Contact Lens Spectrum


March 2012

Document #196



(p. 16) Research Review – Dry Eye and Diet: What Research Says About Essential Fatty Acids

By Eric Papas, PhD, MCOptom, DipCL, FAAO


1.         Shreeve CM. Treating the dry eye. The Ophthalmic Optician. 1982;September(September 25):650-2.

2.         Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of Diet: The omega-6/omega-3 ratio and the brain. Molecular Neurobiology. 2011;44(3):203-15.

3.         Miljanović B, Trivedi KA, Dana MR, Gilbard JP, Buring JE, Schaumberg DA. Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(4):887-93.

4.         Kokke KH, Morris JA, Lawrenson JG. Oral omega-6 essential fatty acid treatment in contact lens associated dry eye. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye. 2008;31(3):141-6.

5.         Williams CM, Burdge G. Long-chain n-3 PUFA: Plant v. marine sources. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2006;65(1):42-50.

6.         Aragona P, Bucolo C, Spinella R, Giuffrida S, Ferreri G. Systemic omega-6 essential fatty acid treatment and PGE1 tear content in Sjögren's syndrome patients. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2005;46(12):4474-9.

7.         Barabino S, Rolando M, Camicione P, Ravera G, Zanardi S, Giuffrida S, et al. Systemic linoleic and γ-linolenic acid therapy in dry eye syndrome with an inflammatory component. Cornea. 2003;22(2):97-101.

8.         Macsai MS. The role of omega-3 dietary supplementation in blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (An AOS thesis). Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 2008;106:336-56.

9.         Creuzot C, Passemard M, Viau S, Joffre C, Pouliquen P, Elena PP, et al. Improvement of dry eye symptoms with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Amélioration de la symptomatologie chez des patients atteints de sécheresse oculaire et traités oralement par des acides gras polyinsaturés. 2006;29(8):868-73.

10.       Brignole-Baudouin F, Baudouin C, Aragona P, Rolando M, Labetoulle M, Pisella PJ, et al. A multicentre, double-masked, randomized, controlled trial assessing the effect of oral supplementation of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on a conjunctival inflammatory marker in dry eye patients. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 2011;89(7):e591-e7.



(p. 19) GP Insights – Spotlight on GPs From the GSLS

By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO


1.  Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, et al.  The risk of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia: years of wear to reach LASIK level of vision loss.  Ophthalmol 2008;115:1655-1662.




(p. 22) Contact Lens Design & Materials – Current Ortho-k Options

By Ronald K. Watanabe, OD, FAAO


Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol 2009; 93: 1181-1185.


Lotoczky J, Morgan B. Myopia control with the Euclid Emerald contact lens and overnight orthokeratology. Optom 2009; 80(6): 291-292.


Swarbrick HA, Alharbi A, Watt K, et al. Overnight orthokeratology lens wear slows axial eye growth in myopic children. ARVO poster presentation, May 2010.


Kakita T, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial length elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011; 52(5): 2170-2174.



(p. 26) Contact Lens Wear and Ocular Allergy

By Paul M. Karpecki, OD, FAAO


[1] Bielory L.  Update on ocular allergy treatment. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002 May;3(5):541-53

[1] Nichols J. Contact Lenses 2008. Contact Lens Spectrum 2009; 1:24. Available at: (Accessed on November 01, 2011).

[1] Singh K, Axelrod S, Bielory L.  The epidemiology of ocular and nasal allergy in the United States, 1988-1994.  J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Oct;126(4):778-783.e6.

[1] Reed SD, Lee TA, McCrory DC.  The economic burden of allergic rhinitis: a critical evaluation of the literature. Pharmacoeconomics. 2004;22(6):345-61.

[1] Law AW, Reed SD, Sundy JS et al.  Direct costs of allergic rhinitis in the United States: estimates from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Feb;111(2):296-300.

[1] Welch D, Ousler GW, Nally LA et al.  Ocular drying associated with oral antihistamines (loratadine) in the normal population-an evaluation of exaggerated dose effect Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;506(Pt B):1051-5.

[1] Welch D, Ousler GW, Nally LA et al.  Ocular drying associated with oral antihistamines (loratadine) in the normal population-an evaluation of exaggerated dose effect Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;506(Pt B):1051-5.

[1] Stevenson D, Tauber J, Reis BL.  Efficacy and safety of cyclosporin A ophthalmic emulsion in the treatment of moderate-to-severe dry eye disease: a dose-ranging, randomized trial. The Cyclosporin A Phase 2 Study Group. Ophthalmology. 2000 May;107(5):967-74.

[1] Podmore P, Storrs FJ.  Contact lens intolerance; allergic conjunctivitis?  Contact Dermatitis. 1989 Feb;20(2):98-103.

[1] Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO Contact Lenses 2011.

[1] Nivenius E, Van der Ploeg I, Gafvenlin G et al.  Conjunctival provocation with airborne allergen in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Jan;42(1):58-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2011.03858.x. Epub 2011 Sep 20.

[1] Tuft SJ, Kemeny DM, Dart JK et al. Clinical features of atopic keratoconjunctivitis Ophthalmology. 1991 Feb;98(2):150-8.

[1] Jain V, Nair AG, Jain-Mhatre K et al. Pellucid marginal corneal disease in a case of atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2010 Jun;18(3):187-9.

[1] Alzaga Fernandez AG, Demirci H, Darnley-Fisch DA et al.  Interstitial keratitis secondary to severe hidradenitis suppurativa: a case report and literature review. Cornea. 2010 Oct;29(10):1189-91.

[1] Mishra GP, Tamboli V, Jwala J. et al.  Recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2011 Jan;5(1):26-36.

[1] Abelson MB, Torkildsen GL, Williams JI.  Time to onset and duration of action of the antihistamine bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solutions 1.0% and 1.5% in allergic conjunctivitis: a phase III, single-center, prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, conjunctival allergen challenge assessment in adults and children. Clin Ther. 2009 Sep;31(9):1908-21.

[1] Wijnmaalen AL, van Zuuren EJ, de Keizer RJ et al. Cutaneous allergy testing in patients suspected of an allergic reaction to eye medications.  Ophthalmic Res. 2009;41(4):225-9. Epub 2009 May 15.

[1] Singh Sm Pal V, Dhull CS.  Supratarsal injection of corticosteroids in the treatment of refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2001 Dec;49(4):241-5.

[1] Abelson MB, Torkildsen GL, Williams JI.  Time to onset and duration of action of the antihistamine bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solutions 1.0% and 1.5% in allergic conjunctivitis: a phase III, single-center, prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, conjunctival allergen challenge assessment in adults and children. Clin Ther. 2009 Sep;31(9):1908-21.

[1] Mantelli F, Santos MS, Petitti T.  Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials on topical treatments for vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007 Dec;91(12):1656-61. Epub 2007 Jun 22.

[1] Cetinkaya A, Akova YA, Dursun D.  Topical cyclosporine in the management of shield ulcers Cornea. 2004 Mar;23(2):194-200.

[1] Bozkurt B, Akyurek N, Irkec M.  Immunohistochemical findings in prosthesis-associated giant papillary conjunctivitis. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2007 Aug;35(6):535-40.

[1] Doughty MJ, Potvin R. Pritchard N.  Evaluation of the range of areas of the fluorescein staining patterns of the tarsal conjunctiva in man.  Doc Ophthalmol. 1995;89(4):355-71.

[1] Bartlett JD, Howes JF, Ghormely NR.  Safety and efficacy of loteprednol etabonate for treatment of papillae in contact lens-associated giant papillary conjunctivitis. Curr Eye Res. 1993 Apr;12(4):313-21.

[1] Asbell P, Howes J.  A double-masked, placebo-controlled evaluation of the efficacy and safety of loteprednol etabonate in the treatment of giant papillary conjunctivitis. CLAO J. 1997 Jan;23(1):31-6.

[1] Howes JF.  Loteprednol etabonate: a review of ophthalmic clinical studies. Pharmazie. 2000 Mar;55(3):178-83.

[1] Austin JB, Kaur B, Anderson HR.  Hay fever, eczema, and wheeze: a nationwide UK study (ISAAC, international study of asthma and allergies in childhood). Arch Dis Child. 1999 Sep;81(3):225-30.

[1] Rowe MS, Bailey J, Ownby DR.  Evaluation of the cause of nasal and ocular symptoms associated with lawn mowing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986 May;77(5):714-9.

[1] Platts-Mills TA, Heymann PW, Longbottom JL et al. Airborne allergens associated with asthma: particle sizes carrying dust mite and rat allergens measured with a cascade impactor. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986 Jun;77(6):850-7.

[1] Bucci FA Jr, Myers PJ, Evans RE.  Clinical and overnight corneal swell comparison of the 1-Day Acuvue lens versus the Medalist, Surevue, Biomedics, and Acuvue lenses. CLAO J. 1997 Apr;23(2):103-12.

[1] Welch D, Ousler GW, Nally LA.  Ocular drying associated with oral antihistamines (loratadine) in the normal population-an evaluation of exaggerated dose effect. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;506(Pt B):1051-5.

[1] Bielory L, Lien KW, Bigelsen S.  Efficacy and tolerability of newer antihistamines in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. Drugs. 2005;65(2):215-28.

[1] Kida T, Fujii A, Sakai O.  Bepotastine besilate, a highly selective histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, suppresses vascular hyperpermeability and eosinophil recruitment in in vitro and in vivo experimental allergic conjunctivitis models Exp Eye Res. 2010 Jul;91(1):85-91. Epub 2010 Apr 20.

[1] Juniper EF.  Rhinitis management: the patient's perspective. Clin Exp Allergy. 1998 Dec;28 Suppl 6:34-8.

[1] Juniper EF.  Rhinitis management: the patient's perspective. Clin Exp Allergy. 1998 Dec;28 Suppl 6:34-8.

[1] Ellis AK, Day JH, Lundie MJ.  Impact on quality of life during an allergen challenge research trial. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1999 Jul;83(1):33-9.

[1] Effects of repeated doses of pseudoephedrine on blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in normal subjects and in patients with phaeochromocytoma Gordon RD, Ballantine DM, Bachmann AW.  Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1992 May;19(5):287-90.

[1] Steroid inhalers and glaucoma .  J Am Dent Assoc. 1997 May;128(5):554, 558.

[1] Bui CM, Chen H, Shyr Y et al.  Discontinuing nasal steroids might lower intraocular pressure in glaucoma J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Nov;116(5):1042-7. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

[1] Rook GA, Brunet LR.  Give us this day our daily germs.  Biologist (London). 2002 Aug;49(4):145-9.



(p. 34) GP Versus Soft Lenses: Is One Safer?

By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO (Dipl.)

Bausch and Lomb website, accessed Jan 1, 2012. 


Bennett ES et al. Effect of patient personality profile and verbal presentation on successful rigid contact lens adaptation, satisfaction and compliance. Optom Vis Sci, 1998 July;75(7):500-505.


Bennett ES et al.  Effect of topical anesthetic use on initial patient satisfaction and overall success with rigid gas permeable contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci, 1998 Nov; 75(11):800-5.


Cancrini G, Iori A, Mancino R, Acanthamoeba adherence to contact lenses, removal by rinsing procedures, and survival to some ophthalmic products. Parassitologia 1998 Sept;40(3):275-278.


Carnt N, et al., Contact lens-related adverse events and the silicone hydrogel lenses and daily wear care system used, Arch. Opthal, 2009;127(12):1616-1623.


Cavanagh HD et al. Effects of daily and overnight wear of hyper-oxygen transmissible rigid and silicone hydrogel lenses on bacterial binding to the corneal epithelium: 13-month clinical trials.  Eye & Contact Lens 29(1S): S14–S16, 2003


Chalmers R et al.  Age and other risk factors for corneal infiltrative and inflammatory events in young soft contact lens wearers from the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Aug 24;52(9):6690-6.


Choo J et al. Bacterial populations on silicone hydrogel and hydrogel contact lenses after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Optom and Vis Sci. 2005. 82(2):134-137.


Dumbleton KA, Chalmers RL, Richter DB, Fonn D. Vascular response to extended wear of hydrogel lenses with high and low oxygen permeability. Optom Vis Sci 2001, 78(3): 147-151


Efron N et al. The Size, Location, and Clinical Severity of Corneal Infiltrative Events Associated With Contact Lens Wear, Optom and Vis Sci, 2005; 82(6):519–527.


Fleiszig SM and Evans DJ. Pathogenesis of contact lens-associated microbial keratitis.  Optom Vis Sci, 2010 Apr;87(4):225-232.


Forister JFY et al, Prevalence of contact lens-related complications: UCLA contact lens study. Eye Contact Lens 2009 July;35(4):176-180.


Green M, Apel A, Stapleton F. Risk factors and causative organisms in microbial keratitis. Cornea  2008; 27(1); 22-27.


Hom MM, Bruce AS,  Consider lid geometry when fitting RGP lenses, Ocular Surgery News, US Edition, June 1, 2000  Similar


Keay L, Willcox MD, Sweeney DF, Morris CA, Harmis N, Corrigan K, Holden BA. Bacterial populations on 30-night extended wear silicone hydrogel lenses. CLAO J 2001;27:30-4


Keay L, Microbial keratitis predisposing factors and morbidity, Ophthalmology, 2006 Jan; 113(1):109-16.


Keay L, et al. Factors affecting the morbidity of contact lens-related microbial keratitis: a population study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Oct; 47(10):4302-8.


Kelly LD, Long D, Mitra D. Quantitative comparison of Acanthamoeba castellanii adherence to rigid versus soft contact lenses. CLAO J 1995; 21(2):111-113.


Kilvington S, Larkin DFP. Acanthamoeba adherence to contact lenses and removal by cleaning agents. Eye 1990; 4: 589-590.


Ladage PM, Yamamoto K, Ren DH, et al. Effects of rigid and soft contact lens daily wear on corneal epithelium, tear lactate dehydrogenase,and bacterial binding to exfoliated cells. Ophthalmology 2001;108:1279–1288.


Laurent J. Using large-diameter GP’s to improve comfort. CL Spectrum 2009 May;25(5).


Maldonado-Codina et al. Comparative clinical performance of rigid versus soft hyper Dk contact lenses used for continuous wear. Optom Vis Sci, 2005;82(6):536-548.


Maissa C, Guillon M, Garofalo RJ. Contact lens-induced circumlimbal staining in silicone hydrogel contact lenses worn on a daily wear basis.  Eye Contact Lens 2012 Jan;38(1):16-26.


McNamara NA, Polse KA, Brand RJ, Graham AD, Chan JS, McKenney CD. Tear mixing under a soft contact lens: effects of lens diameter. AmJ Ophthalmol 1999;127:659–65.


Morgan P et al.  Adverse events and discontinuations with rigid and soft hyper Dk contact lenses used for continuous wear. Optom and Vis Sci, June 2005; 82(6):528-535.


Morgan P. et al. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2010, CL Spectrum, 2011; 26(1). 


Mutoh T, Ishikawa I, Matsumoto Y, Chikuda M. A retrospective study of nine cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Clin Ophthalmol. 2010;21;4:1189-92.


Nichols J. Contact lenses 2010, CL Spectrum, 2011 Jan; 26(1).


Nichols J. The wide-open horizon of discovery beckons, CL Spectrum, 2011 Dec; 26(12): 13.


Nichols JJ, King-Smith PE. The effect of eye closure on the post-lens tear film thickness during silicone hydrogel contact lens wear. Cornea, 2003 Aug;22(6):539-544.


Paragon Vision website, accessed Jan 1, 2012


Polse KA. Tear flow under hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979 Apr;18(4):409-13.


Qi C et al. Ultrahigh-Resolution Measurement by Optical Coherence Tomography of Dynamic Tear Film Changes on Contact Lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Apr;51(4):1988-1993.


Qian Y, Meisler DM, Langston RH, Jeng BH. Clinical experience with Acanthamoeba keratitis at the Cole Eye Institute, 1999-2008. Cornea. 2010;29(9):1016-21.


Radford CF et al.Risk factors for nonulcerative contact lens complications in an ophthalmic accident and emergency department: a case-control study.  Ophthalmology 2009 Mar;116(3):385-92.


Schermer A, Galvin S, and Sun T, 64K Corneal Keratin In Vivo and In Culture Suggests Limbal Location of Corneal Epithelial Stem Cells. J Cell Biology, Volume 103, 1986.


Stapleton F, Keay L, Jalbert I, Cole N. The epidemiology of contact lens related infiltrates. Optom & Vis Sci. 2007;84(4):257-272.


Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K et al.  The Incidence of Contact Lens-Related Microbial Keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008. 115 (10): 1655-62.


Subbaraman LN, et al. Influence of protein deposition on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci Aug 2011;88(8):959-966


Szczotka-Flynn L, Diaz M, Risk of corneal inflammatory events with silicone hydrogel and low Dk hydrogel extended contact lens wear: A meta-analysis Optom & Vis Sci April 2007;84(4):247-256


Szczotka-Flynn L, et al. Risk factors for corneal infiltrative events during continuous wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Inv. Ophth & Vis Sci Nov 2010; 51(11):5421-5430.


Tanhehco T, Colby K. The clinical experience of Acanthamoeba keratitis at a tertiary care eye hospital. Cornea. 2010;29(9):1005-10.


Taylor AJ, Wilson SDR. Post-lens tear film thinning in rigid gas permeable lenses. Optom Vis Sci 1995 Dec;72(12):849-856.


US Senate Committee on the Budget, Growth in healthcare costs, January 31, 2008,


Wagner H, et al (CLAY Group), Risk factors for interruption to soft contact lens wear in children and young adults, Optom Vis Sci, Aug 2011;88(8):973-980.


Wu YT et al. Do swimming goggles limit microbial contamination of contact lenses? Optom and Vis Sci. 2011. 88(4):456-460.




(p. 50) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Seeking Solutions to Curb Myopia Progression

By Mary Lou French, OD, Med, FAAO


Kwok, Eva; Patel, Bhavna; Backhouse, Simon; Phillips, John R. Peripheral Refraction in High myopia with Spherical Soft Contact Lenses Optometry & Vision Science. 89(3):263-270, March 2012.

Huang, Juan Li-Fang Hung OD, PhD (University of Houston), Earl Smith III OD, PhD (University of Houston) Changes in Ocular Shape and Peripheral Refractive Errors in Infant Monkeys During Recovery From Experimentally Induced Myopia Optom Vis Sci 2011 Program number 110470 (paper)

Rodgin, Susan G  Factors Impacting Prevention of Myopic Progression with Soft Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Prospective 15-year Case Study Series Optom Vis Sci 2011 Program number 115665 (paper)

Guthrie, Sarah E PhD  Controlling Lens Induced Myopia in Chickens with Peripheral Lens Design Optom Vis Sci 2011 Program number 110421 (paper)




(p. 52) Treatment Plan  - Managing Two Rare Corneal Stromal Dystrophies

By William L. Miller, OD, PhD, FAAO

Aldave AJ, Sonmez B Elucidating the molecular genetic basis of the corneal dystrophies: are we there yet? Arch Ophthalmol 2007 143(3):416-419
Birndorf LA, Ginsberg SP Hereditary fleck dystrophy associated with decreased corneal sensitivity. Am J Ophthamlmol 1972 73(5):670-672
Kobayashi A <> , Sugiyama K <> , Huang AJ <> . In vivo confocal microscopy in patients with central cloudy dystrophy of François. Arch Ophthalmol. <>  2004 Nov;122(11):1676-9.



(p. 54) Reader and Industry Forum – An Unusual Case of Acute Corneal Hydrops

By Bezalel Schendowich, OD, FIACLE

Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, Vol. XCVII, 1999, pp 187-203.


[1] Association of Optometric Contact Lens Educators







End Document #196