Contact Lens Spectrum


February 2014

Document #219

(p. 15) Prescribing for Astigmatism - GP Residual Astigmatism and What to Do with It
By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Harris, MJ and Chu, CS. The effect of contact lens thickness and corneal toricity on flexure and residual astigmatism. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom. 1972 Apr;49(4):304-7.

    2. Herman, JP. Flexure of rigid contact lenses on toric corneas as a function of base curve fitting relationship. J Am Optom Assoc. 1983 Mar;54(3):209-13

(p. 17) GP Insights - Five Tips for Increased Success with GP Lenses
By Nancy Chan, OD, & John Mark Jackson, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Bennett ES, Sorbara L. Lens Design, Fitting, and Evaluation. In: Bennet ES, Henry VA. Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008;99-112.

    2. Herzberg CM. Technology to Optimize GP Comfort and Success. Contact Lens Spectrum 2011;26(6):34-39.

    3. Potter R. The road to GP comfort. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2008;23(10):37-41.

    4. Jervey JW. Topical anesthetic for the eye: a comparative study. South J Med. 1989;48:770-774.

    5. Lyle WM, Page C. Possible adverse effects from local anesthetics and the treatment of these reactions. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1975;52:736-744.

    6. Bennett ES, GPLI Resources and GP Fitting Tips. Presented at Gas Permeable Lens Institute Resident Symposium. August 2013, Columbus, OH.

    7. Quinn TG. Presenting the GP lens option. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2004;19(10):41.

    8. Bennett ES, Stulc S, Bassi CJ, et al. Effect of patient personality profile and verbal presentation on successful rigid contact lens adaptation, satisfaction and compliance. Optom Vis Sci. 1998;75(7):500-505.

    9. Polse KA, Graham AD, Fusaro RE, et al. Predicting RGP daily wear success. CLAO J. 1999;25:152-158.

(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx - Pyogenic Granuloma with Silicone Plug Use
By Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD

    1. Freeman JM. The punctum plug: evaluation of a new treatment for the dry eye. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1975;79:OP874-9

    2. Balaram M, Schaumberg DA, Dana MR. Efficacy and tolerability outcomes after punctal occlusion with silicone plugs in dry eye syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:30-6.

    3. Tai MC, Cosar CB, Cohen EJ, Rapuano CJ, Laibson PR. The clinical efficacy of silicone punctal plug therapy. Cornea. 2002;21:135-9.

    4. Baxter SA, Laibson PR. Punctal plugs in the management of dry eyes Ocul Surf. 2004;2:255-65.

    5. S. C. Pflugfelder, G. Geerling, et al. Management and therapy of dry eye disease: Report of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Workshop (2007). Ocular Surf. 2007;5:163–178.

    6. Bourkiza R and Lee V. A Review of the Complications of Lacrimal Occlusion with Punctal and Canalicular Plugs. Orbit. 2012;31(2), 86–93.

    7. Kim BM, Osmanovic SS, Edward DP. Pyogenic granulomas after silicone punctal plugs: a clinical and histopathologic study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Apr;139(4):678-84.

    8. Mazow ML, McCall T, Prager TC. Lodged intracanalicular plugs as a cause of lacrimal obstruction. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007 Mar-Apr;23(2):138-42.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance - Soft Lens Rewetting Drops
By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO

    1. Effects of Dry Air on the Body |

    2. Ward, Michael A. Care and Compliance, Contact Lens Spectrum. January, 2011

    3. Contact Lens Spectrum. July 2013; 25-28

(p. 28) Sceral Lens Applications in Unique Populations
By Karen G. Carrasquillo, OD, PhD, FAAO, & Melissa Barnett, OD, FAAO

    1. Noble B.A., Loh R.S., MacLennan S., Pesudovs K., Reynolds A., Bridges L.R. et al. Comparison of autologous serum eye drops with conventional therapy in a randomized controlled crossover trial for ocular surface disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 May;88(5), 647-652.

    2. Quinto, G. G. et al. Autologous serum for ocular surface diseases. Arq. Bras. Oftalmol. 2007 Nov-Dec.;71(6), 47-54.

    3. Cressey, A., Jacobs, D.S., and Carrasquillo, K.G. Management of Vascularized Limbal Keratitis With Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface System. Eye and Contact Lens. 2012 March;38(2), 137-140.

    4. Rosenthal, P., Croteau, A. Fluid-ventilated, gas-permeable scleral contact lens is an effective option for managing severe ocular surface disease and many corneal disorders that would otherwise require penetrating keratoplasty. Eye Contact Lens. 2005 May;31(3), 130-134.

    5. Schornack, M.M. Limbal stem cell disease: management with scleral lenses. Clin Exp Optom. 2011 Nov.;94(6), 592-594.

    6. Schornack, M.M., Baratz, K.H. Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid: the role of scleral lenses in disease management. Cornea. 2009 Dec.;28(10), 1170-1172.

    7. Lowe, M.T., Keane, M.C., Coster, D.J., Williams, K.A. Ophthalmology. The outcome of corneal transplantation in infants, children, and adolescents. Ophthalmology. 2011 Mar.;118(3), 492-497.

    8. Vaughn et al. Neurotrophic Keratitis Associated with Goldenhar's Syndrome. Invest Ophthal Vis Sci. 2004;4(45), E-Abstract 104.

    9. Stern, M.E., Schaumburg, C.S., and Pflugfelder, S.C (2013) Dry Eye as a Mucosal Autoimmune Disease. Int Rev Immunol. Feb 2013; 32(1), 19–41.

    10. Schwartz, K.S., et al. Glaucoma drainage implants: A critical comparison of types. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 2006 April;17, 181–189.

    11. DeNaeyer, Gregory. Today’s Scleral Lens. Review of Optometry. June 2012.

    12. Rathi VM, Mandathara PS, Vaddavalli PK, Srikanth D, Sangwan VS. Fluid filled scleral contact lens in pediatric patients: challenges and outcome. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2012 August;35(4), 189-92.

    13. Rosita Ghazanfari, O.D. and David Libassi, O.D. Notching a Scleral Lens to Avoid Pressure on Glaucoma Shunts: A Case Study. Poster, GSLS, 1/2013.

    14. van der Worp E. A Guide to Scleral Lens Fitting [monograph online]. Scleral Lens Education Society; 2010. Available from:

    15. Visser, E.M. et al. Modern Scleral Lenses Part I: Clinical Features. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice. 2007 Jan.;33, 13-20.

(p. 36) Putting Clinical Research into Practice
By Kathryn Richdale, OD, PhD, FAAO

    1. Russell B, Ward MA, Lynn M, Dubois L, Lambert SR. The infant aphakia treatment study contact lens experience: one-year outcomes. Eye & Contact Lens. 2012;38:234-9.

    2. Plager DA, Lynn MJ, Buckley EG, Wilson ME, Lambert SR. Complications, adverse events, and additional intraocular surgery 1 year after cataract surgery in the infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:2330-4.

    3. Lambert SR, Buckley EG, Drews-Botsch C, DuBois L, Hartmann EE, Lynn MJ, Plager DA, Wilson ME. A randomized clinical trial comparing contact lens with intraocular lens correction of monocular aphakia during infancy: grating acuity and adverse events at age 1 year. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2010;128:810-8.

    4. Carrigan AK, DuBois LG, Becker ER, Lambert SR. Cost of intraocular lens versus contact lens treatment after unilateral congenital cataract surgery: retrospective analysis at age 1 year. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:14-9. 5. Efron N, Morgan PB, Woods CA. Survey of contact lens prescribing to infants, children, and teenagers. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:461-8.

    6. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optometry and Vision Science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 2013;90:1207-14.

    7. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott L, Chitkara M, Coffey B, Jackson JM, Manny RE, Rah MJ, Prinstein MJ. Randomized trial of the effect of contact lens wear on self-perception in children. Optometry and Vision Science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 2009;86:222-32.

    8. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Rah MJ, Manny RE, Berntsen DA, Chitkara M, Gaume A, Kim A, Quinn N. Contact Lenses in Pediatrics (CLIP) Study: chair time and ocular health. Optometry and Vision Science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 2007;84:896-902.

    9. Vitale S, Sperduto RD, Ferris FL, 3rd. Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2009;127:1632-9.

    10. Benavente-Perez A, Nour A, Troilo D. The effect of simultaneous negative and positive defocus on eye growth and development of refractive state in marmosets. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2012;53:6479-87.

    11. Troilo D, Totonelly K, Harb E. Imposed anisometropia, accommodation, and regulation of refractive state. Optometry and Vision Science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 2009;86:E31-9.

    12. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1152-61.

    13. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E, 3rd, Naduvilath T, Chen X, de la Jara PL, Martinez A, Kwan J, Ho A, Frick K, Ge J. Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9362-7.

    14. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) study: a 2-year randomized clinical trial. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2012;53:7077-85.

    15. Swanson MW. A cross-sectional analysis of U.S. contact lens user demographics. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:839-48.

    16. Saviola JF. Contact lens safety and the FDA: 1976 to the present. Eye & Contact Lens. 2007;33:404-9; discussion 10-1.

    17. Eydelman MB, Tarver ME, Kiang T, Alexander KY, Hutter JC. The Food and Drug Administration's role in establishing and maintaining safeguards for contact lenses and contact lens care products. Eye & Contact Lens. 2012;38:346-9.

    18. Chalmers RL. What have pre- and postapproval studies shown about contact lens-related inflammatory events? Eye & Contact Lens. 2007;33:388-91; discussion 99-400.

    19. Wang C, Hefflin B, Cope JU, Gross TP, Ritchie MB, Qi Y, Chu J. Emergency department visits for medical device-associated adverse events among children. Pediatrics. 2010;126:247-59.

    20. Yildiz EH, Airiani S, Hammersmith KM, Rapuano CJ, Laibson PR, Virdi AS, Hongyok T, Cohen EJ. Trends in contact lens-related corneal ulcers at a tertiary referral center. Cornea. 2012;31:1097-102.

    21. Jeng BH, Gritz DC, Kumar AB, Holsclaw DS, Porco TC, Smith SD, Whitcher JP, Margolis TP, Wong IG. Epidemiology of ulcerative keratitis in Northern California. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2010;128:1022-8.

    22. Bullimore MA, Sinnott LT, Jones-Jordan LA. The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses. Optometry and Vision Science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 2013;90:937-44.

    23. Lam DY, Kinoshita BT, Jansen ME, Mitchell GL, Chalmers RL, McMahon TT, Richdale K, Sorbara L, Wagner H. Contact lens assessment in youth: methods and baseline findings. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:708-15.

    24. Wagner H, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Jansen ME, Kinoshita BT, Lam DY, McMahon TT, Richdale K, Sorbara L. Risk factors for interruption to soft contact lens wear in children and young adults. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:973-80.

    25. Chalmers RL, Wagner H, Mitchell GL, Lam DY, Kinoshita BT, Jansen ME, Richdale K, Sorbara L, McMahon TT. Age and other risk factors for corneal infiltrative and inflammatory events in young soft contact lens wearers from the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6690-6.

    26. Flitcroft DI. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2012;31:622-60.

(p. 48) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Should I Choose Convenience or Myopia Control
By Jeffrey J. Walline, OD, PhD, FAAO

    1. Aller T, Wildsoet C. Results of a one-year prospective clinical trial (CONTROL) of the use of bifocal soft contact lenses to control myopia progression. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 2006;26:8-9.

    2. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1152-61.

    3. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E, 3rd, et al. Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9362-7.

    4. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, et al. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1207-14.

    5. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res. 2005;30:71-80.

    6. Kakita T, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2170-4.

    7. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1181-5.

    8. Charm J, Cho P. High Myopia-Partial Reduction Ortho-k: A 2-Year Randomized Study. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:530-9.

    9. Chen Z, Niu L, Xue F, et al. Impact of pupil diameter on axial growth in orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:1636-40.

    10. Reim TR, Lund M, Wu R. Orthokeratology and adolescent myopia control. Contact Lens Spectrum. March 2003;18:40-2.

    11. Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, et al. Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain (MCOS): study design and general baseline characteristics. Journal of Optometry. 2009;2:215-22.

    12. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of Myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) Study: A 2-Year Randomized Clinical Trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7077-85.

(p. 50) Treatment Plan - Applying the AREDS2 Findings in Practice
By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

    1. The Age-related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Research Group. (2013) Lutein + zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial, JAMA May 15;309 (19), 2005-2015.

    2. The Age-related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Research Group. (2013) Lutein/Zeaxanthin for the treatment of age-related cataract: AREDS2 randomized trial report no. 4., JAMA Ophthalmol 131 (7), 843-850.

    3. Palozza P, Simone R, Mele MC.Interplay of carotenoids with cigarette smoking: implications in lung cancer. Curr Med Chem. 2008;15(9):844-54.

    4. Merle BM, Delyfer MN, Korobelnik JF, et al. High concentrations of plasma n3 fatty acids are associated with decreased risk for late age-related macular degeneration. J Nutr. 2013 Apr;143(4):505-11. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.171033. Epub 2013 Feb 13.