­­­­­­­­Contact Lens Spectrum


February 2012

Document #195



(p. 14) Refractive Focus – Orthokeratology and Myopia Control—What Do We Know?

By David A. Berntsen, OD, PhD, FAAO

1. Bullimore MA, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. (2009). The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2009;86:E-abstract:90583.

2. Cheng D, Woo GC, Schmid KL. Bifocal lens control of myopic progression in children. Clin Exp Optom. 2011;94:24-32.

3. Cheung SW, Cho P, et al. Asymmetrical increase in axial length in the two eyes of a monocular orthokeratology patient. Optom Vis Sci. 2004;81:653-656.

4. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res. 2005;30:71-80.

5. Goss DA, Winkler RL. Progression of myopia in youth: age of cessation. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1983;60:651-658.

6. Kakita T, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2170-2174.

7. Kang P, Swarbrick H. Peripheral refraction in myopic children wearing orthokeratology and gas-permeable lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:476-482.

8. Lin Z, Martinez A, et al. Peripheral defocus with single-vision spectacle lenses in myopic children. Optom Vis Sci. 2010;87:4-9.

9. Millodot M. Effect of ametropia on peripheral refraction. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1981;58:691-695.

10. Mutti DO, Hayes JR, Mitchell GL, et al; CLEERE Study Group. Refractive error, axial length, and relative peripheral refractive error before and after the onset of myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2510-2519.

11. Reim TR, Lund M, Wu R, et al. Orthokeratology and adolescent myopia control. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2003 Mar;18(3):40-42. www.clspectrum.com. Accessed December 14, 2011.

12. Santodomingo-Rubido J, Collar CV, et al. Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain (MCOS): Refractive and biometric changes. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:E-abstract: 110916.

13. Santodomingo-Rubido J, Collar CV, et al. Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain (MCOS): Vision-related quality of life benefits between orthokeratology vs. spectacles. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:E-abstract: 110918.

14. Smith EL 3rd. Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A case for peripheral optical treatment strategies for myopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:1029-1044.

15. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, et al. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1655-1662.

16. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1181-1185.

17. http://www.polyu.edu.hk/cpa/polyu/index.php?search&press_section&press_category=All&press_date&mode=pressrelease&Itemid=223&option=com_content&page=1&order=desc&orderby=news_date&press_id=2222&lang=en&mid=57646



(p. 17) Prescribing for Astigmatism – Add Two Quick Steps to Confirm Soft Toric Rotational Stability

By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

1. Richdale K, Berntsen DA, Mack CJ, Merchea MM, Barr JT. Visual acuity with spherical and toric soft contact lenses in low to moderate astigmatic eyes. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:969-975.

2. Bayer S, Young G. Fitting low astigmats with toric soft contact lenses-what are the benefits and how easily it is achieved? Poster presented at: American Academy of Optometry. December 2005.

3. Decision Analyst. Astigmatism: Incidence & Barriers. December 2008.

4. Millward Brown. Consumer Toric Needs Study: U.S. December 2010.

5. Zikos GA, Kang SS, Ciuffreda KJ, et al. Rotational stability of toric soft contact lenses during natural viewing conditions. Optom.Vis Sci. 2007;84:1039-1045.

6. Young G, Mcllraith R. Poster presented at: American Academy of Optometry, 2008.

7. Chamberlain P, Morgan PB, Moody KJ, Maldonado-Codina C. Fluctuation in visual acuity during soft toric contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:E534-E538.



(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Humidity or the Lack Thereof

By William Townsend, OD, FAAO


"What is relative humidity and how does it affect how I feel outside?"  05 June 2001.  HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/meteorological-terms/question651.htm>  04 March 2012.

 “FAQ on humidity and water in the atmosphere” 4 Mar 2012 <http://usatoday.com/weather/resources/askjack/wfaqhumi.

“Humidity” (n.d.). In Wikipedia. 04 Mar. 2012, from



" Humidity." Infoplease 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease.

04 Mar. 2012 <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0769510.html>.


"Air Pressure and Humidity." Infoplease.

© 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease.

04 Mar. 2012 <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0769510.html>.


Arciniega JC, Wojtowicz JC, Mohamed EM, McCulley JP. Changes in the evaporation rate of tear film after digital expression of meibomian glands in patients with and without dry eye. Cornea. 2011 Aug;30(8):843-7.


Sunwoo Y, Chou C, Takeshita J, Murakami M, Tochihara Y. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity in young and elderly men. J Physiol Anthropol. 2006 May;25(3):229-38.



(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – We Need Daily Lens Cleaners

By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO


Nichols J. Contact Lenses 2011. Contact Lens Spectrum 2012 27;2:20-25.


FDA 510 (k) Summary of Safety and Effectiveness # K071203,June 13, 2007



(p. 24) Contemporary Multifocal Contact Lens Primer

By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO, & Vinita Allee Henry, OD, FAAO


1.     Morgan PB, Efron N, Woods CA.  International contact lens prescribing survey consortium.  Clin Exp Optom  2011;94(1):87-92.

2.     Studebaker J.  Soft multifocals: practice growth opportunity.  Contact lens Spectrum  2009;24(6).

3.     Edmonds F, Reindel W as cited in Tan J: “Contact Lens Options for Presbyopiahttp://www.siliconehydrogels.org/editorial_jackie_tan.asp. Accessed 1/12. 

4.     Benjamin W.  Comparing multifocals and monovision.  Contact Lens Spectrum  2007;22:35-39.

5.     Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K.  Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low astigmatic presbyopia.  Optom Vis Sci  2006;83:266-273.

6.     Situ P, Du Toit R, Fonn D, Simpson T.  Successful monovision contact lens wearers refitted with bifocal contact lenses.  Eye Contact Lens  2003;29:181-184.

7.     Johnson J, Bennett ES, Henry VA.  Multivision™ versus monovision: a comparative study.  Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists., Las Vegas, NV, Feb., 2000.

8.     Woods J, Woods CA, Fonn D.  Early symptomatic presbyopes – what correction modality works best?  Eye & Contact Lens  2009;35(5):221-226.

9.     Nichols JJ.  Contact lenses 2011.  Contact Lens Spectrum  2012;27(1).

10.                         Nichols JJ.  Contact lenses 2009.  Contact Lens Spectrum  2010;25(1).

11.                        Potter RT.  Toric and multifocal lens options.  Contact Lens Spectrum  2012;27(2). 




(p. 40) The Real World of Toric Contact Lens Wear

By Kurt Moody, OD, FAAO, FBCLA

1. Young G, Sulley A, Hunt C. Prevalence of astigmatism in relation to soft contact lens fitting. Eye & Contact Lens. 2011;37:20-25.

2. Nichols JJ. Contact lenses 2009. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2010;25(1):20-27.

3. Efron N, Morgan PB, Helland M, et al. Soft toric contact lens prescribing in different countries. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011;34:36-38.

4. Chamberlain P, Morgan PB, Moody KJ, Maldonado-Codina C. Fluctuation in visual acuity during soft toric contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:E534-E538.

5. Woods J, Woods CA, Fonn D. Early symptomatic presbyopes—what correction modality works best? Eye Contact Lens. 2009;35:221-226.

6. McIlraith R, Young G, Hunt C. Toric lens orientation and visual acuity in non-standard conditions. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010;33:23-26.

7. Zikos GA, Kang SS, Ciuffreda KJ, et al. Rotational stability of toric soft contact lenses during natural viewing conditions. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:1039-1045.



(p. 44) Dry Eye and Upper Lid Margin Staining

By Elena García Rubio, OD

1. 2007 Report of the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS). Ocul Surf. 2007;5:65-204.

2. Carney LG, Hill RM. The nature of normal blinking patterns. Acta Ophtalmol. 1982;5:84-87.

3. McMonnies CW. Incomplete blinking: Exposure keratopathy, lid wiper epitheliopathy, dry eye, refractive surgery and dry contact lenses. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye. 2007;30:37-51.

4. Korb DR, Greiner JV, Herman JP, et al. Lid wiper epitheliopathy and dry eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J. 2002;28:211-216.

5. Korb DR, Herman JP, Blackie CA, et al. Prevalence of lid wiper epitheliopathy in sujets with dry eye signs and symptoms. Cornea. 2010;29:377-383.

6. Korb DR, Herman SP, Greiner JV, et al. Lid wiper epitheliopathy and dry eye symptoms. Eye Cont Lens. 2005;31:2-8.

7. Monster AW, Chan HC, O’Connor D. Long-term trends in human eye blink rate. Biotelem Patient Monit. 1978;5:206-22.

8. Peral MA, Guerrero R. Entendiendo el Ojo Seco. Conferencia del XXI Congreso de Contactología. 2010.

9. Schiffman RM, Christianson MD, Jacobsen G, Hirsch JD, Reis BL. Reliability and validity of the Ocular Surface Disease Index. Arch Opthalmol. 2000;118:615-621.

10. Varikooty J, Srinivasan S, Jones L. Atypical manifestation of upper lid margin staining in silicone hydrogel lens wearers with symptoms of dry eye. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye. 2008;31:44-46.

11. Yan XM, Liu S, Li HL. Preliminary observation the correlation between lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry eye. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2008;44:436-441.



(p. 48) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – You Can Increase Usage of Daily Disposables

By Gregory J. Nixon, OD, FAAO

1. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2010. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2011;Jan: 24.

2. Morgan PB et al. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2010. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2011;Jan:30.

3. Nixon GJ. My Contact Lens Resolution. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2011; Jan: 46.



(p. 50) Pediatric and Teen CL Care - Albinism and Children: One

Fitter’s Experience and Tips

By Christine W. Sindt, OD, FAAO

1. Kruijt B, Franssen L, Prick LJ, van Fliet JM, van den Berg TJ. Ocular straylight in albinism. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:E525-E592.



(p. 51) Treatment Plan  - Discuss Ways to Decrease AMD Risk Factors With Patients

By Leo P. Semes, OD, FAAO

1. Congdon N, O'Colmain B, Klaver CC, et al; Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group. Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:477-485.

2. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. AREDS classification, risk factors associated with the incidence of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). AREDS Report No. 19. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:533-539.

3. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00345176. Accessed November 23, 2011.

4. Ho L, van Leeuwen R, Witteman JC, et al. Reducing the genetic risk of age-related macular degeneration with dietary antioxidants, zinc, and omega-3 fatty acids: the Rotterdam study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:758-766.

5. Mozaffarian D, Wu JH. Omega-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: effects on risk factors, molecular pathways, and clinical events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:2047-2067.

  6. SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY, Clemons TE, et al; Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. The relationship of dietary lipid intake and age-related macular degeneration in a case-control study: AREDS Report No. 20. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:671-679.

7. http://www.choosemyplate.gov/. Accessed November 23, 2011.

8. http://theconsciouslife.com/top-10-inflammatory-foods-to-avoid.htm. Accessed November 23, 2011.

9. Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Congdon NG, et al. Potential public health impact of Age-Related Eye Disease Study results: AREDS report no. 11. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:1621-1624.



(p. 53) Reader and Industry Forum - Diligent Disinfection in 49 Steps

By Graeme Young, MPhil, PhD, FCOptom, DCLP, FAAO

1. Rosenthal RA, Henry CL, Stone RP, Schlech BA. Anatomy of a regimen: consideration of multipurpose solutions during non-compliant use. Cont Lens Ant Eye. 2003;26:17-26.

2. Rosenthal RA, Henry CL, Schlech BA. Contribution of regimen steps to disinfection of hydrophilic contact lenses. Cont Lens Ant Eye. 2004;27:149-156.

3. Hall BJ, Jones L. Contact Lens Cases: The missing link in contact lens safety? Eye Cont Lens. 2010;36:101-105.

4. Szczotka-Flynn LB, Pearlman E, Ghannoum M. Microbial contamination of contact lenses, lens care solutions, and their accessories: a literature review. Eye Cont Lens. 2010;36:116-129.

5. Anger C, Lally JM. Acanthamoeba: a review of its potential to cause keratitis, current lens care solution disinfection standards and methodologies, and strategies to reduce patient risk. Eye Cont Lens. 2008;34:247-253.

6. Gerba CP, Wallis C, Melnick JL. Microbiological hazards of household toilets: droplet production and the fate of residual organisms. Appl Microbiol. 1975;30:229-237.





End Document #195