Contact Lens Spectrum


November 2014

Document #228

(p. 12) Refractive Focus – What Type of Peripheral Defocus Are You Prescribing?
By David A. Berntsen, OD, PhD, FAAO

    1. Benavente-Perez A, Nour A, Troilo D. Axial Eye Growth and Refractive Error Development Can Be Modified by Exposing the Peripheral Retina to Relative Myopic or Hyperopic Defocus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014 Sep 4.

    2. Smith EL, 3rd. Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A case for peripheral optical treatment strategies for myopia. Optom Vis Sci 2011 Sep;88(9):1029-44.

    3. Mutti DO, Sinnott LT, Mitchell GL, Jones-Jordan LA, Moeschberger ML, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Twelker JD, Zadnik K. Relative peripheral refractive error and the risk of onset and progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011 Jan 5;52(1):199-205.

    4. Sng CC, Lin XY, Gazzard G, Chang B, Dirani M, Lim L, Selvaraj P, Ian K, Drobe B, Wong TY, Saw SM. Change in peripheral refraction over time in Singapore Chinese children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011 Oct 7;52(11):7880-7.

    5. Berntsen DA, Barr CD, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. Peripheral defocus and myopia progression in myopic children randomly assigned to wear single vision and progressive addition lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013 Aug 27;54(8):5761-70.

    6. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children. Ophthalmology 2011 Jun;118(6):1152-1161.

    7. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci 2013 Nov;90(11):1207-1214.

    8. Lam, CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, Tang YY, To CH. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2014 Jan;98(1):40-45.

    9. Seidemann AF, Schaeffel F, Guirao A. Lopez-Gil N, Artal P. Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2002 Dec;19(12):2363-2373.

    10. Atchison DA, Pritchard N, Schmid KL. Peripheral refraction along the horizontal and vertical visual fields in myopia. Vision Res 2006 Apr;46(8-9):1450-8.

    11. Ehsaei, A, Mallen EA, Chisholm CM, Pacey IE. Cross-sectional Sample of Peripheral Refraction in Four Meridians in Myopes and Emmetropes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011 Sep 29;52(10): 7574-7585.

    12. Kang P, Swarbrick H. Time course of the effects of orthokeratology on peripheral refraction and corneal topography. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2013 May;33(3):277-282.

    13. Kang P, Fan Y, Oh K, Trac K, Zhang F, Swarbrick HA. The effect of multifocal soft contact lenses on peripheral refraction. Optom Vis Sci 2013 Jul;90(7):658-66.

    14. Berntsen DA, Kramer CE. Peripheral defocus with spherical and multifocal soft contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2013 Nov;90(11):1215-24.

    15. Lin Z, Martinez A, Chen X, Li L, Sankaridurg P, Holden BA, Ge J. Peripheral defocus with single-vision spectacle lenses in myopic children. Optom Vis Sci 2010 Jan;87(1):4-9.

    16. Wagner S, Conrad F, Bakaraju RC, Fedtke C, Ehrmann K, Holden BA. Power profiles of single vision and multifocal soft contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2014 Aug 16.

    17. Kollbaum PS, Bradley A, Thibos LN. Comparing the optical properties of soft contact lenses on and off the eye. Optom Vis Sci 2013 Sep;90(9):924-36.

    18. Kang P, Fan Y, Oh K, Trac K, Zhang F, Swarbrick H. Effect of single vision soft contact lenses on peripheral refraction. Optom Vis Sci 2012 Jul;89(7):1014-21.

    19. Shen J, Clark CA, Soni PS, Thibos LN. Peripheral refraction with and without contact lens correction. Optom Vis Sci 2010 Sep;87(9):642-55.

    20. de la Jara PL, Sankaridurg P, Ehrmann K, Holden BA. Influence of contact lens power profile on peripheral refractive error. Optom Vis Sci 2014 Jun;91(6):642-9.

(p. 15) Prescribing for Presbyopia – A Look at Today’s Daily Disposable Multifocals
By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Ky W, Scherick K, Stenson S. Clinical survey of lens care in contact lens patients. CLAO J, 1998 Oct;24(4):216-219.

    2. Moss, SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Long-term incidence of Dry Eye in an Older Population.

    3. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Aug;85(8):668-674.

    4. Young G, Chalmers R, Napier L, Kern J, Hunt C, Dumbleton K. Soft Contact Lens-Related Dryness with and without Clinical Signs. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Aug;89(8):1125-1132.

    5. Wilcox, M. Biocompatibility: Buzzword or Breakthrough? Review of Cornea and CL, May 2013.

    6. Rha, M. and Bednar, K. Patient Satisfacton with nesofilcon A contact lenses in over 4000 subjects. Poster presented at the American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, October, 2013.

(p. 17) Contact Lens Design & Materials – Three Steps to Lens Comfort
By David L. Kading, OD, FAAO

    1. Chalmers R, Long B, Dillehay S, Begley C. Improving contact-lens related dryness symptoms with silicone hydrogel lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Aug;85:778-784.

(p. 19) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Adopt Changes Today to Help Patients Tomorrow, Part 2
By Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD, FAAO

    1. Chotikavanich S, de Paiva CS, De-Quan L, et al. Production and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 on the ocular surface increase in dysfunctional tear syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3203-3209.

    2. Foulks GN, Lemp MA, Berg M, Bhola R, Sullivan BD. TearLab Osmolarity as a biomarker for disease severity in mild to moderate dry eye disease. Presented at the 2009 American Academy of Ophthalmology meeting. PO382.

    3. Flanagan JL, Wilcox MD. Role of lactoferrin in the tear film. Biochimie. 2009 Jan;91:35-43

    4. Nomura K, Takamura E. Tear IgE concentrations in allergic conjunctivitis Eye. 1998;12(Pt. 2):296-298.

    5. About Sjögren’s Syndrome. Sjögren’s Syndrome Foundation. 2001. Available at Accessed August 30, 2014.

    6. Shen L, Suresh L, Lindermann M, et al. Novel autoantibodies in Sjögren’s Syndrome. Clin Immunol. 2012;145:251-255.

    7. Tincani A, Andreoli L, Cavazzana I, et al. Novel aspects of Sjögren’s Syndrome in 2012. BMC Med. 2013 Apr 4;11:93.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – 2014 Contact Lens Microbiology Workshop
By Susan J. Gromacki, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Personal communication, Jennifer Rodriguez, July 15, 2014.

    2. Personal communication, Jennifer Rodriguez, Sept. 24, 2014.


(p. 22) Improve Your Scleral Lens Fitting Success
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. Dinardo A, Lotoczky J, Spalding A, Middleton A, Rosen C, Norman CW. Introducing a Scleral Fit Assessment Guide Based on Tear Film Thickness. Poster, Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Jan 2014, Las Vegas, NV.

    2. van der Worp E. A Guide to Scleral Lens Fitting [monograph online]. Scleral Lens Education Society; 2010. Available from:

    3. Sonsino J, Mathe DS. Central vault in dry eye patients successfully wearing scleral lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:e248-251.

    4. Caroline P, Andre M. Scleral Lens Settling. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2012 May; 27:56.

    5. Zhang X, Li X, Xiang M, et al. Bulbar conjunctival thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography in healthy Chinese subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jul 12;54:4705-4709.

(p. 30) Multifocal Contact Lens Success: Fact or Fiction?
By Amy Dinardo, OD, MBA, FAAO, & Trevor Fosso, BS, BA

    1. Morgan PB, et al. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2013. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Jan;29:30-35.

    2. Bennett ES. Contact lens correction of presbyopia. Clin Exp Optom. 2008 May;91:265-278.

    3. Dinardo A, Fosso T, Norman C, et al. Common factors in multifocal lens success. Paper presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Nevada, January 2014.

    4. Plainis S, Atchison DA, Charman WN. Power profiles of multifocal contact lenses and their interpretation. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;90:1066-1077.

    5. Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low-astigmatic presbyopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 May;83:266-273.

    6. Situ P, Du Toit R, Fonn D, Simpson T. Successful monovision contact lens wearers refitted with bifocal contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2003 Jul;29:181-184.

    7. Gupta N, Naroo SA, Wolffsohn JS. Visual comparison of multifocal contact lens to monovision. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Feb;86:E98-E105.

    8. Woods J, Woods CA, Fonn D. Early symptomatic presbyopes —what correction modality works best? Eye & Contact Lens. 2009 Sep;35:221-226.

    9. Fernandes PR, Neves HI, Lopes-Ferreira DP, Jorge JM, Gonzalez-Meijome JM. Adaptation to multifocal and monovision contact lens correction. Opt Vis Sci. 2013 Mar;90:228-235.

    10. Gispets J, Arjona M, Pujol J, Vilaseca M, Cardona G. Task oriented visual satisfaction and wearing success with two different simultaneous vision multifocal soft contact lenses. J Optom. 2011;4:76-84.

    11. Papas EB, Decenzo-Verbeten T, Fonn D, Holden BA, Kollbaum PS, Situ P, Tan J, Woods C. Utility of short-term evaluation of presbyopic contact lens performance. Eye & Contact Lens. 2009 May;35:144-148.

    12. Back AP, Holden BA, Hine NA. Correction of presbyopia with contact lenses: comparative success rate with three systems. Optom Vis Sci. 1989 Aug;66:518-525.

    13. Back A. Factors influencing success and failure in monovision. ICLC 1995;22:167-171.

    14. American Optometric Association Cornea and Contact Lens Section. Through the lens: results of the first AOA contact lens summit. Accessed April 27, 2014 from:

    15. Terry R. Requirements for optimum RGP translating bifocal lens fitting. Contact lenses, a supplement to Australian Optometry. 2011 Oct; 32(Suppl):16-19.

    16. Caroline PJ, André MA. Translating bifocal contact lenses: a top pick for presbyopes. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2007 Sep;22:56.

    17. Norman CW. GP designs for mature presbyopes. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2009 Jan;24:17.

    18. Norman CW, Peyre C. Introducing the Bi Expert GP bifocal design – A patient evaluation. Accessed April 27, 2014 from:

    19. Cox I, Apollino A, Erickson P. The effect of add power on simultaneous vision, monocentric, bifocal, soft lens visual performance. Int Contact Lens Clin. 1993;20:18-21.

    20. Plainis S, Ntzilepis G, Atchison DA, Charman WN. Through-focus performance with multifocal contact lenses: effect of binocularity, pupil diameter and inherent ocular aberrations. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013 Jan;33:42-50.

    21. Gromacki SJ, Badowski L, Wicker D, Ventocilla M. A clinical study of an RGP multifocal contact lens. 2001. Accessed on April 27, 2014 from:

    22. Johnson M. Ongoing quest for presbyopic success leads to the development of a new product. 2005. Accessed on April 27, 2014 from:

    23. Godtland R. An investigation into the relationship between vision and personality. Journal of Behavioral Optometry. 2012;23:59-62.

    24. Woods RL, Colvin CR, Vera-Diaz FA, Peli E. A relationship between tolerance of blur and personality. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Nov;51:6077-6082.

(p. 47) Treatment Plan – Managing Herpes Simplex Stromal Keratitis
By William L. Miller, OD, MS, PhD, FAAO

    1. Barron BA, Gee L, Hauck WW, et al. Herpetic Eye Disease Study: A controlled trial of oral acyclovir for herpes simplex stromal keratitis. Ophthalmology. 1994;101:1871-1882.

    2. A controlled trial of oral acyclovir for the prevention of stromal keratitis or iritis in patients with herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis. The Epithelial Keratitis Trial. The Herpetic Eye Disease Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115:703-712.

    3. Acyclovir for the prevention of recurrent herpes simplex virus eye disease. Herpetic Eye Disease Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998;30;339:300-306.

    4. Wilhelmus KR, Gee L, Hauck WW, et al. Herpetic Eye Disease Study: A controlled trial of topical corticosteroids for herpes simplex stromal keratitis. Ophthalmology. 1994;101:1883-1896.

    5. Sudesh S, Laibson PR. The impact of herpetic eye disease studies on the management of herpes simplex virus ocular infections. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1999;10:230-233.

    6. Lairson DR, Begley CE, Reynolds TF, Wilhelmus KR. Prevention of herpes simplex virus eye disease: a cost-effective analysis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:108-112.

    7. Knickelbein JE, Hendricks RL, Charukamnoetkanok P. Management of HSV Stromal Keratitis: An Evidence-Based Review. Surv Ophthal. 2009;54:226-234.

(p. 46) Reader and Industry Forum – Give Patients the Opportunity to Experience Daily Disposables
By Chuck Aldridge, OD, MBA, FAAO

    1. Remark about the Model T in 1909, published in his autobiography My Life and Work (1922) Chapter IV, p. 71; this has often been paraphrased, e.g.: "You can have any colour as long as it's black."

    2. The findings were presented today at the 2013 American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting.

    3. Morgan PB, Woods CA, Tranoudis IG, et al. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2013. Contact Lens Spectrum, 2014 Jan;29(1):30-35.

    4. Dumbleton K, Woods C, Jones L, Fonn D, Sarwer DB. Patients and practitioner compliance with silicone hydrogel and daily disposable lens replacement in the United States. Eye Contact Lens. 2009 Jul;35(4):164-71 doi: 10.1097/ICL.0b013e318ac4a8d.

(p. 48) Reader and Industry Forum – GP Lens Fitting of Bilateral Nanophthalmic Eyes
By Biman Das, BOptom, & Rajeswari Mahadevan, PhD

    1. Duke-Elder S, Cook C. Normal and Abnormal Development, Part 2 - Congenital Deformities. In: Duke-Elder S, editor. System of Ophthalmology. St Louis: C.V. Mosby Company; 1964. pp. 488-495.

    2. Singh OS, Simmons RJ, Brockhurst RJ, Trempe CL. Nanophthalmos: a perspective on identification and therapy. Ophthalmology 1982;89:1006-1012.

    3. Brockhurst RJ. Nanophthalmos with uveal effusion. A new clinical entity. Arch Opththalmol. 1975;93:1989-1999.

    4. Bennett ES, Sorbara L. Soft lens design, Fitting and Evaluation. In: Bennett ES, Henry VA, Eds. Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses. Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. pp. 110–132.