Moodaley LC, Gregory WM, et al.  Prognostic factors for the progression of keratoconus.  Ophthalmol  1994;101(3):439-446.

9.     Mandell RB.  Contemporary management of keratoconus.  Int Contact Lens Clin  1997;24(3,4):43-58.

10.                         Eye banking statistical report.  Washington DC, America EBAo, 2006.

11.                         Eggink FAGJ, Pinckers AJLG, Van Puyenbroek EP, et al.  Keratocous, a retrospective study.  Contact Lens J  1988;16:204.

12.                         Sayegh FN, Ehlers N, Farah I.  Evaluation of penetrating keratoplasty in keratoconus.  None years follow-up.  Acta Ophthalmol  1988;66:400.

13.                         Smiddy WE, Hamburg TR, Kracher GP, et al.  Keratoconus: contact lens or keratoplasty?  Ophthalmol 1988;95:487.

14.                         Seiler T.  1994.

15.                         Greenstein SA, Shah VP, Fry KL, Hersh PS. Corneal thickness changes after corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus and corneal ectasia: one-year results. J Cat Refract Surg. 2011 Apr;37(4):691-700.

16.                         Vicente LL, Boxer Wachler BS. Factors that correlate with improvement in vision after combined Intacs and trans-epithelial corneal crosslinking. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 Dec;94(12):1597-601. Epub 2010 Aug 30.

17.                         Greenstein SA, Fry KL, Bhatt J, Hersh PS. Natural history of corneal haze after collagen crosslinking for keratoconus and corneal ectasia: Scheimpflug and biomicroscopic analysis. J Cat Refract Surg. 2010



18.                         Hafezi F, Mrochen M, Iseli HP, Seiler T. Collagen crosslinking with ultraviolet-A           and hypoosmolar riboflavin solution in thin corneas. J Cat Refract Surg 2009;           35:621–624.

19.                         Wollensak G, Iomdina E.  Biomechanical and histological changes after corneal crosslinking with and without epithelial debridement. J Cat Refract Surg 2009; 35:540–546.

20.                         Coskunseven E, Jankov II M, Hafezi F. Contralateral eye study of corneal collagen cross-linking

         with riboflavin and UVA irradiation in patients with keratoconus. J Refract Surg         (25) April 2009.

21.                        Wittig-Silva C, Whiting M, Lamoureux E, Lindsay R, Sullivan L, Snibson G. A randomized controlled trial of corneal collagen cross-linking in progressive keratoconus: preliminary results. J Refract Surg (24) Sept 2008.

22.                         Vinciguerra P, Camesasca F, Albč E,Trazza S. Corneal collagen cross-linking for ectasia after excimer laser refractive surgery: 1-year results. J Refract Surg (25) Sept 2009.

23.                         Greenstein SA, Fry KL, Hersh PS. Corneal topography indices after corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus and corneal ectasia: One-year results. J Cat Refract Surg 2011;37(7):1282-90.

24.                         Koppen C, Vryghem J, Gobin L,Tassignon MJ. Keratitis and Corneal Scarring After UVA/Riboflavin Cross-linking for Keratoconus. J Refract Surg (25) Sept 2009.

25.                         Pollhammer M, Cursiefen C. Bacterial keratitis early after corneal crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A. J Cat Refract Surg 2009; 35:588–589.

26.                         Makdoumi K, Mortensen J, Crafoord S. Infectious keratitis treated with corneal crosslinking. Cornea.2010;29(12):1353-1358.

27.                         Raiskup F,Hoyer A, Spoerl E. Permanent corneal haze after riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking in  keratoconus. J Refract Surg (25) Sept 2009.

28.                        Koller T, Mrochen M, Seiler T. Complication and failure rates after corneal crosslinking. J Cat Refract Surg 2009; 35:1358–1362.

29.                         Hersh P, Greenstein S, Fry K. Corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus and corneal ectasia: One-year results. J Cat Refract Surg 2011; 37:149–160.

30.                         Koller T, Mrochen M, Seiler T. Complication and failure rates after corneal crosslinking, J Cat Refract Surg 2009; 35:1358–1362.

31.                         Baiocchi S, Mazzotta C, Cerretani D, Caporossi T,Caporossi A. Corneal crosslinking: Riboflavin concentration in corneal stroma exposed with and without epithelium. J Cat Refract Surg 2009; 35:893–899.

32.                         Bakke E, Stojanovic A, Chen X,  Drolsum L, Penetration of riboflavin and postoperative pain in corneal collagen crosslinking. J Cat Refract Surg 2009; 35:1363–1366.

33.                         Kymionis G, Kontadakis G,Kounis G Portaliou D,Karavitaki A,Magarakis M, Yoo S, Pallikaris I. Simultaneous topography-guided PRK followed by corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus.  J Refract Surg (25) Sept 2009.

34.                         Kanellopoulos AJ, Binder PS. Management of corneal ectasia after LASIK with combined, same-day, topography guided partial transepithelial PRK and collagen cross-linking: The Athens protocol.  J Refract Surg (   )  Nov 2010.

35.                         Sedaghat M, Naderi M, Zarei-Ghanavati M. Biomechanical parameters of the cornea after collagen crosslinking measured by waveform analysis. J Cat Refract Surg. 2010 Oct;36(10):1728-1731.

36.                         Gatzioufas Z, Seitz B. Collagen crosslinking in pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. J Cat Refract Surg  2010;36(8):1444; author reply 1444-1445.

37.                         Kampik D, Ralla B, Keller S, Hirschberg M, Friedl P, Geerling G. Influence of corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-a irradiation on excimer laser surgery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51(8):3929-34. Epub 2010 Mar 5.

38.                         Avila MY, Navia JL. Effect of genipin collagen crosslinking on porcine corneas. J Cat Refract Surg  2010;36(4):659-664.

39.                        J Cataract Refract Surg. <javascript:AL_get(this,%20'jour',%20'J%20Cataract%20Refract%20Surg.');> 2008 May;34(5):796-801.
Collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A light in keratoconus: long-term results.
Raiskup-Wolf F, Hoyer A, Spoerl E, Pillunat LE




(p. 32) Healthcare Reform and Electronic Health Records, By Scot Morris, OD


References available upon request to Dr. Morris at



(p. 40) Blood, Sweat, and Tears, By Roderick W.J. Bowers, PhD


  1. Sweeny D ed. Silicone Hydrogels. The rebirth of continuous wears contact lenses Oxford. Butterworth Heinemann, 2000


  1. Mirejovsky D, Patel AS, Young G, Water properties of hydrogel contact lenses materials; A positive predictive model for corneal epithelial staining. Biomaterials 14:4; 1080-8, 1993



  1. Fonn D, Targeting contact lens induced dryness and discomfort. What properties will make a contact lens more comfortable? Optom Vis Sci 2007:84:4:4 279-85.


  1.  Tighe B, Franklin, V, Tonge S, Contact lens care Part 3, Contact lens materials and their interactions with tears. Optician 2001, 5803 22-28



  1. Bowers RW, Tighe BJ, Studies of the ocular compatibility of hydrogels. White Spot Deposits- Chemical composition and geological arrangements of components. Biomaterials 1987 8 172-6


  1. Pritchard et al, A multi-centred study of lapsed contact lens wearers. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2002 22,6,516-27


  1. Richdale K, Sinnott. L.T.Skadahl et al. Frequency and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea 2007 26:2 168-74


  1. Young G, Exploring the relationship between material and ocular comfort and health. contact lens spectrum. Contact Lens Spectrum, 2007.


  1.  Jones L, Menzies K, Subbaraman, L, Comfortable contact Lenses. A case of Mission Impossible, Contact Lens Spectrum, July 2010


  1. Ratner B., The Catastrophe revisited, blood compatibility in the 21st Century – Biomaterials 28 (2007) 5144-5147


  1. Williams D.F, A model for biocompatibility and its evaluation Journal of Biomedical Engineering  (1989 )11, 3 185-191


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      electrophoretic studies of human tear proteins. Exp Eye Res 1979; 29: 539-553


  1. Luensmann D, Jones L, Albumin adsorption to contact lenses – a review Contact               Lens Anterior Eye 2008 31,179-187


  1. Williams D.F. On the nature of biomaterials. Biomaterials 2009 30(30) 5897-5909


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    Structural and dynamic properties of lipids and membranes’, Portland research Monograph, ed. Quinn, P.J. and Cherry, R.J. 1992 187- 216


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     Omafilcon A with four control materials., Contact Lens Association of

     Ophthalmologists Journal, 1997 23, 4, 249-258


20.Lemp, M.A., Caffery, B., Lebow, K., Lembach, R., Park, J., Foulks, G, Hall, B.,

    Bowers, R., McGarvey, S. and Young, G., 1999, Omafilcon A (Proclear) soft

           Contact lenses in a dry eye population. Contact Lens Association of

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21. Harris J.M., Poly (ethylene glycol chemistry biotechnical and biomedical                            applications. Plenum Press New York 1992


22  Harris J.M, Zalipsky (Poly ethylene glycol) Chemistry and biological applications American Chemical Society Washington DC (1997)


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(p. 44) Contact Lens Practice Pearls: Preparing Presbyopic Contact Lens Wearers, By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO


1.  Situ, P et al, Successful Monovision Contact  Lens Wearers Refitted with Bifocal

    Contact Lenses, Eye Contact Lens, July 2003.

2.  Richdale,K., Mitchell, GL and Zadnik,K Comparison of Multifocal and Monovision

    Soft Contact Lens Corrections in Patients  with Low-Astigmatic Presbyopia,

   Optom.Vis.Sci, 83(5):266-273, May 2006.

3.  Johnson T et al, Multifocals vs Monovision: A Comparative Study, CLAO, February


4. Rajagopalan et al Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Aug;83(8):611-5.



(p. 46) Pediatric and Teen CL Care: Younger Children Feel Positive Effects of Lens Wear, By Mary Lou French, OD, MEd, FAAO


1. Walline, JJ, Jones LA, Chitkara M, et al. The adolescent and child health initiative to encourage vision empowerment (ACHIEVE)study design and baseline data. Optom Vis Sci. 2006;(83): 37-45.



(p. 48) Treatment Plan: Ocular Surface Disease From Vitamin A Deficiency, By William L. Miller, OD, PhD, FAAO


  1. Kubo Y, Arimura A, Watanabe Y, Nakayasu K, Kanai A. Effect of vitamin A palmitate on vitamin A-deficient rabbits <>
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    Kim EC, Choi JS, Joo CK. A comparison of vitamin a and cyclosporine a 0.05% eye drops for treatment of dry eye syndrome. <>
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