Contact Lens Spectrum

November 2013

Document #216

(p. 15) Refractive Focus – Beyond the Fovea: Peripheral Defocus and Human Myopia

By David A. Berntsen, OD, PhD, FAAO

  1. Berntsen DA, Barr CD, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. Peripheral defocus and myopia progression in myopic children randomly assigned to wear single vision and progressive addition lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54:5761-70.
  2. Hoogerheide J, Rempt F, Hoogenboom W. Acquired myopia in young pilots. Ophthalmologica 1971;163:209-15.
  3. Smith EL, 3rd. Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A case for peripheral optical treatment strategies for myopia. Optom Vis Sci 2011;88:1029-44.
  4. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) study: a 2-year randomized clinical trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:7077-85.
  5. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children. Ophthalmology 2011;118:1152-61.
  6. Walline JJ, Jones-Jordan LA. Axial elongation with corneal reshaping, soft bifocal, and spherical contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci 2012;89:E-abstract 120062.
  7. Mutti DO, Sinnott LT, Mitchell GL, Jones-Jordan LA, Moeschberger ML, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Twelker JD, Zadnik K. Relative peripheral refractive error and the risk of onset and progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:199-205.
  8. Sng CC, Lin XY, Gazzard G, Chang B, Dirani M, Lim L, Selvaraj P, Ian K, Drobe B, Wong TY, Saw SM. Change in peripheral refraction over time in Singapore Chinese children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:7880-7.
  9. Lin Z, Martinez A, Chen X, Li L, Sankaridurg P, Holden BA, Ge J. Peripheral defocus with single-vision spectacle lenses in myopic children. Optom Vis Sci 2010;87:4-9.
  10. Backhouse S, Fox S, Ibrahim B, Phillips JR. Peripheral refraction in myopia corrected with spectacles versus contact lenses. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2012;32:294-303.
  11. Atchison DA, Pritchard N, Schmid KL. Peripheral refraction along the horizontal and vertical visual fields in myopia. Vision Res 2006;46:1450-8.
  12. Mutti DO, Hayes JR, Mitchell GL, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Twelker JD, Zadnik K, CLEERE Study Group. Refractive error, axial length, and relative peripheral refractive error before and after the onset of myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007;48:2510-9.
  13. Weizhong L, Zhikuan Y, Wen L, Xiang C, Jian G. A longitudinal study on the relationship between myopia development and near accommodation lag in myopic children. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2008;28:57-61.
  14. Berntsen DA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. A randomized trial using progressive addition lenses to evaluate theories of myopia progression in children with a high lag of accommodation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:640-9.
  15. Berntsen DA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. Accommodative lag and juvenile-onset myopia progression in children wearing refractive correction. Vision Res 2011;51:1039-46.
  16. Allen PM, O’Leary DJ. Accommodation functions: co-dependency and relationship to refractive error. Vision Res 2006;46:491-505.
  17. Rosenfield M, Desai R, Portello JK. Do progressing myopes show reduced accommodative responses? Optom Vis Sci 2002;79:268-73.

(p. 19) Prescribing for Presbyopia - Clinical Experiences With a Daily Disposable Multifocal

By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

  1. Chalmers, R et al, Multicenter Cas-Control Study of the Role of Lens Materials and Care Products on the Development of Corneal Infiltrates, Optom Vis Sci.Mar 2012;89(3): 316-325.
  2. Lemp MA, Caffery B, Lebow K, Lembach R, Park J, Foulks G, Hall B, Bowers R, McGarvey S, Young G. Omafilcon A (Proclear) soft contact lenses in a dry eye population.CLAO J. 1999 Jan;25(1):40-7.
  3. Moss, Scot E., et al. Long-term incidence of Dry Eye in an Older Population, Optom Vis Sci. 85(8):668-674, August 2008.
  4. Proclear Multifocal Website:
  5. Wagner, H et al (CLAY Group), Risk factors for interruption to soft contact lens wear in children and young adults, Optom Vis Sci. Aug 2011;88(8):973-980.
  6. Young, G; et al., Soft Contact Lens-Related Dryness with and without Clinical Signs Optom Vis Sci. 89(8):1125-1132, August 2012

(p. 20) GP Insights – Four Common Questions for GP Fitters

By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO

  1. Bennett ES, Parker K. Modification of gas-permeable lenses. In Bennett ES, Henry VA. Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses, Philadephia, Lippincott William & Wilkins, 2013: 229-250.
  2. Henry VA, Bennett ES, Forrest JF. Clinical investigation of the Paraperm EW rigid gas-permeable contact lens. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987;64(3):313-320.
  3. Solomon J. Causes and treatments of peripheral corneal desiccation. Contact lens Forum 1986;11:30-36.
  4. Edrington TB, Barr JT. Peripheral corneal desiccation. Contact Lens Spectrum 2002;17(1):46.

(p. 25) Contact Lens Care & Compliance - Scleral GP Lens Preparation: The Latest Standard of Care

By Susan J. Gromacki, OD, MS, FAAO

  1. Korb DR, Finnemore VM, Herman JP. Apical changes and scarring in keratoconus as related to contact lens fitting techniques.Journal of the American Optometric Association 1982;53(3):199-205.
  2. Van der Worp E. I-Site Newsletter, December 2010.
  3. Baylus S. Beyond the Limbus Seminar, Manchester, New Hampshire, August 10, 2013.
  4. Gromacki S. CL Today Sept. 23, 2013.
  5. Byrnes S. Beyond the Limbus Seminar, Manchester, New Hampshire, August 10, 2013.
  6. DeNaeyer G. Personal communication, July 29-August 4, 2011.
  7. Van der Worp E. Managing scleral lens wear. In: A Guide to Scleral Lens Fitting, Scleral Lens Education Society, 2010: 40-41.

(p. 26) Pediatric-Focused Contact Lens Practices

By Kassaundra Barlow, OD, & Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD, FAAO

  1. Davis S. Is your child ready for a cell phone?. WebMD. N.p., 18 Jul 2012. Web. 11 Aug 2013. <>.
  2. Walline J, Jones L, Chitkara M, et al. The Adolescent and Child Health Initiative to Encourage Vision Empowerment (ACHIEVE) study design and baseline data. Optometry and Vision Science 2006;83(1):37-45.
  3. Walline J, Lorenz KO, Nichols J. Long-term contact lens wear of children and teens. Eye & Contact Lens 2013;39(4): 39.4 (2013): 283-289.
  4. Efron N, Morgan P, Woods C, et al. Survey of contact lens prescribing to infants, children, and teenagers. Optometry and Vision Science 2011; 88(4):461-468.
  5. Kleinstein RN, LT Sinnott LA, Jones-Jordan J. et al. New cases of myopia in children. Archives of Ophthalmology 2012;130(10): 1274-1279.
  6. Walline J, Jones L, Rah M, et al. Contact Lenses in Pediatrics (CLIP) Study: Chair time and ocular health. Optometry and Vision Science 2007;84(9):896-902.
  7. Tong L, Chan Y, Gassard G, et al. Longitudinal Study of Anisometropia in Singaporean School Children. Investigative Ophthalmology & Vision Science 2006;47(8):3247-3252.
  8. Harris MB. Sex differences in stereotypes of spectacles. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 1991;21: 1659-1680.
  9. Rah M, Walline J, Jones-Jordan L, et al. Vision specific quality of life of pediatric contact lens wearers. Optometry and Vision Science 2010;87(8): 560-566.
  10. Jones L, Walline J, Gaume A, et al. Purchase of contact lenses and contact-lenses-related symptoms following the Contact Lenses in Pediatrics (CLIP) Study. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye 2009;32: 157-163.
  11. Lindsay R, Chi J. Contact lens management of infantile aphakia. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2010;93(1): 3-14.
  12. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, et al. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology 2008;115(10):1655-1662.
  13. Walline, JJ, Rah MJ, Jones, LA. The Children’s Overnight Investigation (COOKI) pilot study. Optometry and Vision Science 2004;81(6):407-413.
  14. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2009;93:1181-1185.

(p. 32) Contact Lens Prescribing Fees Aren’t High Enough

By Charles W. McMonnies, MSc

  1. Levitt AP. OD. Miami USA: Generously made available by Alan Levitt but requests for copies should be sent .
  2. McMonnies CW. Key questions in a dry eye history. J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 57 (7) 1986 512-517. Available on request sent to .
  3. The Vision Council. Screens, phones, tablets and more: keeping your eyes safe in a digital age. 2012; 1-15.
  4. McMonnies CW. Mechanisms of rubbing-related corneal trauma in keratoconus. Cornea 2009; 28:607-615.20.
  5. Edwards M, McGhee CNJ, Dean S. The genetics of keratoconus. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2001; 29: 345-351.
  6. McMonnies CW. Behaviour modification in the management of chronic habits of abnormal eye rubbing. Cont Lens Ant Eye 2009; 32: 55-63.

(p. 36) Applications of Corneal Topography Beyond Corneal Shape

By Randy Kojima, FAAO; Patrick Caroline, FAAO; Beth Kinoshita, OD, FAAO; Matthew Lampa, OD, FAAO; Mark André, FAAO; & Chad Rosen, OD

  1. Wilson, S, Klyce, S; Advances in the analysis of corneal topography, Survey of Ophthalmology, Volume 35, Issue 4, January–February 1991, Pages 269–277
  2. Mandell RB. A guide to videokeratography. ICLC. 1996;23:205-228
  3. John Mountford et al, Orthokeratology Principles and Practice, Buttierworth-Heinemann, 2004, Chapter 2, Pages 19-24
  4. Cairns G, McGhee CNJ Orbscan computerized topography: Attributes, applications, and limitations. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005;31:205-220.
  5. Yanoff & Duker: Ophthalmology, 3rd ed., Chapter 2.10, Keratometer and Corneal Topographer, Elsevier, 2008
  6. Wang, M, Corneal Topography in the Wavefront Era: A Guide for Clinical Application, Slack Incorporated, 2012, Chapter 4-5
  7. Guillon M, Lydon DP, Wilson C. Corneal topography: a clinical model. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1986;6:47–56.
  8. Naufal SC, Hess JS, Friedlander MH, Granet NS. Rasterstereography-based classification of normal corneas. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1997;23:222-230.
  9. Erdélyi, B et al; Spontaneous alterations of the corneal topographic pattern Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery;; 2005 Volume 31, Issue 5, Pages 973-978.
  10. Ambrosio R, Klyce SD, Wilson SE. Corneal topographic and pachymetric screening of keratorefractive patients. J Refract Surg. 2003;19:24–29.
  11. D.Anderson, R. Kojima; Topography: A Clinical Pearl; Optometric Management, February 2007
  12. Kirkpatrick, R – Reducing Chair time with Orthokeratology, Contact Lens Spectrum, April, 2009
  13. Anderson, D – 6 Signs You Need a Corneal Topographer, Optometric Management, April, 2012
  14. Boyd, B, et al; Wavefront Analysis, Aberrometers & Corneal Topography, 2013, Highlights of Ophthalmology,
  15. Szczotka LB. Clinical evaluation of a topographically based contact lens fitting software. Optom Vis Sci. 1997;74:14–19.
  16. Bogan SJ,Waring GO 3rd,Ibrahim O,et al.Classification of normal corneal topography based on computer-assisted videoker- atography.Arch Ophthalmol.1990;108:945-949.
  17. Maeda N,Klyce SD,Smolek MK,Thompson HW.Automated keratoconus screening with corneal topography analysis.Invest OphthalmolVis Sci.1994;35:2749-2757.
  18. Wilson SE,Klyce SD.Screening for corneal topographic abnormalities prior to refractive surgery.Ophthalmology. 1994;101:147-152.
  19. Smolek MK,Klyce SD.Current keratoconus detection methods compared with a neural network approach.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.1997;38:2290-2299.
  20. Reddy T, Szczotka LB, Roberts C. Peripheral corneal contour measured by topography influences soft toric contact lens fitting success. CLAO J. 2000;26:180–185.
  21. Kojima, R, Designing GP’s by Corneal Topography, Contact Lens Spectrum, October, 2009
  22. Sindt, C et al – Evaluating Virtual Fitting For Keratoconus, Contact Lens Spectrum, May 2011
  23. Guarnieri FA, Guarnieri JC, Comparison of Placido-based, rasterstereography, and slit-scan corneal topography systems, J Refract Surg. 2002 Mar-Apr;18(2):169-76.
  24. Guirao A, Artal P. Corneal wave aberration from videokeratography: accuracy and limitations of the procedure. J Opt Soc Am A. 2000;17:955–965.
  25. Mejia-Barbosa Y, Malacara-Hernandez D. A review of methods for measuring corneal topography. Optom Vis Sci. 2001;78:240–253.
  26. Alonso-Caneiro, D. et al, Diagnosing dry eye with dynamic-area high-speed videokeratoscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2011 Jul;16(7):076012. doi: 10.1117/1.3598837.
  27. Szczesna, D.H, et al, Lateral shearing interferometry, dynamic wavefront sensing, and high-speed videokeratoscopy for noninvasive assessment of tear film surface characteristics: a comparative study, J.Biomed. Opt. 2010 May-Jun 15(3)
  28. Szczesna, D.H., et al, Future Directions in Non-Invasive Measurements of Tear Film Surface Kinetics, Optometry & Vision Science: May 2012 - Volume 89 - Issue 5 - p 749–759
  29. Best, N., et al, Clinical evaluation of the Oculus Keratograph, Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, Volume 35, Issue 4, August 2012, Pages 171–174
  30. Medmont E300 Corneal Topographer, 5/56 Norcal Road, Nunawading, Victoria, 3131, Australia
  31. Mountford, J, Noack, D, KBA Fitting Guide, Capricornea, Brisbane, Australia
  32. Read, S, et al, The Topography of the Central and Peripheral Cornea, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, April 2006, Vol. 47, No. 4
  33. Franklin, R.J., et al, Combining central and peripheral videokeratoscope maps to investigate total corneal topography, Eye and Contact Lens, 2006 Jan;32(1):27-32.
  34. Caroline, P, Andre, M, Composite Corneal Topography, Contact Lens Spectrum, October, 2012

(p. 47) Treatment Plan – Managing Hyphemas

By William L. Miller, OD, MS, PhD, FAAO

  1. Savage GA, Scherer RW, Goldberg MF, Lindsley K. Medical intervention for traumatic hyphema (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. Issue 1, 2011.
  2. Lai WW, Edward DP, Tessler HH, Bhavnani VD.Risk factors for complications following traumatic hyphema.Arch Ophthalmol. 2001 Nov;119(11):1732.
  3. Walton W, Von Hagen S, Grigorian R, Zarbin M.Management of traumatic hyphema.Surv Ophthalmol. 2002 Jul-Aug;47(4):297-334
  4. Albiani DA, Hodge WG, Pan YI, Urton TE, Clarke WN.Tranexamic acid in the treatment of pediatric traumatic hyphema. Can J Ophthalmol. 2008 Aug;43(4):428-31

(p. 48) Reader and Industry Forum – Consider a Concierge Lens Practice to Prevent Dropout

By Irwin Azman, OD

  1. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D, Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey, Int Contact Lens Clin, 1999 Nov:26(6):157-62.
  2. Rumpakis J. New Data on Contact Lens Dropouts: An International Perspective. Rev Optom. 2010 Jan147(1)37-42

End Document #216