Contact Lens Spectrum


April 2013

Document #209

(p. 14) Research Review – Detecting Keratoconus Early

By Loretta B. Szczotka-Flynn, OD, PhD, MS, FAAO

1. Li Y, Tan O, Brass R, Weiss JL, Huang D. Corneal epithelial thickness mapping by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in normal and keratoconic eyes. Ophthalmology 2012;119:2425-33.

2. Wolffsohn JS, Safeen S, Shah S, Laiquzzaman M. Changes of corneal biomechanics with keratoconus. Cornea 2012;31:849-54.

3. Saad A, Gatinel D. Evaluation of total and corneal wavefront high order aberrations for the detection of forme fruste keratoconus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:2978-92.

4. Maeda N, Klyce SD, Smolek MK. Comparison of methods for detecting keratoconus using videokeratography. Arch Ophthalmol 1995;113:870-4.

5. Rabinowitz YS, Rasheed K. KISA% index: a quantitative videokeratography algorithm embodying minimal topographic criteria for diagnosing keratoconus. J Cataract Refract Surg 1999;25:1327-35.

6. Rabinowitz YS. Videokeratographic indices to aid in screening for keratoconus. J Refract Surg 1995;11:371-9.

7. Li X, Yang H, Rabinowitz YS. Keratoconus: classification scheme based on videokeratography and clinical signs. J Cataract Refract Surg 2009;35:1597-603.

8. Maeda N, Klyce SD, Smolek MK, Thompson HW. Automated keratoconus screening with corneal topography analysis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994;35:2749-57.

9. Ramos-Lopez D, Martinez-Finkelshtein A, Castro-Luna GM, Burguera-Gimenez N, Vega-Estrada A, Pinero D, Alio JL. Screening Subclinical Keratoconus With Placido-Based Corneal Indices. Optom Vis Sci 2013.

10. Ambrosio R, Jr., Alonso RS, Luz A, Coca Velarde LG. Corneal-thickness spatial profile and corneal-volume distribution: tomographic indices to detect keratoconus. J Cataract Refract Surg 2006;32:1851-9.

11. Ambrosio R, Jr., Caiado AL, Guerra FP, Louzada R, Roy AS, Luz A, Dupps WJ, Belin MW. Novel pachymetric parameters based on corneal tomography for diagnosing keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2011;27:753-8.

12. Auffarth GU, Wang L, Volcker HE. Keratoconus evaluation using the Orbscan Topography System. J Cataract Refract Surg 2000;26:222-8.

13. Lim L, Wei RH, Chan WK, Tan DT. Evaluation of keratoconus in Asians: role of Orbscan II and Tomey TMS-2 corneal topography. Am J Ophthalmol 2007;143:390-400.

14. Pflugfelder SC, Liu Z, Feuer W, Verm A. Corneal thickness indices discriminate between keratoconus and contact lens-induced corneal thinning. Ophthalmology 2002;109:2336-41.

15. Maldonado MJ, Nieto JC, Diez-Cuenca M, Pinero DP. Repeatability and reproducibility of posterior corneal curvature measurements by combined scanning-slit and placido-disc topography after LASIK. Ophthalmology 2006;113:1918-26.

16. Rabsilber TM, Becker KA, Auffarth GU. Reliability of Orbscan II topography measurements in relation to refractive status. J Cataract Refract Surg 2005;31:1607-13.

17. Seitz B, Torres F, Langenbucher A, Behrens A, Suarez E. Posterior corneal curvature changes after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 2001;108:666-72; discussion 73.

18. Chen D, Lam AK. Intrasession and intersession repeatability of the Pentacam system on posterior corneal assessment in the normal human eye. J Cataract Refract Surg 2007;33:448-54.

19. Chen D, Lam AK. Reliability and repeatability of the Pentacam on corneal curvatures. Clin Exp Optom 2009;92:110-8.

20. Jain R, Dilraj G, Grewal SP. Repeatability of corneal parameters with Pentacam after laser in situ keratomileusis. Indian J Ophthalmol 2007;55:341-7.

21. Lackner B, Schmidinger G, Pieh S, Funovics MA, Skorpik C. Repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measurement with Pentacam, Orbscan, and ultrasound. Optom Vis Sci 2005;82:892-9.

22. Lam A, Chen D. Pentacam pachometry: comparison with non-contact specular microscopy on the central cornea and inter-session repeatability on the peripheral cornea. Clin Exp Optom 2007;90:108-14.

23. McAlinden C, Khadka J, Pesudovs K. A comprehensive evaluation of the precision (repeatability and reproducibility) of the Oculus Pentacam HR. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:7731-7.

24. Miranda MA, Radhakrishnan H, O'Donnell C. Repeatability of corneal thickness measured using an Oculus Pentacam. Optom Vis Sci 2009;86:266-72.

25. Rao SN, Raviv T, Majmudar PA, Epstein RJ. Role of Orbscan II in screening keratoconus suspects before refractive corneal surgery. Ophthalmology 2002;109:1642-6.

26. Sonmez B, Doan MP, Hamilton DR. Identification of scanning slit-beam topographic parameters important in distinguishing normal from keratoconic corneal morphologic features. Am J Ophthalmol 2007;143:401-8.

27. Wei RH, Lim L, Chan WK, Tan DT. Evaluation of Orbscan II corneal topography in individuals with myopia. Ophthalmology 2006;113:177-83.

28. Feng MT, Belin MW, Ambrosio R, Jr., Grewal SP, Yan W, Shaheen MS, Jordon CA, McGhee C, Maeda N, Neuhann TH, Dick HB, Steinmueller A. International values of corneal elevation in normal subjects by rotating Scheimpflug camera. J Cataract Refract Surg 2011;37:1817-21.

29. Mihaltz K, Kovacs I, Takacs A, Nagy ZZ. Evaluation of keratometric, pachymetric, and elevation parameters of keratoconic corneas with pentacam. Cornea 2009;28:976-80.

30. Kollbaum P SC. The psychometric properties of Orbscan keratoconus detection indices. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting 2006.

31. Quisling S, Sjoberg S, Zimmerman B, Goins K, Sutphin J. Comparison of Pentacam and Orbscan IIz on posterior curvature topography measurements in keratoconus eyes. Ophthalmology 2006;113:1629-32.

32. de Sanctis U, Loiacono C, Richiardi L, Turco D, Mutani B, Grignolo FM. Sensitivity and specificity of posterior corneal elevation measured by Pentacam in discriminating keratoconus/subclinical keratoconus. Ophthalmology 2008;115:1534-9.

(p. 17) GP Insights – Differential Diagnosis of Red Eye With Scleral Lenses

By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

Visser ES, Visser R, Van Lier HJl. Advantages of Toric Scleral Lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;83(4):233-6.

(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Enhancing Patient Adherence to Dry Eye Therapy, Part 2

By William Townsend, OD, FAAO

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Helping Lens Wearers Cope With Seasonal Allergies

By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO

(p. 22) A Report From the 2013 GSLS Meeting

By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO

1. Blackie CA, Solomon JD, Greiner JV, et al. Inner eyelid surface temperature as a function of warm compress methodology. Optom Vis Sci 2008;85(8):675-683.

2. Lane SS, DuBiner HB, Epstein RJ, et al. A new system, the LipiFlow, for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Cornea 2012;3194):396-404.

3. Holden BA, Mertz GW. Critical oxygen levels to avoid corneal edema for daily and extended wear contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1984;25(10):1161-1167.

4. Koller T. Complication and failure rates after corneal crosslinking. J Cataract Refract Surg 2009;35:1358-1362.

5. Greenstein S. Natural history of corneal haze after collagen crosslinking for keratoconus and corneal ectasia: Scheimpflug and biomicroscopic analysis. J Cataract Refract Surg 2010;36:2105-2014.

6. Koppen C. Influence of contact lens wear on the results of cross-linking for progressive keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 2011;95:1402-1405.

(p. 30) New Protocols for Managing Keratoconus and Corneal Ectasia

By Vishakha Thakrar, OD, FAAO

(p. 38) Eye Shape and Scleral Lenses

By Randy Kojima; Patrick Caroline; Tina Graff; Beth Kinoshita, OD; Lori Copilevitz, OD; Roxanne Achong-Coan, OD; Eef van der Worp, PhD; Matthew Lampa, OD; Kelvin So, OD; & Mark André

1) Gutmark R and Guyton DL. Origins of the Keratometer and its Evolving Role in Ophthalmology. Survey of Ophthalmology 2010; 55(5): 481-497

2) Khurana, A.K., Ophthalmology.

New Age Publishers 2003; 70-71

3) Bennett, AG, Rabbetts, RB. What radius does the conventional keratometer measure?

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1991;Jul;11(3):239-47.

4) Hansen, D. Evaluating the Eye with Corneal Topography

Contact Lens Spectrum; August 2003

5) Van der Worp E. A Guide to Scleral Lens Fitting [monograph online]; 2010. Available at The Pacific University website: 6)

6) DeNaeyer, G, Breece, R. Fitting Techniques for a Scleral Lens Design

7) Schornack, M, Patel S. Relationship between corneal topographic indices and scleral lens base curve. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Nov;36(6):330-3.6)

8) Kojima, R, Caroline, P. Designing GPs from Corneal Topography

Contact Lens Spectrum, October 2009

9) Sindt, CW, Grout, T, Kojima, R. Evaluating Virtual Fitting for Keratoconus

Contact Lens Spectrum, May 2011

10) Sindt, CW. Basic Scleral Lens Fitting and Design

Contact Lens Spectrum, October 2008

11) Denaeyer, GW. Modern Scleral Contact Lens Fitting

Contact Lens Spectrum, June 2010

12) Casser, L, Fingeret, M, Woodcome, T. Atlas of Primare Eyecare Procedures

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1997, P: 333-334

13) Wang, M, Wang, M. Corneal Topography in the wavefront era: a guide for clinical application. Slack Incorporated, 2006, P: 178

14) Fujimoto JG, Brezinski ME, Tearney GJ, Boppart SA, Bouma B, Hee MR, Southern JF, Swanson EA, Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography. Nat Med, 1995, 1:970–972

15) Caroline, P, Andre, A. Scleral Shape Revisited

Contact Lens Spectrum, September 2010

16) Sorbara, L, Maram, J, Fonn, D, Woods, C, Simpson, T. Metrics of the normal cornea: anterior sgment imaging with the Visante OCT. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, May 2010, Vol. 93, Issue 3, pages 150-156

17) Roxanne Achong-Coan, et al. How Do Normal and Keratoconic Eyes Differ in Shape? Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, January 27, 2012 – Las Vegas

18) Lori Copilevitz, et al. Are You Scared of Heights? Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, January 27, 2012 – Las Vegas

19) Medmont Pty Ltd., Unit 5 / 56 Norcal Road, Nunawading VIC 3131, Australia

20) Patrick Caroline, et al. Sag Height Uncovered. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, January 27, 2012 – Las Vegas

21) Paragon Vision Sciences, 947 East Impala Ave, Mesa, AZ 85204-6619

(p. 48) Treatment Plan – AMD Risk and Aspirin Use

By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

1. Klein BE, Howard KP, Gangnon RE, Dreyer JO, Lee KE, Klein R. Long-term use of aspirin and age-related macular degeneration. JAMA. 2012 Dec 19;308(23):2469-78.

2. Siller-Matula JM. Hemorrhagic complications associated with aspirin: an underestimated hazard in clinical practice? JAMA. 2012 Jun 6;307(21):2318-20.

3. Berger JS. Aspirin as preventive therapy in patients with asymptomatic vascular disease. JAMA. 2010 Mar 3;303(9):880-2.

4. Black RA, Bensinger RE. Bilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage after acetylsalicylic acid overdose. Ann Ophthalmol. 1982 Nov;14(11):1024-5.

5. Elgohary MA, Gormley PD. Spontaneous macular haemorrhage in a patient on aspirin. J Postgrad Med. 2005 Apr-Jun;51(2):153-5.


7. De Berardis G, Lucisano G, D'Ettorre A, et al. Association of aspirin use with major bleeding in patients with and without diabetes. JAMA. 2012 Jun 6;307(21):2286-94.

8. Liew G, Mitchell P, Wong TT, Rotchina E, Wang jj. The Association of aspirin use with age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 2013; published online January 21,2013.

9. Kent DM, Shah ND. Risk models and patient-centered evidence: should physicians expect one right answer? JAMA. 2012 Apr 18;307(15):1585-6.

(p. 50) Reader and Industry Forum – Evaluating the Upper Lid With a Digital Microscope Camera

By Heiko Pult, PhD, MSc, FAAO, FBCLA, FEAAO, & Britta Riede-Pult, Dip. Ing. (FH)

1. Pult H, Murphy PJ, Purslow C. The longitudinal impact of soft contact lens wear on lid wiper epitheliopathy and lid-parallel conjunctival folds. In: 6th International Conference on the Tear Film & Ocular Surface: Basic Science and Clinical Relevance. Florence, Italy; 2010.

2. Korb DR, Greiner JV, Herman JP, Hebert E, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Glonek T, Olson MC. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J 2002;28:211-6.

3. Pult H, Murphy PJ, Purslow C. A Novel Method to Predict Dry Eye Symptoms in New Contact Lens Wearers. Optom Vis Sci 2009;86:E1042-50.

4. Pult H, Purslow C, Berry M, Murphy PJ. Clinical signs of discomfort in contact lens wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008;49:ARVO E-Abstract: 4842.

5. Donshik PC. Contact lens chemistry and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Eye Contact Lens 2003;29:S37-9; discussion S57-9, S192-4.

6. Sindt CW, Longmuir RA. Contact lens strategies for the patient with dry eye. Ocul Surf 2007;5:294-307.

7. Meyler J. Why should I evert the lids? In: BCLA Conference. Birmingham; 2008.

End Document #209