Contact Lens Spectrum

References

July 2012

Document #200

 

 

(p. 14) Refractive Focus – Dry Eye Disease and Visual Performance

By David A. Berntsen, OD, PhD, FAAO

 

Walker PM, Lane KJ, Ousler GW 3rd, Abelson MB. Diurnal variation of visual function and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Cornea. 2010 Jun;29(6):607-12.

 

Nichols KK, Nichols JJ, Mitchell GL. The lack of association between signs and symptoms in patients with dry eye disease. Cornea. 2004 Nov;23(8):762-70.

 

Ridder WH 3rd, Tomlinson A, Huang JF, Li J. Impaired visual performance in patients with dry eye. Ocul Surf. 2011 Jan;9(1):42-55.

 

Ridder WH 3rd, Tomlinson A, Paugh J. Effect of artificial tears on visual performance in subjects with dry eye. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Sep;82(9):835-42.

 

Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Abetz L, Venkataraman K, Mertzanis P, Caffery BA, Snyder C, Edrington T, Nelson D, Simpson T. The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Nov;44(11):4753-61.

 

Thai LC, Tomlinson A, Ridder WH. Contact lens drying and visual performance: the vision cycle with contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Jun;79(6):381-8. 
 
Ridder WH 3rd, Tomlinson A, Paugh J. Effect of artificial tears on visual performance in subjects with dry eye. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Sep;82(9):835-42.

 

Kaido M, Dogru M, Ishida R, Tsubota K. Concept of functional visual acuity and its applications. Cornea. 2007;26 (9 Suppl 1):S29-S35.

 

Liu H, Thibos L, Begley CG, Bradley A. Measurement of the time course of optical quality and visual deterioration during tear break-up.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3318-26.

 

Liu Z, Pflugfelder SC. Corneal surface regularity and the effect of artificial tears in aqueous tear deficiency. Ophthalmology. 1999;106;939-43.

 

King-Smith PE, Hinel EA, Nichols JJ. Application of a novel interferometric method to investigate the relation between lipid layer thickness and tear film thinning. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2418-23.

 

Korb DR, Scaffidi RC, Greiner JV, Kenyon KR, Herman JP, Blackie CA, Glonek T, Case CL, Finnemore VM, Douglass T. The effect of two novel lubricant eye drops on tear film lipid layer thickness in subjects with dry eye symptoms. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:594-601.

 

 

(p. 19) GP Insights – Sclerals for Dry-Eyed Presbyopes

By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO

 

1.  Rajagopalan AS, Bennett ES, Lakshminarayanan V.  Visual performance of subjects wearing presbyopic contact lenses.  Optom Vis Sci.  2006;83(8):611-615. 

 

 

 

(p. 22) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – What's in Store for Dry Eye?

By Katherine M. Mastrota, MS, OD, FAAO

 

 

 

 

(p. 23) Contact Lens Care & Compliance - Contact Lens Deposition and Dry Eye

By Susan J. Gromacki, OD, MS, FAAO

 

Subbaraman LN, Jones L. Kinetics of lysozyme activity recovered

from conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2010;21:343–58.

 

Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and

factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea 2007;26:168–74.

 

Brennan NA, Chantal-Coles ML. Deposits and symptomatology

with soft contact lens wear. Int Contact Lens Clin 2000;27:75–100.

 

Nilsson SE, Andersson L. Contact lens wear in dry environments. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1986; 64:221–5. 

 

Pritchard N, Fonn D, Weed K. Ocular and subjective responses to frequent replacement of daily wear soft contact lenses. CLAO J 1996; 22:53–9. 

 

Lorentz H, Rogers R, Jones L. The impact of lipid on contact angle

wettability. Optom Vis Sci 2007;84:946–53.

 

Bleshoy H, Guillon M, Shah D. Influence of contact lens material surface characteristics on replacement frequency. ICLC 1994; 21:82–93. 

 

Thai LC, Tomlinson A, Doane MG. Effect of contact lens materials

on tear physiology. Optom Vis Sci 2004;81:194–204.

 

Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R. Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a). Eye Contact Lens 2006;32:281–6.

 

Sankaridurg PR, Sweeney DF, Sharma S, Gora R, Naduvilath T,

Ramachandran L, Holden BA, Rao GN. Adverse events with extended wear of disposable hydrogels: results for the first 13 months of

lens wear. Ophthalmology 1999;106:1671–80.

 

Martin R, Sanchez I, de la Rosa C, de Juan V, Rodriguez G, de Paz I,

Zalama M. Differences in the daily symptoms associated with the

silicone hydrogel contact lens wear. Eye Contact Lens 2010;36:

49–53.

 

Fonn D. Targeting contact lens induced dryness and discomfort:

what properties will make lenses more comfortable. Optom Vis Sci

2007;84:279–85.

 

Fonn D, Dumbleton K. Dryness and discomfort with silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens 2003;29:S101–4.

 

Jones L, Dumbleton K.  Contact Lens Deposits — Patient or Material Driven?  CL Spec 2009;24(6):19.

 

Gromacki S.  Protein and Lipid Contact Lens DepositionIn:  Care Solution Corner, Contact Lenses Today 2012; June 3:3.

 

Nichols JJ.  Deposition Rates and Lens Care Influence on Galyfilcon A Silicone Hydrogel Lenses.  Opt Vis Sci 2006;83(10):751-757.

 

 

 

(p. 26) 2012 Annual Report on Dry Eye Diseases

By Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD, FAAO, & Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO

 

 1. Hikichi T, Yoshida A, et al. Prevalence of dry eye in Japanese eye centers. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1995; 233: 555-8.

2. Doughty MJ, Fonn D, et al. A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada. Optom Vis Sci 1997; 74: 624-31.

3. Schein OD, Munoz B, et al. Prevalence of dry eye among the elderly. Am J Ophthalmol 1997;124:723-8

4. Caffery BE, Richter D, et al. CANDEES. The Canadian Dry Eye Epidemiology Study. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998; 438: 805-6

5. McCarty CA, Bansal AK, et al. The epidemiology of dry eye in Melbourne, Australia. Ophthalmology 1998; 105: 1114-9.

6. Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, et al. Results of a population-based questionnaire on the symptoms and lifestyles associated with dry eye. Cornea 1999; 18: 408-11.

7. Albietz JM. Prevalence of dry eye subtypes in clinical optometry practice. Optom Vis Sci 2000; 77:357-63.

8. Moss SE, Klein R, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 2000; 118: 1264-8.

9. Yazdani C, McLaughlin T, et al. Prevalence of treated dry eye disease in a managed care population. Clin Ther 2001; 23: 1672-82.

10. Lee AJ, Lee J, et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye symptoms: a population based study in Indonesia. Br J Ophthalmol 2002; 86: 1347-51.

11. Lemp MA, Baudouin C, et al. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf 2007; 5: 75-92.

12. Gilbard JP, Cohen GR, Baum J. Decreased tear osmolarity and absence of the inferior marginal tear strip after sleep. Cornea 1992; 11:231-3.

13. Khanal S, Millar TJ. Barriers to clinical uptake of tear osmolarity measurements. Br J Ophthalmol 2012 96:341-344.

14. Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Abetz L et al. The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44:4753-61.

15. Korb DR. Survey of preferred tests for diagnosis of the tear film and dry eye. Cornea 2000; 19: 483-6.

16. Nichols KK, Nichols JJ, et al. Frequency of dry eye diagnostic test procedures used in various modes of ophthalmic practice. Cornea 2000; 19: 477-82.

17. Tomlinson A, Bron A, Korb D et al. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Diagnosis Subcommitte. Invest Ophthalmol Vis. Sci. 2011; 52:2006-2049.

18. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Contact Lens Clin. 1999 Nov;26(6):157-62.

19. Weed K, Fonn D, Potvin R. Discontinuation of contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 1993;70 (12, suppl.): 140.

20. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea.2007;26(2):168-74.

21. Vajdic C, Holden BA, Sweeney DF, Cornish RM. The frequency of ocular symptoms during spectacle and daily soft and rigid contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Oct;76(10):705-11.

22. Research in dry eye: report of the Research Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007;5(2):179-93.

23. Rumpkis, J. New Data on Contact Lens Dropouts: An International Perspective. Review of Optometry. http://www.revoptom.com/content/d/contact_lenses___and___solutions/c/18929/

 

 

 

(p. 32) An In-Depth Look at Lens-Related Dry Eye

By Ashley Wallace-Tucker, OD, FAAO

 

Nichols JJ, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK, et al. The performance of the contact lens dry eye questionnaire as a screening survey for contact lens-related dry eye. Cornea. 2002; 21: 469-75.

Nichols JJ, Ziegler C, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK. Self-reported dry eye disease across refractive modalities. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005; 46: 1911-14.

Nichols JJ, Sinnott LT. Tear film contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci .2006; 47: 1319-28.

Tyagi G, Caneiro-Alonso D, Collins M, Read S. Tear film surface quality with rigid and soft contact lenses. Eye Contact Len. 2012; 38: 171-78.

Efron N, Brennan NA, Bruce AS, et al. Dehydration of hydrogel lenses under normal wearing conditions. CLAO J. 1987; 13:152-156.

Fonn D, Situ P, Simpson T. Hydrogel lens dehydration and subjective comfort and dryness ratings in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci. 1999; 76:700-704.

Pritchard N, Fonn D. Dehydration, lens movement and dryness ratings of hydrogel contact lenses. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1995; 15:281-86.

Jones L, Evans K, Sariri R, et al. Lipid and protein deposition of N-vinyl pyrrolidone-containing group II and group IV frequent replacement contact lenses. CLAO J. 1997; 23:122-26.

Ramamoorthy P, Sinnott L, Nichols JJ. Contact lens material characteristics associated with hydrogel lens dehydration. Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 2010; 30:160-66.

Guillon M, McGrogan L, Guillon JP. Effect of material ionicity on the performance of daily disposable contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 1997; 20:3-8.

Efron N, Morgan PB. Hydrogel contact lens dehydration and oxygen transmissibility. CLAO J. 1999; 25: 148-51.

Millodot M. Corneal anesthesia following contact lens wear, in Tomlinson A (ed). Complications of contact lens wear. St Louis, MO, Mosby Year Book, 1992; 89-101.

Bourcier T, Acosta MC, Borderie V, et al. Decreased corneal sensitivity in patients with dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005; 46: 2341-45.

Liesegang TJ. Physiologic changes of the cornea with contact lens wear. CLAO J. 2002; 28:12-27.

Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2011. CL Spectrum. 2012; 27: 20-25.

Morgan PB, Efron N. In vivo dehydration of Silicone Hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2003; 29: 173-76.

Senchyma M. Jones L, Louis D, et al. Quantitative and conformational characterization of lysozymes deposited on balafilcon and etafilcon contact lens materials. Curr Eye Res. 2004; 28:25-36.

Fonn, D. Targeting contact lens induced dryness and discomfort: What properties will make lenses more comfortable. Optom Vis Sci. 2007; 84:279-85.

Sullivan BD, Crews LA, Sonmez B, de la Paz MF, et al. Clinical utility of objective tests for dry eye disease: Variability over time and implications for clinical trials and disease management. Cornea. 2012.(Vol/PP)

Gilbard JP, Rossi SR. Changes in tear-ion concentations in dry eye disorders.  Adv Exp Med Biol. 1994; 350: 529-33.

Sullivan BD, Whitmer D, Nichols KK, et al. An objective approach to dry eye disease severity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010; 51: 6125-6130.

Pult H, Purslow C, Berry M, Murphy PJ. Clinical tests for successful contact lens wear: Relationship and predictive potential. Optom Vis Sci. 2008; 85:E924-29.

Korb DR, Greiner JV, Herman JP, et al. Lid-Wiper Epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J. 2002; 28:211-216.

Pult H, Murphy P, Purslow, C. A novel method to predict the dry eye symptoms in new contact lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci. 2009; 86:E1042-50.

Schiffman RM, Christianson MD, Jacobsen G, et al. Reliability and validity of the Ocular Surface Disease Index. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000; 118:615-21.

Chalmers R, Long B, Dillehay S, Begley C. Improving contact-lens related dryness symptoms with silicone hydrogel lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2008; 85:778-84.

Altinors DD, Akça S, Akova YA, et al. Smoking associated with damage to the lipid layer of the ocular surface.  Am J Ophthalmol. 2006; 141:1016-1021.

Wolkoff P.  "Healthy" eye in office-like environments. Environ Int. 2008; 34:1204-14.

Kojima T, Ibrahim OM, Wakamatsu T, et al. The impact of contact lens wear and visual display terminal work on ocular surface and tear functions in office workers.  Am J Ophthalmol. 2011; 152:933-940.

Rand AL, Asbell PA. Nutritional supplements for dry eye syndrome.  Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2011; 22(4):279-82.

 

 

 

(p. 38) The Role of Lens Care Solutions in Contact Lens Comfort

By Heiko Pult, PhD, MSc, FAAO, FBCLA, FEAAO

 

Andrasko, G. J., Ryen, K. A., Garofalo, R. J. and Lemp, J. M. (2006). Compatibility of Silicone Hydrogel Lenses With Multi-Purpose Solutions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47, ARVO E-Abstract: 2392.

Carney FP, Morris CA, Milthorpe B, Flanagan JL, Willcox MDP. In vitro adsorption of tear proteins to hydroxyethyl methacrylate-based contact lens materials. Eye Contact Lens. 2009;35:320-328.

Carnt, N., Jalbert, I., Stretton, S., Naduvilath, T. and Papas, E. (2007). Solution toxicity in soft contact lens daily wear is associated with corneal inflammation. Optom Vis Sci 84, 309-315.

Choy CK, Cho P, Boost MV. Cytotoxicity and effects on metabolism of contact lens care solutions on human corneal epithelium cells. Clin Exp Optom. 2012;95:198-206.

Cohen, S. (2004). Prospective case history using Systane lubricant eye drops to help reduce symptoms of dry eye associated with CL wear. In: American Optometric Association.

Dalton, K., Subbaraman, L. N., Rogers, R. and Jones, L. (2008). Physical properties of soft contact lens solutions. Optom Vis Sci 85, 122-128.

Dursun, D., Wang, M., Monroy, D., et al. (2002). Experimentally induced dry eye produces ocular surface inflammation and epithelial disease. Adv Exp Med Biol 506, 647-655.

Efron, N. and Morgan, P. (2008). Soft contact lens care regimens in the UK Cont Lens Anterior Eye 31, 283-284.

Garofalo, R. J., Dassanayake, N., Carey, C., Stein, J., Stone, R. and David, R. (2005). Corneal staining and subjective symptoms with multipurpose solutions as a function of time. Eye Contact Lens 31, 166-174.

Garrett, Q., Laycock, B. and Garrett, R. W. (2000). Hydrogel lens monomer constituents modulate protein sorption. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41, 1687-1695.

Korb, D. R., Greiner, J. V., Herman, J. P., et al. (2002). Lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J 28, 211-216.

Lievens, C. W., Hakim, N. and Chinn, A. (2006). The effect of multipurpose solutions on the ocular surface. Eye Contact Lens 32, 8-11.

Lorentz, H. and Jones, L. (2007). Lipid deposition on hydrogel contact lenses: How history can help us today. Optom Vis Sci 84, 286-295.

Maldonado-Codina, C. and Efron, N. (2004). Impact of manufacturing technology and material composition on the clinical performance of hydrogel lenses. Optom Vis Sci 81, 442-454.

Mcmonnies, C. W. (2007). Incomplete blinking: Exposure keratopathy, lid wiper epitheliopathy, dry eye, refractive surgery, and dry contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 30, 37-51.

Michaud, L. and Giasson, C. J. (2002). Overwear of contact lenses: increased severity of clinical signs as a function of protein adsorption. Optom Vis Sci 79, 184-192.

Nichols, J. J. and Sinnott, L. T. (2006). Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47, 1319-1328.

Pritchard, N. (2001). How can we avoid CL drop-outs? Optician 5825:222, 14-18.

Pritchard, N., Fonn, D. and Brazeau, D. (1999). Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Contact Lens Clin 26, 157-162.

Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007;26:168-174.

Rolando, M. and Zierhut, M. (2001). The ocular surface and tear film and their dysfunction in dry eye disease. Surv Ophthalmol 45 Suppl 2, S203-210.

Rumpakis, J. M. B. (2010). New data on contact lens dropouts: an international perspective. Review of Optometry 147, 37-42

Schulze MM, Varikooty K, Keir NJ, Jones LW. The clinical performance of three contact lens solutions in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers. Poster presented at: British Contact Lens Association Annual Meeting; May 25-27, 2012; Birmingham, UK.

Senchyna, M., Jones, L., Louie, D., May, C., Forbes, I. and Glasier, M. A. (2004). Quantitative and conformational characterization of lysozyme deposited on balafilcon and etafilcon contact lens materials. Curr Eye Res 28, 25-36.

Sindt, C. W. and Longmuir, R. A. (2007). Contact lens strategies for the patient with dry eye. Ocul Surf 5, 294-307.

Tonge, S., Jones, L., Goodall, S. and Tighe, B. (2001). The ex vivo wettability of soft contact lenses. Curr Eye Res 23, 51-59.

Ward, K. W. (2008). Superficial punctate fluorescein staining of the ocular surface. Optom Vis Sci 85, 8-16.

 

 

 

(p. 44) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – Maximizing Lens Comfort

By Jason R. Miller, OD, MBA, FAAO

 

1. Rumpakis, John M.B. New Data on Contact Lens Dropouts: An International Perspective”.  Review of Optometry, January 15 2010.

2. Young G, Veys J, Pritchard N, Coleman S. A multi-centre study of lapsed contact lens wearers. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2002 Nov;22(6):516-27.

3. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Conact Lens Clin. 1999 Nov;26(6):157-62.

4. Research on Dry Eye; Report of the Research Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Workshop (2007). Ocular Surface 2007 Apr; 5 (2): 179-93.

5. Phillips, Bill and the Editors of Men's Health. 9 Health Habits That Are a Waste of Time. Mar 21, 2012. (Accessed online at http://health.yahoo.net/experts/menshealth/9-healthy-habits-do-you-no-good).

6. Dumbleton KA, Woods CA, Jones LW, Fonn D. The relationship between compliance with lens replacement and contact lens-related problems in silicone hydrogel wearers. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011; Apr 12 34(5);216-222.

7. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Conact Lens Clin 1999 Nov;26(6):157-62.
  

8. Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 2000 Sep;118(9):1264-8.)

 

 

(p. 48) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – When Teen Patients Have Dry Eyes, Check Their Medications

By Mary Lou French, OD, MEd, FAAO

 

 

 

 

(p. 50) Treatment Plan – Dry Eye From and Unwelcome Visitor

By William L. Miller, OD, PhD, FAAO

 

Zhao YE, Hu L, Wu LP, Ma JX. A meta-analysis of association between acne vulgaris and demodex infestation. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2012 Mar;13(3):192-202

Post CF, Juhlin E. Demodex folliculorum and blepharitis Arch Dermatol. 1963 Sep;88:298-302.
Coston TO. Demodex folliculorum blepharitis Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1967;65:361-92
Holzchuh FG <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Holzchuh%20FG%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=21334593> , Hida RY <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Hida%20RY%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=21334593> , Moscovici BK <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Moscovici%20BK%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=21334593> , Villa Albers MB <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Villa%20Albers%20MB%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=21334593> , Santo RM <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Santo%20RM%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=21334593> , Kara-José N <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Kara-Jos%C3%A9%20N%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=21334593> , Holzchuh R <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Holzchuh%20R%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=21334593> . Clinical treatment of ocular Demodex folliculorum by systemic ivermectin. Am J Ophthalmol. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=holzchuh%20and%20demodex>  2011 Jun;151(6):1030-1034.e1. Epub 2011 Feb 19.
Fiolho PA, hazarbassanov RM, Grisolia AB, et al. The efficacy of oral ivermectin for the treatment of chronic blepharitis in patients tested positive for demodex spp. Br J Ophthalmol. 95(6):893-895, 2011.

 

 

 

(p. 56) Contact Lens Case Reports – Does Meibomian Gland Loss Cause Dry Eye Symptoms?

By Patrick J. Caroline, FAAO, & Mark P. André, FAAO

 

Nichols JJ, Berntsen DA, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK. An assessment of grading scales for meibography images. Cornea. 2005;24:382-388.

Narayanan, S., Miller, W., Prager, T., Jackson, et.al. The diagnosis and characteristics of moderate dry eye in non-contact lens wearers. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice: May 2005, Volume 31, Issue 3: 96-104

 

 

 

End Document #198