Contact Lens Spectrum


March 2014

Document #220

(p. 14) Refractive Focus – Scleral Contact Lenses: An Evolving Technology
By Jason Marsack, PhD

    1. Pearson RM. Kalt, keratoconus, and the contact lens. Optom Vis Sci,1989;66:643-646.

    2. Pearson RM and Efron N. Hundreth anniversary of August Mueller’s inaugural dissertation on contact lenses. Surv Ophthalmol,1989;34:133-141.

    3. Pearson RM. Karl Otto Himmler, manufacturer of the first contact lens. Cont Lens Anerior Eye,2007;30:11-16.

    4. Efron N. Obituary - rigid contact lenses. Cont Lens Anerior Eye. 2010;33:245-252.

    5. Foss AJ, Trodd TC, Dart JK. Current indications for scleral contact lenses. CLAO J. 1994;20:115-118.

    6. Cotter JM, Rosenthal P. Scleral contact lenses. J Am Optom Assoc. 1998;69:33-40.

    7. Romero-Rangel, Stavrou P, Cotter J, Rosenthal P, Baltatzis S, Foster CS. Gas-permeable scleral contact lens therapy in ocular surface disease. Am J. Ophthalmol. 2000;130:25-32.

    8. Jacobs DS, Rosental P. Boston scleral lens prosthetic device for treatment of severe dry eye in chronic graft-versus-host disease. Cornea. 2007;10:1195-9.

    9. Shepard DS, Razavi M, Stason WB, Jacobs DS, Suaya JA, Cohen M, Rosenthal P. Economic appriasol of the Boston ocular surface prosthesis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;148:860-868.

    10. Gumus K, Gire A, Pflugfelder SC. The impact of the Boston ocular surface prosthesis on wavefront higher-order aberrations. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151:682-690.

    11. Sabesan R, Johns L, Tomashevskaya O, Jacobs DS, Rosenthal P, Yoon G. Wavefront-guided scleral lens prosthetic device for keratoconus. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:314-323.

    12. Marsack JD, Ravikumar A, Nguyen LC, Ticak A, Koenig DE, Elswick JD, Applegate RA. Wavefront-Guided Scleral Lens Correction in Keratoconus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 54:E-Abstract 5466.

    13. Marsack JD, Parker KE & Applegate RA. Performance of wavefront-guided soft lenses in three keratoconus subjects. Optom Vis Sci. 2008;85:1172–1178.

    14. Marsack JD, Parker KE, Niu Y, Pesudovs K & Applegate RA. On-eye performance of custom wavefront-guided soft contact lenses in a habitual soft lens-wearing keratoconic patient. J Refract Surg. 2007;23:960–964

    15. Sabesan R, Jeong TM, Carvalho LA et al. Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes. Opt Lett. 2007;32:1000–1002

(p. 18) GP Insights – Sclerals Dominate GSLS Posters
By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSED, FAAO

    1. Leach NE, Miller WL, McKinney AM, Polizzi C, van der Worp E, Bergmanson JP. Midday Visual Fogging in Scleral Lens Wearers: Does Fit Matter? Poster, Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Jan 2014, Las Vegas, NV.

    2. Achong-Coan R, Rosen C, Caroline P, Kojima R, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, André, M. Is the Dk of today’s scleral lenses enough for corneal health? Poster, Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Jan 2014, Las Vegas, NV.

    3. Kuhn J, LaKamp S. Sagittal Depth: Relationship to High Contrast Visual Acuity and Low Contrast Visual Acuity with Scleral Contact Lenses. Poster, Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Jan 2014, Las Vegas, NV.

    4. Yeung D, Haines L, Sorbara L. Scleral Lens Clearance Assessment with Biomicroscopy. Poster, Global Specialty Lens Symposium. Jan 2014, Las Vegas, NV.

    5. Dinardo A, Lotoczky J, Spalding A, Middleton A, Rosen C, Norman CW. Introducing a Scleral Fit Assessment Guide Based on Tear Film Thickness. Poster, Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Jan 2014, Las Vegas, NV.

    6. Schornack MM, Nau C, Brown W. Estimation of Refractive Power of Scleral Lens/Fluid Reservoir Optical Systems in Non-Parallel Scleral Lens Fits. Poster, Global Specialty Lens Symposium. Jan 2014, Las Vegas, NV.

(p. 19) Contact Lens Design & Materials – Multifocal Designs for Myopia
By David L. Kading, OD, FAAO

    1. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME and Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.

    2. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Chitkara M, Coffey B, Jackson JM, Manny RE, Rah MJ, Pinstein MJ, Zadnik K. The Adolescent and Child Health Initiative to Encourage Vision Empowerment (ACHIEVE) study design and baseline data. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 January;83:37-45.

    3. Smith EL, Hung LF and Huange J. Relative peripheral hyperopic defocus alters central refractive development in infant monkeys. Vision Res. 2009 Sep;49(19):2386-2392.

    4. Smith EL 3rd, Kee CS, Ramamirthan R, Qiao-Grider Y and Hung LF. Peripheral vision can influence eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov;46:3965-3972

    5. Smith EL 3rd et al. Effects of foveal ablation on emmetropization and form-deprivation myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Sep;48:3914-3922.

    6. Smith EL 3rd. Spectacle lenses and emmetropization: the role of optical defocus in regulating ocular development. Optom Vis Sci. 1998 Jun;75:388-398.

    7. Troilo D and Wallman J. The regulation of eye growth and refractive state: an experimental study of emmetropization. Vision Res. 1991: 31(7-8):1237-1250.

(p. 21) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Monitor Quality When Using Tea Tree Oil
By Katherine M. Mastrota, MS, OD, FAAO

    1. Gao YY, Di Pascuale MA, Li W, Baradaran-Rafii A, Elizondo A, Kuo CL, Raju VK, Tseng SC. In vitro and in vivo killing of ocular Demodex by tea tree oil. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005 Nov;89:1468-1473.

    2. Kim JH, Chun YS, Kim JC. Clinical and immunological responses in ocular demodecosis. J Korean Med Sci. 2011 Sep;26:1231-1237. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2011.26.9.1231. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

    3. Brophy JJ et al. Gas chromatographic quality control for oil of Melaleuca terpinen-4-ol type (Australian tea tree). J. Agric. Food Chem. 1989;37:1330-1335.

    4. Tighe S1, Gao YY2, Tseng SC. Terpinen-4-ol is the Most Active Ingredient of Tea Tree Oil to Kill Demodex Mites. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2013 Nov;2:2. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

    5. Hausen BM, Reichling J, Harkenthal M. Degradation products of monoterpenes are the sensitizing agents in tea tree oil. Am J Contact Dermat. 1999 Jun;10(2):68-77.

    6. Accessed January 4, 2014.

(p. 23) Contact Lens Care & Compliance - Makeup and Scleral GP Lenses
By Susan J. Gromacki, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Weisbarth RE and Henderson B. Hydrogel lens care regimens and patient education. In: Bennett ES and Weissman BA, eds. Clinical Contact Lens Practice. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 2005: 409.

    2. Bennett E and Wagner H. Rigid lens care and patient education. In: Bennett ES and Weissman BA, eds. Clinical Contact Lens Practice. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 2005:289.

    3. Sindt C. Makeup and teens. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Dec;28:48.

    4. Ward M. Contact Lenses and Makeup Contamination. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Feb;28(2):23.

    5. Gromacki SJ. Soft Lens Daily Cleaners. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Sept;28:17.

(p. 24) Ditch the Itch: Managing Allergy and Lens Wear
By Arthur B. Epstein, OD, FAAO, FBCLA, DPNAP

    1. Donshik PC, Ehlers WH, Ballow M. Giant papillary conjunctivitis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008;28(1):83-103, vi.

    2. Brodsky M, Berger WE, Butrus S, Epstein AB, Irkec M. Evaluation of comfort using olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in contact lens wearers compared to placebo using the conjunctival allergen-challenge model. Eye Contact Lens. 2003;29(2):113-116.

    3. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. “Eye on Allergies Survey” July 2006.

    4. Kari O, Saari KM. Diagnostics and new developments in the treatment of ocular allergies. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2012;12(3):232-239.

    5. Bielory L. Ocular allergy treatment. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008;28(1):189-224.

    6. Wolffsohn JS, Hunt OA, Chowdhury A. Objective clinical performance of 'comfort-enhanced' daily disposable soft contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010;33(2):88-92.

    7. Yazdanbakhsh M, Kremsner P, van Ree R. Allergy, Parasites, and the Hygiene Hypothesis. Science 19 April 2002: Vol. 296 no. 5567 pp. 490-494.

    8. Hom MM, Nguyen AL, Bielory L.Allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012;108(3):163-166.

    9. Lemp MA, Crews LA, Bron AJ, Foulks GN, Sullivan BD. Distribution of aqueous-deficient and evaporative dry eye in a clinic-based patient cohort: a retrospective study. Cornea. 2012;31(5):472-8.

    10. Skalicky SE, Petsoglou C, Gurbaxani A, et. al. New agents for treating dry eye syndrome. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2012 6.

    11. Gomes PJ, Ousler GW, Welch DL, et. al. Exacerbation of signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis by a controlled adverse environment challenge in subjects with a history of dry eye and ocular allergy. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013;7:157-165.

    12. Wolffsohn JS, Emberlin JC. Role of contact lenses in relieving ocular allergy. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011;34(4):169-72.

    13. Stiegemeier MJ, Thomas S. Seasonal allergy relief with daily disposable lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2001;16(4).






(p. 48) The Scleral Lens Vault – Scleral Lenses and the Conjunctiva
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. Snell RS, Lemp MA. Clinical Anatomy of The Eye. Blackwell Scientific Publications Inc. 1989.

    2. Zhang X, Li X, Xiang M, et al. Bulbar conjunctival thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography in healthy Chinese subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jul 12;54:4705-9.

    3. van der Worp E. A Guide to Scleral Lens Fitting [monograph online]. Scleral Lens Education Society; 2010. Available from:

    4. Caroline P, Andre M. Scleral Lens Settling. Contact Lens Spectrum. May 2012.

    5. Kaufmann, M et al. A Comparison of the Rates of Short-Term Settling of Three Scleral Lens Designs. Program Number 130185. AAO 2013 Annual Meeting.

    6. Nau CB, Schornack MM. Decreased Clearance between Scleral Contact Lens and Cornea after 2 Hours of Wear. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013:ARVO E-Abstract #5469. [Abstract]

(p. 50) Treatment Plan - Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus
By William L. Miller, OD, MS, PhD, FAAO

    1. Edell AR, Cohen EJ. Herpes simplex and herpes zoster eye disease: presentation and management at a city hospital for the underserved in the United States. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jul;39(4):311-314

    2. Ghaznawi N, Virdi A, Dayan A, Hammersmith KM, Rapuano CJ, Laibson PR, Cohen EJ. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: comparison of disease in patients 60 years and older versus younger than 60 years. Ophthalmology. 2011 Nov;118:2242-2250.

    3. Yawn BP, Wollan PC, St Sauver JL, Butterfield LC Herpes zoster eye complications: rates and trends. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Jun;88:562-570.

    4. Jung JJ, Elkin ZP, Li Q, Goldberg JD, Edell AR, Cohen MN, Chen KC, Perskin MH, Park L, Cohen EJ. Increasing use of the vaccine against zoster through recommendation and administration by ophthalmologists at a city hospital. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 May;155:787-795.

    5. Hwang CW Jr, Steigleman WA, Saucedo-Sanchez E, Tuli SS. Reactivation of herpes zoster keratitis in an adult after varicella zoster vaccination. Cornea. 2013 Apr;32:508-509.

    6. Aggarwal S, Cavalcanti BM, Pavan-Langston D. Treatment of pseudodendrites in herpes zoster ophthalmicus with topical ganciclovir 0.15% gel. Cornea. 2014 Feb;33:109-113.

    7. Sanjay S, Huang P, Lavanya R. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2011 Feb;13:79-91.

    8. McDonald EM, de Kock J, Ram FS. Antivirals for management of herpes zoster including ophthalmicus: asystematic review of high-quality randomized controlled trials. Antivir Ther. 2012 Feb;17:255-264.

(p. 56) Contact Lens Case Reports – Calculating Scleral Lens Sag
By Patrick J. Caroline, FAAO, & Mark P. André, FAAO

    1. Copilevitz L, Kinoshita B. Caroline P, Lampa M, Kojima R, André M. Pacific University College of Optometry, Forest Grove, Oregon. Are You Scared of Heights?  Poster, Global Specialty Lens Symposium. Jan 2012, Las Vegas, NV.