Contact Lens Spectrum


December 2014

Document #227

(p. 12) Research Review – Early Keratoconus Detection and Management
By S. Barry Eiden, OD, FAAO

    1. Kriszt A1, Losonczy G, Berta A, Vereb G, Takács L. Segregation analysis suggests that keratoconus is a complex, non-mendelian disease. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar 16.

    2. Fernández Pérez J, Valero Marcos A, Martínez Peña FJ. Early diagnosis of keratoconus: what difference is it making? Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr 23.

    3. Piñero DP, Alió JL, Alesón A, et al. Pentacam posterior and anterior corneal aberrations in normal and keratoconic eyes. Clin Exp Optom 2009 May; 92(3): 297–303.

    4. Ambrósio R Jr., Caiado AL, Guerra FP, et al. Novel pachymetric parameters based on corneal tomography for diagnosing keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2011 Oct;27(10):753–8.

    5. Bühren J, Kook D, Yoon G, et al. Detection of subclinical keratoconus by using corneal anterior and posterior surface aberrations and thickness spatial profiles. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010 Jul;51(7):3424–32.

    6. Reinstein DZ, Gobbe M, Archer TJ, Silverman RH, Coleman DJ. Epithelial, stromal, and total corneal thickness in keratoconus: three-dimensional display with artemis very-high frequency digital ultrasound. J Refract Surg. 2010 Apr;26(4):259-71.

    7. Ali NQ, Patel DV, McGhee CN. Biomechanical responses of healthy and keratoconic corneas measured using a noncontact scheimpflug-based tonometer. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 May 15;55(6):3651-9.

    8. Touboul D, Bénard A, Mahmoud AM, et al. Early biomechanical keratoconus pattern measured with an ocular response analyzer: curve analysis. J Cataract Refract Surg 2011 Dec;37(12):2144–50.

    9. Wollensak G, Spoerl E, Seiler T. Riboflavin/ultraviolet-a-induced collagen crosslinking for the treatment of keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 2003 May;135(5):620-627.

    10. Craig JA, Mahon J, Yellowlees A, Barata T, Glanville J, Arber M, Mandava L, Powell J, Figueiredo F. Epithelium-Off Photochemical Corneal Collagen Cross-Linkage Using Riboflavin and Ultraviolet A for Keratoconus and Keratectasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Ocul Surf. 2014 Jul;12(3):202-214

    11. Khairy HA, Marey HM, Ellakwa AF. Epithelium-on corneal cross-linking treatment of progressive keratoconus: a prospective, consecutive study. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr 29;8:819-23.

    12. Li N, Peng X, Fan Z, Xia Y, Wu T. New techniques to improve classical corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Chin Med J (Engl). 2014;127(8):1558-65.

    13. Bedi R, Touboul D, Pinsard L, Colin J. Refractive and topographic stability of Intacs in eyes with progressive keratoconus: five-year follow-up. J Refract Surg. 2012 Jun;28(6):392-6. 2012 May 16.

(p. 14) Prescribing for Astigmatism – When Astigmatism Doesn’t Follow the “Rules”
By Tiffany Gates, OD; Heidi G. Miller, OD; & Timothy B. Edrington, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Wang M. Irregular Astigmatism: Diagnosis and Treatment. New Jersey, SLACK Incorporated, 2008.

    2. Wang M. Keratoconus & Keratoectasia. New Jersey, SLACK Incorporated, 2010.

    3. Lindsay RG, Crock GW. A bitoric rigid contact lens with base down prism to eliminate vertical diplopia. Clin Exp Optom. 2005;88:1:55-57.



(p. 17) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Biofilms and the Ocular Surface
By Katherine M. Mastrota, MS, OD, FAAO

    1. Dong Q, Brulc JM, Iovieno A, et al. Diversity of bacteria at healthy human conjunctiva. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul;52:5408-5413.

    2. Miller D, Iovieno A. The role of microbial flora on the ocular surface. Curr Opin in Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Oct;9:466-470.

    3. Costerton JW, Philip S, Stewart S, Greenberg EP. 1999. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science. 1999 May;284:1318–1322.

    4. De Kievit TR, Iglewski BH. Bacterial quorum sensing in pathogenic relationships. Infect Immun. 2000 Sep;68:4839-4849.

    5. Bjarnsholt T. The role of bacterial biofilms in chronic infections. APMIS Suppl. 2013 May;(136):1-51.

    6. Benitez-Del-Castillo JM. How to promote and preserve eyelid health. Clin Ophthalmol. 2012;6:1689-1698.

(p. 19) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – “You Only Have One Pair of Eyes, so Take Care of Them”
By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO

    1. The Contact Lens Institute’s member companies include Alcon®, Bausch + Lomb, CooperVision®, and VISTAKON® Division of Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc



(p. 22) Soft Contact Lenses and (Dis)comfort
By Tannin A. Schmidt, PhD, PEng

    1. Jacob JT. Biocompatibility in the development of silicone-hydrogel lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2013;39:13-19.

    2. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2013. Cont Lens Spectrum. 2014 Jan; 29:22-28.

    3. Nichols JJ, Willcox MD, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, et al. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    4. Tighe BJ. A decade of silicone hydrogel development: surface properties, mechanical properties, and ocular compatibility. Eye Contact lens 2013;39:4-12.

    5. Nichols JJ, Jones L, Nelson JD, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA, Willcox MD. 2013. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: introduction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:TFOS1-TFOS6.

    6. Jones L, Brennan NA, Gonzalez-Meijome J, et al. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens materials, design, and care subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:TFOS37-TFOS70.

    7. Efron N, Brennan NA, Currie JM, Fitzgerald JP, Hughes MT. Determinants of the initial comfort of hydrogel contact lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1986;63:819-823.

    8. Nichols JJ, Sinnott LT. Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;47:1319-1328.

    9. Young G. Evaluation of soft contact lens fitting characteristics. Optom Vis Sci. 1996;73:247-254.

    10. Dumbleton KA, Woods CA, Jones LW, Fonn D. Comfort and adaptation to silicone hydrogel lenses for daily wear. Eye Contact Lens. 2008;34:215-223.

    11. Horst CR, Brodland B, Jones LW, Brodland GW. Measuring the modulus of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:1468-1476.

    12. Jones L, Subbaraman L, Rogers R, Dumbleton K. Surface treatment, wetting and modulus of silicone hydrogels. Optician. 2006;232:28-34.

    13. Tranoudis I, Efron N. Tensile properties of soft contact lens materials. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2004;27:177-191.

    14. Cheung SW, Cho P, Chan B, Choy C, Ng V. A comparative study of biweekly disposable contact lenses: silicone hydrogel versus hydrogel. Clin Exp Optom. 2007;90:124-131.

    15. Fonn D, Dumbleton K. 2003. Dryness and discomfort witih silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2003;29(Suppl 1):S101-S104.

    16. Mahomed A, Ross G, Tighe B. Contact lenses and comfort enhancers: In vivo and in vitro release of soluble PVA. Trans BCLA, 2004:Poster presentation.

    17. Maissa C, Tonge S, Rebeix V, Guillon M, Tighe B. Surface properties of daily disposable contact lenses. Trans BCLA, 1998:Poster presentation.

    18. Ali M, Byrne ME. Controlled release of high molecular weight hyaluronic Acid from molecularly imprinted hydrogel contact lenses. Pharm Res 2009;26:714-726.

    19. Weeks A, Morrison D, Alauzun JG, Brook MA, Jones L, Sheardown H. Photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid as an internal wetting agent in model conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2012;100:1972-1982.

    20. Weeks A, Subbaraman LN, Jones L, Sheardown H. Physical entrapment of hyaluronic acid during synthesis results in extended release from model hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. Eye Contact Lens. 2013;39:179-185.

    21. Brennan NA, Coles-Brennan C. Contact lens-based correlates of soft lens wearing comfort. Optom Vis Sci. 2009:86.

    22. Coles CML, Brennan NA. Coefficient of friction and soft contact lens comfort. American Academy of Optometry. 2012;E-abstract 125603.

    23. Kern J, Rappon J, Bauman E, Vaugh B. Assessment of the relationship between contact lens coefficient of friction and subject lens comfort. Invest Ophthal Vis Sci. 2013;54:ARVO E-abstract 494.

    24. Roba M, Duncan E, Hill G, Spencer N, Tosatti S. Friction measurments of contact lenses in their operating environment. Tribol Lett. 2011;44:378-397.

    25. Ross G, Nasso M, Franklin V, Lyndon F, Tighe B. 2005. Silicone hydrogels: trends in products and properties. Trans BLCA, 2005. Poster Presentation.

    26. Tucker RC, Quinter B, Patel D, et al. Qualitative and quantitative lubricity of experimental contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:e-abstract 914.

    27. Fonn D. The clinical relevance of contact lens lubricity. Contact Lens Spectrum Special Edition. June 2013.

    28. Osborn Lorenz K. 2014. Friction a factor in contact lens comfort. Advanced Ocular Care. January/February 2014.

    29. Maissa C, Guillon M, Garofalo RJ. 2012. Contact lens-induced circumlimbal staining in silicone hydrogel contact lenses worn on a daily wear basis. Eye & Contact Lens 38:16-26.

    30. Young G, Holden B, Cooke G. 1993. Influence of soft contact lens design on clinical performance. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 70:394-403.

    31. Doughman DJ, Mobilia E, Drago D, Havener V, Gavin M. 1975. The nature of "spots" on soft lenses. Annals of ophthalmology 7:345-348, 351-343.

    32. Lowther GE, Hilbert JA. 1975. Deposits on hydrophilic lenses: differential appearance and clinical causes. American journal of optometry and physiological optics 52:687-692.

    33. Subbaraman LN, Glasier MA, Varikooty J, Srinivasan S, Jones L. 2012. Protein deposition and clinical symptoms in daily wear of etafilcon lenses. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 89:1450-1459.

    34. Jones L, Jones D, al. e. 1999. The impact of replacement frequency and care regime on subjective satisfaction with disposable / frequent replacement lenses. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 76 (suppl 12):172.

    35. Long B, Schweizer H, Bleshoy H, Zeri F. 2009. Expanding your use of silicone hydrogel contact lenses: using lotrafilcon A for daily wear. Eye & contact lens 35:59-64.

    36. Dumbleton K, Woods C, Jones L, Richter D, Fonn D. 2010. Comfort and vision with silicone hydrogel lenses: effect of compliance. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 87:421-425.

    37. Lazon de la Jara P, Papas E, Diec J, Naduvilath T, Willcox MD, Holden BA. 2013. Effect of lens care systems on the clinical performance of a contact lens. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 90:344-350.

    38. Begley C, Edrington T, Chalmers R. 1994. Effect of lens care systems on corneal fluorescein staining and subjective comfort in hyrogel lens wearers. Int Contact Lens Clin:7-12.

    39. Corbin GS, Bennett L, Espejo L, Carducci S, Sacco A, Hannigan R, Schatz S. 2010. A multicenter investigation of OPTI-FREE RepleniSH multi-purpose disinfecting solution impact on soft contact lens patient comfort. Clin Ophthalmol 4:47-57.

    40. Keir N, Woods CA, Dumbleton K, Jones L. 2010. Clinical performance of different care systems with silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Contact lens & anterior eye : the journal of the British Contact Lens Association 33:189-195.

    41. Tilia D, Lazon de la Jara P, Peng N, Papas EB, Holden BA. 2013. Effect of lens and solution choice on the comfort of contact lens wearers. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 90:411-418.

    42. Thai LC, Tomlinson A, Simmons PA. 2002. In vitro and in vivo effects of a lubricant in a contact lens solution. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 22:319-329.

    43. Yang SN, Tai YC, Sheedy JE, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, Kern JR. 2012. Comparative effect of lens care solutions on blink rate, ocular discomfort and visual performance. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 32:412-420.

    44. Nichols JJ, Mitchell GL, King-Smith PE. 2005. Thinning rate of the precorneal and prelens tear films. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46:2353-2361.

    45. Schmidt TA, Sullivan DA, Knop E, Richards SM, Knop N, Liu S, Sahin A, Darabad RR, Morrison S, Kam WR, Sullivan BD. 2013. Transcription, translation, and function of lubricin, a boundary lubricant, at the ocular surface. JAMA ophthalmology 131:766-776.

    46. Samsom M, Chan A, Iwabuchi Y, Subbaraman L, Jones L, Schmidt TA. 2014. In vitro friction testing of contact lenses adn human ocular tissues: Effect of proteoglycan 4 (PRG4). Trib Int:In Press.

    47. Tosatti S, Aeshlimann R, Kakkassery J. 2013. Dynamic coefficient of friciton measuremnts of contact lenses after simulated lens wear cycle. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 90.

    48. Mann A, Panaser A, Tighe B. 2013. Biotribology f in vitro and ex vivo contact lenses. Cont Lens and Ant Eye.

    49. Papas EB, Tilia D, Tomlinson D, Williams J, Chan E, Chan J, Golebiowski B. 2014. Consequences of wear interruption for discomfort with contact lenses. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 91:24-31.

    50. Bell E. 2000. Tissue Engineering in Perspective. In: Lanza R, Langer R, Vacanti P, editors. Principles of Tissuen Engineering, 2 ed: Academic press. p xxxv.

(p. 28) Soft Contact Lenses for Keratoconus and Irregular Astigmatism
By Joel A. Silbert, OD, FAAO

    1. Vanderhoof SH , Mathe DS. Troubleshooting keratoconus. Rev Cornea Cont Lens. 4/8/2012

    2. (

    3. Eiden SB, Chang C, Davis R, and Brafman S. Contact lens options for managing keratoconus and keratectasias. Contact Lens Spectrum, December 2013, pp38-43

    4. André M, Lampa M. Soft Special Edition, Amsterdam, Summer 2011 (

(p. 36) Demodex Infestation of the Eyelashes
By Alison Ng, PhD, BSc (Hons), MCOptom, FIACLE; Etty Bitton, OD, MSC, FAAO, FBCLA; & Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO

    1. Carson CF, Hammer KA , Riley TV. Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) oil: a review of antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006;19:50-62.

    2. Coston TO. Demodex folliculorum blepharitis. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1967;65:361-392.

    3. Dolenc-Voljc M, Pohar M, Lunder T. Density of Demodex folliculorum in perioral dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2005;85:211-215.

    4. Edmondson II W, Christenson MT. Lid Parasites in Clinical Optometric Pharmacology and Therapeutics. B. Onefrey, ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven, 1992.

    5. English FP, Nutting WB. Demodicosis of ophthalmic concern. Am J Ophthalmol. 1981;91:362-372.

    6. Gao, YY, Di Pascuale MA, Elizondo A, Tseng SC. Clinical treatment of ocular demodecosis by lid scrub with tea tree oil. Cornea. 2007;26:136-143.

    7. Gao YY, Di Pascuale MA, Li W, et al. High prevalence of Demodex in eyelashes with cylindrical dandruff. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:3089-3094.

    8. Gao YY, Xu DL, Huang l J, Wang R, Tseng SC. Treatment of ocular itching associated with ocular demodicosis by 5% tea tree oil ointment. Cornea. 2012;31:14-17.

    9. Hom MM, Mastrota KM, Schachter SE. Demodex. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:e198-e205.

    10. Lacey N, Kavanagh K, Tseng SC. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases. Biochem (Lond). 2009;31:2-6.

    11. Liu J, Sheha H, Tseng SC. Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;10:505-510.

    12. Mastrota KM. Method to identify Demodex in the eyelash follicle without epilation. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:e172-e174.

    13. Nutting WB. Hair follicle mites (Acari: Demodicidae) of man. Int J Dermatol. 1976;15:79-98.

(p. 42) Financial Implications of Patient Compliance
By Sarah Guthrie, PhD; Kathy Dumbleton, PhD, MCOptom, FAAO; & Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO

    1. Dumbleton K, Richter D, Bergenske P, Jones LW. Compliance with Lens Replacement and the Interval between Eye Examinations. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:351-358.

    2. Dumbleton K, Jones LW, Fonn D, Richter D. Eye Examination Frequency and Contact Lens Purchase Patterns. Poster presented at the American Academy of Optomety Annual Meeting. October 2013. Seattle, Wash.

    3. Morgan PB, Chu BS, Bendoriene J, et al. Pesinova. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2012. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Jan; 28:31-38,44.

    4. Dumbleton K, Woods C, Jones L, Fonn D, Sarwer DB. Patient and practitioner compliance with silicone hydrogel and daily disposable lens replacement in the United States. Eye Contact Lens. 2009;35:164-171.

    5. Schnider C, Jedraszcak AM. The "Pantry Load" Effect—Can It Help Drive More Compliant Contact Lens Replacement. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:E-abstract 120652.

(p. 48) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Unilateral Aphakia in Infants
By Christine W. Sindt, OD, FAAO

    1. Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group, Lambert SR, Buckley EG, Drews-Botsch C, et al. The infant aphakia treatment study: design and clinical measures at enrollment. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 Jan;128:21-27.

    2. Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group, Lambert SR, Lynn MJ, Hartmann EE, et al. Comparison of contact lens and intraocular lens correction of monocular aphakia during infancy: a randomized clinical trial of HOTV optotype acuity at age 4.5 years and clinical findings at age 5 years. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Jun;132:676-682.

    3. Wall PB, Lee JA, Lynn MJ, Lambert SR, Traboulsi EI; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. The effects of surgical factors on postoperative astigmatism in patients enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). J AAPOS. 2014 Sep 27. pii: S1091-8531(14)00439-X. [Epub ahead of print].

    4. Drews-Botsch CD, Celano M, Kruger S, Hartmann EE; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Adherence to occlusion therapy in the first six months of follow-up and visual acuity among participants in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jun 5;53:3368-3375.

    5. Drews-Botsch CD, Hartmann EE, Celano M; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Predictors of adherence to occlusion therapy 3 months after cataract extraction in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS. 2012 Apr;16:150-155.

    6. Celano M, Hartmann EE, Drews-Botsch CD; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Parenting stress in the infant aphakia treatment study. J Pediatr Psychol. 2013 Jun;38:484-493.

    7. Russell B, Ward MA, Lynn M, DuBois L, Lambert SR; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. The infant aphakia treatment study contact lens experience: one year outcomes. Eye Contact Lens. 2012 Jul;38:234-239.

    8. Carrigan AK, DuBois LG, Becker ER, Lambert SR; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Cost of intraocular lens versus contact lens treatment after unilateral congenital cataract surgery: retrospective analysis at age 1 year. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jan;120:14-19.

    9. Bothun ED, Cleveland J, Lynn MJ, et al; Infant Aphakic Treatment Study. One-year strabismus outcomes in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jun;120:1227-1231.

    10. Hartmann EE, Stout AU, Lynn MJ, Yen KG, Kruger SJ, Lambert SR; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Sep 23. pii: S0002-9394(14)00618-7. [Epub ahead of print].

    11. Felius J, Busettini C, Lynn MJ, Hartmann EE, Lambert SR; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Nystagmus and related fixation instabilities following extraction of unilateral infantile cataract in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Aug 5;55:5332-5337.

(p. 50) Treatment Plan – Take a Bloody Picture!
By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

    1. American Optometric Association. Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guideline: Eye Care of the Patient with Diabetes Mellitus. Available at Accessed September 19, 2014.

    2. Zhang L, Xu L, Zhang JS, Zhang YQ, Yang H, Jonas JB. Cotton-wool spot and optical coherence tomography of a retinal nerve fiber layer defect. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Jul;130:913.

    3. Greenwood DA, Young HM, Quinn CC. Telehealth Remote Monitoring Systematic Review: Structured Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose and Impact on A1C. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2014 Feb 21;8:378-389. [Epub ahead of print]

    4. Sabesan S, Allen D, Caldwell P, et al.; Royal Australasian College of Physicians Telehealth Working Group. Practical aspects of telehealth: doctor-patient relationship and communication. Intern Med J. 2014 Jan;44:101-103.

    5. Sieverdes JC, Treiber F, Jenkins C. Improving diabetes management with mobile health technology. Am J Med Sci. 2013 Apr;345:289-295.