Contact Lens Spectrum


May 2013

Document #210

(p. 15) Refractive Focus – Optimizing Vision in Patients Who Have Astigmatism

By David A. Berntsen, OD, PhD, FAAO

1: Young G, Sulley A, Hunt C. Prevalence of astigmatism in relation to soft

contact lens fitting. Eye Contact Lens. 2011 Jan;37(1):20-5. doi:

10.1097/ICL.0b013e3182048fb9. PubMed PMID: 21178696.

2: Morgan PB, Efron SE, Efron N, Hill EA. Inefficacy of aspheric soft contact

lenses for the correction of low levels of astigmatism. Optom Vis Sci. 2005

Sep;82(9):823-8. PubMed PMID: 16189492.

3: Berntsen DA, Merchea MM, Richdale K, Mack CJ, Barr JT. Higher-order

aberrations when wearing sphere and toric soft contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci.

2009 Feb;86(2):115-22. doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e318194e951. PubMed PMID: 19156015;

PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2765793.

4: Richdale K, Berntsen DA, Mack CJ, Merchea MM, Barr JT. Visual acuity with

spherical and toric soft contact lenses in low- to moderate-astigmatic eyes.

Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Oct;84(10):969-75. PubMed PMID: 18049362.

5: Cho P, Cheung SW, Charm J. Visual outcome of Soflens Daily Disposable and

Soflens Daily Disposable for Astigmatism in subjects with low astigmatism. Clin

Exp Optom. 2012 Jan;95(1):43-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1444-0938.2011.00649.x. Epub 2011

Nov 25. PubMed PMID: 22118603.

6: Efron S, Efron N, Morgan PB. Optical and visual performance of aspheric soft

contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Mar;85(3):201-10. doi:

10.1097/OPX.0b013e318165100a. PubMed PMID: 18317336.

7: Rae SM, Allen PM, Radhakrishnan H, Theagarayan B, Price HC, Sailaganathan A,

Calver RI, O'Leary DJ. Increasing negative spherical aberration with soft contact

lenses improves high and low contrast visual acuity in young adults. Ophthalmic

Physiol Opt. 2009 Nov;29(6):593-601. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2009.00678.x. Epub

2009 Aug 3. PubMed PMID: 19663925.

8: Chen CC, Cheung SW, Cho P. Toric orthokeratology for highly astigmatic

children. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Jun;89(6):849-55. doi:

10.1097/OPX.0b013e318257c20f. PubMed PMID: 22561203.

9: Sulley A, Young G, Lorenz KO, Hunt C. Clinical evaluation of fitting toric

soft contact lenses to current non-users. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013

Mar;33(2):94-103. doi: 10.1111/opo.12028. PubMed PMID: 23406489.

10: Chamberlain P, Morgan PB, Moody KJ, Maldonado-Codina C. Fluctuation in visual

acuity during soft toric contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Apr;88(4):E534-8.

doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e31820ea1ea. PubMed PMID: 21378591.

11: Lindskoog Pettersson A, Mårtensson L, Salkic J, Unsbo P, Brautaset R.

Spherical aberration in relation to visual performance in contact lens wear. Cont

Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Feb;34(1):12-6; quiz 50-1. doi:

10.1016/j.clae.2010.08.008. Epub 2010 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 20926333.

(p. 18) Prescribing for Presbyopia – Over-Refracting Over Multifocal Contact Lenses

By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

Henry VA, Clinical pearls for fitting soft multifocals, CL Spectrum, July 2008.

Paugh JR, Matoba R, Matoba EN. Plus acceptance in hard contact lens wearers. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987 Sep;64(9):703-7.

Schafer J, Over-refraction techniques, CL Spectrum, June 2007.

Vogt AKS, Bateman K, Green T, Reindel B, Using power profiles to evaluate aspheric lenses, CL Spectrum, January 2011.

(p. 21) CL Design & Materials – Soft Prosthetic Lens Options

By Ronald K. Watanabe, OD, FAAO, & Crystal Remington, OD

Mackey DA, Wilkinson CH,Kearns LS, Hewitt AW. Classification of iris colour: review and refinement of a classification schema. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol, 2011 Jul; 39(5) 462-71.

(p. 23) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Reactions Can Occur With “Tried and True” Safe Drugs, Too

By Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD, FAAO

  1. Absolon MJ and Brown CA. Acetylcysteine in keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Br J Ophthalmol 52:310, 1968.

  2. Davison SC, Wakelin SH Allergic contact dermatitis from N-acetylcysteine eyedrops. Contact Dermatitis. 2002 Oct;47(4):238.

  3. Yalc¸in, E., Altin, F., Cinhu¨ seyinoglue, F., and Arslan, M.O. Nacetylcysteine in chronic blepharitis. Cornea 21:164–168, 2002.

  4. Akyol-Salman, I., Azizi, S., Mumcu, U., and Baykal, O. Efficacy of topical N-Acetylcysteine in the treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction. J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 26:329–333, 2010.

(p. 34) Are Corneal Staining and Infiltrative Keratitis Related?

By Sruthi Srinivasan, PhD, BSOptom, FAAO

Aasuri, M. K., N. Venkata, et al. (2003). "Differential diagnosis of microbial keratitis and contact lens-induced peripheral ulcer." Eye Contact Lens 29(1 Suppl): S60-62; discussion S83-84, S192-194.

Anderson, D. M. (2003). Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Philadelphia: Saunders.

Andrasko, G. and K. Ryen (2008). "Corneal staining and comfort observed with traditional and silicone hydrogel lenses and multipurpose solution combinations." Optometry 79(8): 444-454.

Bakkar, M., C. Maldonado-Codina, et al. (2010). "Development of an in-vitro model of solution induced corneal staining." Optom Vis Sci 87: E-Abstract 100959.

Begley, C. G., J. T. Barr, et al. (1996). "Characteristics of corneal staining in hydrogel contact lens wearers." Optom Vis Sci 73(3): 193-200.

Bright, F. V., M. M. Merchea, et al. (2012). "A preservative-and-fluorescein interaction model for benign multipurpose solution-associated transient corneal hyperfluorescence." Cornea 31(12): 1480-1488.

Caffery, B. E. and J. E. Josephson (1991). "Corneal staining after sequential instillations of fluorescein over 30 days." Optom Vis Sci 68(6): 467-469.

Carnt, N., I. Jalbert, et al. (2007). "Solution toxicity in soft contact lens daily wear is associated with corneal inflammation." Optom Vis Sci 84(4): 309-315.

Carnt, N. A., V. E. Evans, et al. (2009). "Contact lens-related adverse events and the silicone hydrogel lenses and daily wear care system used." Archives of Ophthalmology 127(12): 1616-1623.

Chalmers, R. L., L. Keay, et al. (2012). "Multicenter case-control study of the role of lens materials and care products on the development of corneal infiltrates." Optom Vis Sci 89(3): 316-325.

Chalmers, R. L., J. J. McNally, et al. (2007). "Risk factors for corneal infiltrates with continuous wear of contact lenses." Optometry and Vision Science 84(7): 573-579.

Chalmers, R. L., H. Wagner, et al. (2011). "Age and Other Risk Factors for Corneal Infiltrative and Inflammatory Events in Young Soft Contact Lens Wearers from the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) Study." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.

Cheng, K. H., S. L. Leung, et al. (1999). "Incidence of contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis and its related morbidity." Lancet 354(9174): 181-185.

Cutter, G. R., R. L. Chalmers, et al. (1996). "The clinical presentation, prevalence, and risk factors of focal corneal infiltrates in soft contact lens wearers." CLAO Journal 22(1): 30-36.

Dart, J. K., C. F. Radford, et al. (2008). "Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses: a case-control study." Ophthalmology 115(10): 1647-1654, 1654 e1641-1643.

Dartt, D. (2010). Encyclopedia of the Eye. Oxford, Elsevier.

de la Jara, P. L., E. Papas, et al. (2013). "Effect of lens care systems on the clinical performance of a contact lens." Optom Vis Sci 90(4): 344-350.

Dumbleton, K. (2002). "Adverse events with silicone hydrogel continuous wear." Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 25(3): 137-146.

Dumbleton, K., D. Fonn, et al. (2000). "Severity and management of contact lens complications with continuous wear of high Dk silicone hydrogel lenses." Optometry and Vision Science 77(12S): 216.

Dundas, M., A. Walker, et al. (2001). "Clinical grading of corneal staining of non-contact lens wearers." Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 21(1): 30-35.

Efron, N. (2006). Sterile Keratitis. Contact Lens Complications, Butterworth-Heinemann: 162-174.

Efron, N. (2012). "Putting vital stains in context." Clin Exp Optom.

Efron, N. and P. B. Morgan (2006). "Can subtypes of contact lens-associated corneal infiltrative events be clinically differentiated?" Cornea 25(5): 540-544.

Efron, N., P. B. Morgan, et al. (2005). "The size, location, and clinical severity of corneal infiltrative events associated with contact lens wear." Optometry and Vision Science 82(6): 519-527.

Feenstra, R. P. and S. C. Tseng (1992). "Comparison of fluorescein and rose bengal staining." Ophthalmology 99(4): 605-617.

Fonn, D., R. Peterson, et al. (2010). "Corneal staining as a response to contact lens wear." Eye and Contact Lens 36(5): 318-321.

Garofalo, R. J., N. Dassanayake, et al. (2005). "Corneal staining and subjective symptoms with multipurpose solutions as a function of time." Eye & contact lens 31(4): 166-174.

Hickson, S. and E. Papas (1997). "Prevalence of idiopathic corneal anomalies in a non contact lens-wearing population." Optometry and Vision Science 74(5): 293-297.

Ikeda, T., A. Ledwith, et al. (1984). "Interaction of a polymeric biguanide biocide with phospholipid membranes." Biochim Biophys Acta 769(1): 57-66.

Jones, L., N. MacDougall, et al. (2002). "Asymptomatic corneal staining associated with the use of balafilcon silicone-hydrogel contact lenses disinfected with a polyaminopropyl biguanide-preserved care regimen." Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 79(12): 753-761.

Josephson, J. E. and B. E. Caffery (1979). "Infiltrative keratitis in hydrogel lens wearers." Int Cont Lens Clin 6: 47-70.

Josephson, J. E. and B. E. Caffery (1992). "Corneal staining characteristics after sequential instillations of fluorescein." Optom Vis Sci 69(7): 570-573.

Kikkawa, Y. (1972). "Normal corneal staining with fluorescein." Exp Eye Res 14(1): 13-20.

Kim, J. (2000). "The use of vital dyes in corneal disease." Curr Opin Ophthalmol 11(4): 241-247.

Kislan, T. (2011). "Recent increase in contact lens associated infiltrative keratitis." Optician.

Kislan, T. P. (2011). "Case Characteristics of Persons Presenting With Contact Lens-associated Infiltrative Keratitis (CLAIK) With Multipurpose Solutions and Contact Lens Combinations." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(6): 6521-.

Kislan, T. P. and M. M. Hom (2010). "Corneal Infiltrates With Multipurpose Solutions and Contact Lens Combinations." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5): 3424-.

Korb, D. R., J. P. Herman, et al. (2008). "An evaluation of the efficacy of fluorescein, rose bengal, lissamine green, and a new dye mixture for ocular surface staining." Eye Contact Lens 34(1): 61-64.

Korb, D. R. and J. M. Korb (1970). "Corneal staining prior to contact lens wearing." J Am Optom Assoc 41(3): 228-232.

Machado, L. M., R. S. Castro, et al. (2009). "Staining patterns in dry eye syndrome: rose bengal versus lissamine green." Cornea 28(7): 732-734.

Maldonado-Codina, C., M. L. Read, et al. (2013). "Observation of solution-induced corneal staining with fluorescein, rose bengal and lissamine green." Cont Lens Anterior Eye.

McNally, J. J., R. L. Chalmers, et al. (2003). "Risk factors for corneal infiltrative events with 30-night continuous wear of silicone hydrogel lenses." Eye & contact lens 29(1 Suppl): S153-156; discussion S166, S192-194.

Millodot, M. and D. Laby (2002). Dictionary of Ophthalmology. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Mokhtarzadeh, M., R. Casey, et al. (2011). "Fluorescein punctate staining traced to superficial corneal epithelial cells by impression cytology and confocal microscopy." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(5): 2127-2135.

Morgan, P. B., N. Efron, et al. (2005). "Risk factors for the development of corneal infiltrative events associated with contact lens wear." Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 46(9): 3136-3143.

Morgan, P. B., N. Efron, et al. (2005). "Incidence of keratitis of varying severity among contact lens wearers." British Journal of Ophthalmology 89(4): 430-436.

Morgan, P. B. and C. Maldonado-Codina (2009). "Corneal staining: do we really understand what we are seeing?" Cont Lens Anterior Eye 32(2): 48-54.

Nichols, K. K., G. L. Mitchell, et al. (2002). "Corneal staining in hydrogel lens wearers." Optom Vis Sci 79(1): 20-30.

Papas, E. B., N. Carnt, et al. (2007). "Complications associated with care product use during silicone daily wear of hydrogel contact lens." Eye and Contact Lens 33(6 PART 2 OF SUPPL 2): 392-393.

Poggio, E. C., R. J. Glynn, et al. (1989). "The incidence of ulcerative keratitis among users of daily-wear and extended-wear soft contact lenses." The New England journal of medicine 321(12): 779-783.

Radford, C. F., D. Minassian, et al. (2009). "Risk factors for nonulcerative contact lens complications in an ophthalmic accident and emergency department: a case-control study." Ophthalmology 116(3): 385-392.

Radford, C. F., D. Minassian, et al. (2009). "Risk Factors for Nonulcerative Contact Lens Complications in an Ophthalmic Accident and Emergency Department. A Case-Control Study." Ophthalmology 116(3): 385-392.

Robboy, M. W., T. L. Comstock, et al. (2003). "Contact lens - Associated corneal infiltrates." Eye and Contact Lens 29(3): 146-154.

Sacco, A. (2011). "Contact Lens-Associated Infiltrative Keratitis and Multipurpose Solutions." Contact Lens Spectrum April 2011.

Sankaridurg, P., B. Holden, et al. (2004). Adverse events and infections: Which ones and how many ? . Silicone hydrogels: Continuous wear contact lenses. D. Sweeney. Oxford, Butterworth_Heinemann: 217-274.

Sankaridurg, P. R., S. Sharma, et al. (2000). "Bacterial colonization of disposable soft contact lenses is greater during corneal infiltrative events than during asymptomatic extended lens wear." Journal of clinical microbiology 38(12): 4420-4424.

Sankaridurg, P. R., D. F. Sweeney, et al. (2003). "Comparison of Adverse Events with Daily Disposable Hydrogels and Spectacle Wear: Results from a 12-Month Prospective Clinical Trial." Ophthalmology 110(12): 2327-2334.

Schwallie, J. D., C. D. McKenney, et al. (1997). "Corneal staining patterns in normal non-contact lens wearers." Optom Vis Sci 74(2): 92-98.

Sharma, S., D. Y. Kunimoto, et al. (2002). "Evaluation of corneal scraping smear examination methods in the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal keratitis: a survey of eight years of laboratory experience." Cornea 21(7): 643-647.

Shovlin, J. (2011). "Infiltrative keratis in daily lens wearers: Do you see what I see?" Contact Lens Spectrum 26(Supplement).

Shovlin, J. (2011). "Why corneal infiltrates are on the rise." Contact Lens Spectrum 26(8).

Stein, R. M., T. E. Clinch, et al. (1988). "Infected vs sterile corneal infiltrates in contact lens wearers." American Journal of Ophthalmology 105(6): 632-636.

Sweeney, D. F., I. Jalbert, et al. (2003). "Clinical characterization of corneal infiltrative events observed with soft contact lens wear." Cornea 22(5): 435-442.

Sweeney, D. F., R. Terry, et al. (1996). "The prevalence of "infiltrates" in a non contact lens wearing population." Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 37(3).

Szczotka-Flynn, L. and R. Chalmers (2013). "Incidence and epidemiologic associations of corneal infiltrates with silicone hydrogel contact lenses." Eye Contact Lens 39(1): 49-52.

Szczotka-Flynn, L., S. M. Debanne, et al. (2007). "Predictive factors for corneal infiltrates with continuous wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses." Arch Ophthalmol 125(4): 488-492.

Szczotka-Flynn, L., J. H. Lass, et al. (2010). "Risk factors for corneal infiltrative events during continuous wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses." Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 51(11): 5421-5430.

Tabery, H. M. (1992). "Dual appearance of fluorescein staining in vivo of diseased human corneal epithelium. A non-contact photomicrographic study." Br J Ophthalmol 76(1): 43-44.

Thinda, S., P. K. Sikh, et al. (2010). "Polycarbonate membrane impression cytology: evidence for fluorescein staining in normal and dry eye corneas." Br J Ophthalmol 94(4): 406-409.

Ward, K. W. (2008). "Superficial punctate fluorescein staining of the ocular surface." Optom Vis Sci 85(1): 8-16.

Willcox, M., P. Sankaridurg, et al. (2004). Inflammation and infection and the effects of the closed eye. Silicone hydrogels: Continuous wear contact lenses. D. Sweeney. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann: 90-125.

Willcox, M., S. Sharma, et al. (2011). "External ocular surface and lens microbiota in contact lens wearers with corneal infiltrates during extended wear of hydrogel lenses." Eye Contact Lens 37(2): 90-95.

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(p. 38) How to Lose Patients Without Even Trying

By Charles W. McMonnies, MSc

  1. Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002; 51: 1-45.

  2. Petty WC. PACU-Why hand washing is vital. J Perianesth Nurs 2009; 24 (4): 250-253.

  3. Nercelles MP, Peirano NL, Herrera OR, Rivero BP, Marquez PL. A nosocomial outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Rev Chilena Infectol 2010; 27 (6): 534-538.

  4. Stefkovicova M, Vicianova V, Sokolik J. Causes and control measures in hospital outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Indoor Built Environ 2006; 15 (1): 111-114.

  5. Veys J. Hands up for hygiene (Conference Abstract). Cont Lens Ant Eye 2010; 33: 267.

  6. McMonnies CW. Improving contact lens compliance by explaining the benefits of compliant procedures. Cont Lens Ant Eye 2011; 34 (5): 249-252.

  7. McMonnies CW. Improving patient education and attitudes toward compliance with instructions for contact lens use. Cont Lens Ant Eye 2011; 34 (5): 241-248.

  8. Coffey M, Gibbs G. Measuring teacher’s repertoire of teaching methods. Assess Evaluation Higher Educat 2002; 27: 383-390.

  9. Donshilk PC, Ehlers WH, Anderson LD, Suchecki JK. Strategies to better engage, educate, and empower patient compliance and safe lens wear: Compliance: What we know, what we do not know, and what we need to know. Eye Cont Lens 2007; 33 (6): 430-433.

  10. McMonnies CW. Hand hygiene prior to contact lens handling is problematical. Cont Lens Ant Eye 2012; 35(2): 65-70.

(p. 41) Patient Perceptions Drive Referrals

By Cristina Schnider, OD

  1. Olivares GE, Alford J, Schnider C. Contact lens purchase behavior: Impact of practice setting and modality. Poster, American Academy of Optometry, October, 2011.

(p. 50) Treatment Plan – Managing Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid

By William L. Miller, OD, PhD, FAAO

Higgins GT, Allan RB, Hall R, et al. Development of ocular disease in patients

with mucous membrane pemphigoid involving the oral mucosa. Br J Ophthalmol

2006; 90:964–967.

Foster CS. Cicatricial pemphigoid. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1986;84:527–663.

Foster CS. Cicatricial pemphigoid. In: Krachmer JH, Mannis MJ, Holland EJ, eds. Cornea: Fundamentals, Diagnosis, and Management. Vol 1, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier Inc; 2011; 591–599.

Mondino BJ: Cicatricial pemphigoid and erythema multi-forme. Ophthalmology 97:939, 1990

Tauber J, Sainz de la Maza M, Foster CS. Systemic chemotherapy for ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Cornea. 1991;10:185–195.

Divya Srikumaran and Esen K. Akpek. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2012, 23:523–527

Williams GP, Radford C, Nightingale P, et al. Evaluation of early and late

presentation of patients with ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid to two

major tertiary referral hospitals in the United Kingdom. Eye (London) 2011;


Foster CS, Chang PY, Ahmed AR. Combination of rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulin for recalcitrant ocular cicatricial pemphigoid: A preliminary report. Ophthalmol. 2010 May;117(5):861–9

End Document #210