Contact Lens Spectrum


April 2014

Document #221

(p. 14) Research Review – Current Research on Multifocal Contact Lenses
By S. Barry Eiden, OD, FAAO

    1. Nichols JJ. Annual report contact lenses 2013. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Jan;29:22-28.

    2. Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low astigmatic presbyopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 May;83:266-273.

    3. Benjamin WJ. Comparing multifocals and monovision. Contact Lens Spectrum. July 2007.

    4. Situ P, Du Toit R, Fonn D, Simpson T. Successful monovision contact lens wearers refitted with bifocal contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens 2003;29:181-184.

    5. Fernandes PR, Neves HI, Lopes-Ferreira DP, Jorge JM, Gonzalez-Meijome JM. Adaptation to multifocal and monovision contact lens correction. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Mar;90:228-235.

    6. Gupta N, Naroo SA, Wolffsohn JS. Visual comparison of multifocal contact lens to monovision. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Feb;86:E98-105.

    7. Madrid-Costa D, Tomas E, Ferrer-Blasco T, Garcia-Lazaro S, Montes-Mico R. Visual performance of a multifocal toric soft contact lens. Optom Vis Sci 2012 Nov;89:1627-1635.

    8. Ferrer-Blasco T, Madrid-Costa D. Stereoacuity with balanced presbyopic lenses. Clin Exp Optom 2011 Jan;94:76-81.

    9. Plainis S, Ntzilepis G, Atchison DA, Charman WN. Through-focus performance with multifocal contact lenses: effect of binocularity, pupil diameter and inherent ocular aberrations. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013 Jan;33:42-50.

    10. Montes-Mico R, Madrid-Costa D, Dominquez-Vicent A, Belda-Salmeron L, Ferrer-Blasco T. In vitro power profiles of multifocal simultaneous vision contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Oct. 21 [Epub ahead of print]

    11. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.

    12. Lam CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, Tang YY, To CH. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomized clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;98:40-45.

(p. 16) Prescribing for Astigmatism – Managing Scleral Lens Residual Astigmatism
By Karen Lee, OD; Brooke Messer, OD; & Timothy B. Edrington, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. van der Worp E. A Guide to Scleral Lens Fitting [monograph online]. Scleral Lens Education Society; 2010. Available from:

    2. Visser ES, Visser R, Van lier HJ. Advantages of toric scleral lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;83:233-236.

(p. 17) GP Insights – What Do We Really Know About GP Lens Discomfort?
By Nancy Chan, OD, & John Mark Jackson, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Nichols JJ, Jones L, Nelson D, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA, Willcox MDP. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Introduction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:TFOS1-TFOS6.

    2. Nichols JJ, Willcox MDP, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Jones L, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Introduction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    3. Nichols KK, Redfern RL, Jacob JT, Nelson D, Fonn D, Forstot SL, Huang J, Hoden BA, Nichols JJ. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:TFOS14-TFOS19.

    4. Dumbleton K, Caffery B, Dogru M, Hickson-Curran S, Kern J, Kojima T, Morgan PB, Purslow C, Robertson DM, Nelson JD. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the Subcommittee on Epidemiology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:TFOS20-TFOS36.

    5. Jones L, Brennan NA, Gonzalez-Meijome J, Lally J, Maldonado-Codina C, Schmidt TA, Subbaraman L, Young G, Nichols, JJ. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the Contact Lens Materials, Design, and Care Subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:TFOS37-TFOS70.

    6. Papas EB, Ciolino JB, Jacobs D, Miller WS, Pult H, Sahin A, Srinivasan S, Tauber J, Wolffsohn JS, Nelson JD. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:TFOS183-TFOS203.

(p. 21) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – The Hormone-Dry Eye Connection, Part 2
By William Townsend, OD, FAAO

    1. Wang TJ1, Wang IJ, Hu CC, Lin HC. Comorbidities of dry eye disease: a nationwide population-based study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012 Nov;90:663-668.

    2. Rocha EM, Mantelli F, Nominato LF, Bonini S. Hormones and dry eye syndrome: an update on what we do and don’t know. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2013 Jul;24:348-355.

    3. Wang C, Peng Y, Pan S, Li L Effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 on corneal surface ultrastructure and nerve regeneration of rabbit eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis. Neurosci Lett. 2014 Jan 13;558:169-174.

    4. Alves Mde C, Carvalheira JB, Módulo CM, Rocha EM. Tear film and ocular surface changes in diabetes mellitus. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2008 Nov-Dec;71(6 Suppl):96-103.


    6. Zagon IS, Klocek MS, Sassani JW, McLaughlin PJ. Dry eye reversal and corneal sensation restoration with topical naltrexone in diabetes mellitus. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Nov;127:1468-1473.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Spring Has Sprung, and So Have the Allergies
By Michael A. Ward, MMSC, FAAO



    3. Ward, MA. Helping Lens Wearers Cope with Ocular Allergies. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Apr;28:21.


(p. 22) Highlights from the 2014 GSLS Meeting
By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO; Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO; Eef van der Worp, BOptom, PhD; Patrick J. Caroline, FAAO; & Craig W. Norman, FCLSA

    1. Vitale S, Ellwein L, Cotch MF, Ferris FL 3rd, SperdutoR. Prevalence of refractive error in the United States, 1999-2004. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Aug;126(8):1111-9.

    2. Nichols KK et al. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 March 30;52(4).

    3. Nichols JJ et al. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54(11).

    4. Marriott PJ. An analysis of the global contours and haptic contact lens fitting. Br J Physiol Opt. 1966;23(1):1-40.

    5. van der Worp E, et al. Modern scleral contact lenses: A review. Contact Lens Anterior Eye (2014 Mar 12.),

    6. Rosen C. Scleral Shape: New Thoughts, New Understandings. Poster, Global Specialty Lens Symposium. Jan 2013, Las Vegas.

    7. Hall LA, Young G, Wolffsohn JS, Riley C. The influence of corneoscleral topography on soft contact lens fit. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Aug 29;52(9):6801-6.

    8. Hall LA, Hunt C, Young G, Wolffsohn J. Factors affecting corneoscleral topography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May 1;54(5):3691-701.

(p. 30) Multifocal Lens Decision-Making 101
By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO, & Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2012.

    2. Nichols J. Contact Lenses 2013, Contact Lens Spectrum, 2014 Jan;29:22-28.

    3. Johnson J, Bennett ES, Henry VA, et al. Multivision vs Monovision: A Comparative Study. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Las Vegas; February 2000.

    4. Situ P, Du Toit R, Fonn D et al. Successful Monovision Contact Lens Wearers Refitted with Bifocal Contact Lenses, Eye Contact Lens. 2003 July;29:181-184.

    5. Richdale K, Mitchell, GL and Zadnik K. Comparison of Multifocal and Monovision Soft Contact Lens Corrections in Patients with Low-Astigmatic Presbyopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 May;83:266-273.

    6. Woods J, Woods CA, Fonn D. Early symptomatic presbyopes – what correction modality works best? Eye Contact Lens. 2009 May;35:221-226.

    7. Dinardo A. Common factors in multifocal contact lens success. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium Las Vegas, NV, January 2014.

    8. Kleinstein RN. Epidemiology of presbyopia. In: Stark L, Obrecht G, eds. Presbyopia: recent research and reviews from the third international symposium. New York: Professional Press Books,1987:12-18.

    9. Benoit DP. Don’t let these clinical scenarios prevent success with presbyopes. Rev Cornea Contact Lenses. 2013 Sept:22-24.

    10. Vogt A. Innovations in improving contact lens designs. Advanced Ocular Care. 2013 Jan/Feb;47-48.

    11. Gifford P, Cannon T, Lee C, et al. Ocular aberrations and visual function with multifocal versus single vision contact lenses. Contact Lens Ant Eye. 2013;36:66-73

    12. Pfeil TD. Expand your toolbox to treat presbyopia. Review Cornea Contact Lenses. 2012 Sept;31-33.

    13. Madrid-Costa D, Tomás E, Ferrer-Blasco T et al. Visual performance of a multifocal toric soft contact lens. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Nov;89:1627-1635.

    14. Bennett ES. Researching GP multifocals. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2005 Feb;20:21.

    15. Curio, L. Personal communication. January 11, 2014.

    16. Quinn T, Davis R. Evolution in Fitting a Hybrid Multifocal. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2012 Nov;27:11.

    17. Barnett M, Messer B. The developing role of scleral lenses in today’s society. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Oct;28:40-55.

    18. Watanabe R, Liao J, Bligdon S. Multifocal scleral lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Nov;28:21.

    19. Woo SL. Multifocal scleral lens options. AOA Contact Lens and Cornea Section newsletter. June 2013.

    20. Potter R. Toric and multifocal scleral lens options. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2012 Feb;27:34-39.

    21. Bennett ES, Henry VA. Contemporary multifocal contact lens primer. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2012 Feb;27:24-32.

    22. Fernandes PR, Neves HI, Lopes-Ferreira DP, et al. Adaptation to multifocal and monovision contact lens correction. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Mar;90:228-235.

    23. Young C, Kading DL, Brujic M. Strategies for success with specialty multifocal contact lenses. Rev Cornea Contact Lenses. 2013 Sept;25-27.

    24. Norman C. Where do we go from here? Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Jan; 28:17.

    25. Norman C. It’s all about the vision. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Jan;29:14.

(p. 40) A Nutritional Approach to Contact Lens Success
By Jeffrey R. Anshel, OD, FAAO

    1. Nichols J, Ziegler C, Mitchell G, Nichols K. Self-reported dry eye disease across refractive modalities. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005 Jun; 46:1911-4.

    2. Young G, Veys J, Pritchard N, Coleman S. A multi-centre study of lapsed contact lens wearers. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2002 Nov; 22(6):516-27.

    3. Rumpakis J. New data on contact lens dropouts: an international perspective. Review of Optometry 2010 Jan 15:37-42.

    4. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols J. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea 2007 26(2), 168-74.

    5. Schaumberg DA, Sullivan DA, Buring JE, Dana MR. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women. Am J Ophthalmol 2003; 136:318-26

    6. Statistics on the Aging Population [database on the Internet] Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Aging. [Updated 05/02/2005; cited 11/20/2006]. Available from:

    7. 2007 Report of the Dry Eye WorkShop (Ocul Surf 2007;5[2]:65-204)

    8. Nichols JJ., Jones L, Nelson D, et al. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. October 18, 2013 vol. 54 no. 11

    9. Kymionis GD1, Bouzoukis DI, Diakonis VF, Siganos C.9. Treatment of chronic dry eye: focus on cyclosporine. Clin Ophthalmol. 2008 Dec;2(4):829-36.

    10. Rolando M1, Zierhut M. The ocular surface and tear film and their dysfunction in dry eye disease. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001 Mar; 45 Suppl 2:S203-10.

    11. King-Smith PE, Fink B, Fogt N, Nichols K, Hill R, Wilson GS. The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000 41(11): 3348-3359.

    12. Peters E and Colby K. Chapter 3 The Tear Film in Duane’s Ophthalmology CD ROM, 2006 edition.

    13. Stern ME1, Gao J, Siemasko KF, Beuerman RW, Pflugfelder SC. The role of the lacrimal functional unit in the pathophysiology of dry eye. Exp Eye Res. 2004 Mar;78(3):409-16.

    14. Gilbard JP. Human tear film electrolyte concentrations in health and dry-eye disease. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1994 Winter;34(1):27-36.

    15. Nichols JJ and Sinnott LT. Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006 Apr;47(4): 1319-28.

    16. Korb DR, Herman JP, Greiner JV, Scaffidi RC, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Blackie CA, Douglass T. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO Journal 2002. 28(4): p. 211-6.

    17. Höh H, Schirra F, Kienecker C, Ruprecht KW. Lid-parallel conjunctival folds are a sure diagnostic sign of dry eye. Ophthalmologe. 1995 Dec;92(6):802-8.

    18. Maruyama K, Yokoi N, Takamata A, Kinoshita S. Effect of environmental conditions on tear dynamics in soft contact lens wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004;45:2563–2568.

    19. Bentivoglio AR, Bressman SB, Cassetta E, Carretta D, Tonali P, Albanese A, Analysis of blink rate patterns in normal subjects. Mov Disord 1997 Nov;12(6):1028-34.

    20. Sullivan BD1, Evans JE, Krenzer KL, Reza Dana M, Sullivan DA. Impact of anti-androgen treatment on the fatty acid profile of neutral lipids in human meibomian gland secretions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;85(12):4866-73.

    21. Pisella PJ1, Godon C, Auzerie O, Baudouin C. Influence of corneal refractive surgery on the lacrymal film. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2002 Apr;25(4):416-22.

    22. Barabino S, Rolando M, Camicione P, Ravera G, Zanardi S, Giuffrida S, Calabria G. Systemic linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid therapy in dry eye syndrome with an inflammatory component. Cornea 2003;22:97-101.

    23. Kokke KH, Morris JA, Lawrenson JG. Oral omega-6 essential fatty acid treatment in contact lens associated dry eye. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 2008;31(3):141-6.

    24. Barham JB1, Edens MB, Fonteh AN, Johnson MM, Easter L, Chilton FH. Addition of eicosapentaenoic acid to gamma-linolenic acid-supplemented diets prevents serum arachidonic acid accumulation in J Nutr. 2000 Aug;130(8):1925-31.

    25. Li N1, He J, Schwartz CE, Gjorstrup P, Bazan HE Resolvin E1 improves tear production and decreases inflammation in a dry eye mouse model. .J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Oct;26(5):431-9. doi: 10.1089/jop.2010.0019.

    26. Wu D1, Meydani M, Leka LS, Nightingale Z, Handelman GJ, Blumberg JB, Meydani SN. Effect of dietary supplementation with black currant seed oil on the immune response of healthy elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Oct;70(4):536-43.

    27. Lane K1, Derbyshire E, Li W, Brennan C. Bioavailability and potential uses of vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the literature. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54(5):572-9. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.596292.

    28. Barabino S1, Rolando M, Camicione P, Ravera G, Zanardi S, Giuffrida S, Calabria G. Systemic linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid therapy in dry eye syndrome with an inflammatory component. Cornea. 2003 Mar;22(2):97-101.

    29. McCullough FS, Northrop-Clewes CA, Thurnham DI. The effect of vitamin A on epithelial integrity. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):289-93.

    30. Zhao M1, Lamers Y, Ralat MA, Coats BS, Chi YY, Muller KE, Bain JR, Shankar MN, Newgard CB, Stacpoole PW, Gregory JF 3rd Marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2012 Oct;142(10):1791-7. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

    31. Wolvers DA1, van Herpen-Broekmans WM, Logman MH, van der Wielen RP, Albers R. Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Nutr J. 2006 Nov 21;5:28.

    32. Fujikawa A1, Gong H, Amemiya T. Vitamin E prevents changes in the cornea and conjunctiva due to vitamin A deficiency. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003 Apr;241(4):287-97. Epub 2003 Mar 15

(p. 50) Is This the New Norm? – Is Ocular Nutrition the New Norm for Dry Eyes?
By Mile Brujic, OD, & David L. Kading, OD, FAAO

    1. Roncone M, Bartlett H, Eperjesi F. Essential fatty acids for dry eye: A review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010 Apr;33:49-54.

    2. Rosenberg ES, Asbell PA. Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye. Ocul Surf. 2010 Jan;8:18-28.

    3. Miljanović B, Trivedi KA, Dana MR, Gilbard JP, Buring JE, Schaumberg DA. Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct;82:887-893.

    4. Pinazo-Durán MD, Galbis-Estrada C, Pons-Vázquez S, Cantú-Dibildox J, Marco-Ramírez C, Benítez-del-Castillo J. Effects of a nutraceutical formulation based on the combination of antioxidants and ω-3 essential fatty acids in the expression of inflammation and immune response mediators in tears from patients with dry eye disorders. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:139-148.

    5. Brignole-Baudouin F, Baudouin C, Aragona P, Rolando M, Labetoulle M, Pisella PJ, Barabino S, Siou-Mermet R, Creuzot-Garcher C. A multicentre, double-masked, randomized, controlled trial assessing the effect of oral supplementation of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on a conjunctival inflammatory marker in dry eye patients. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011 Nov;89:591-597.

    6. Kangari H, Eftekhari MH, Sardari S, Hashemi H, Salamzadeh J, Ghassemi-Broumand M, Khabazkhoob M. Short-term consumption of oral omega-3 and dry eye syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2013 Nov;120:2191-2196.

    7. Kawakita T, Kawabata F, Tsuji T, Kawashima M, Shimmura S, Tsubota K. Effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on dry eye syndrome subjects: randomized controlled trial. Biomed Res. 2013;34:215-220.

    8. Erdinest N, Shmueli O, Grossman Y, Ovadia H, Solomon A. Anti-inflammatory effects of alpha linolenic acid on human corneal epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jul 3;53:4396-4406.

    9. Larmo PS, Järvinen RL, Setälä NL, Yang B, Viitanen MH, Engblom JR, Tahvonen RL, Kallio HP. Oral sea buckthorn oil attenuates tear film osmolarity and symptoms in individuals with dry eye. J Nutr. 2010 Aug;140:1462-1468.

    10. Oleñik A, Jiménez-Alfaro I, Alejandre-Alba N, Mahillo-Fernández I. A randomized, double-masked study to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in meibomian gland dysfunction. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:1133-1138.

    11. Oleñik Andrea et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in the treatment of dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014:8;169-176.

(p. 54) Treatment Plan – How Far We Have Come in Preserving Vision and Sight
By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

    1. Lujan BJ, Roorda A, Knighton RW, Carroll J. Revealing Henle’s fiber layer using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 18;52:1486-92.

    2. Zawadski RJ, Capps AG, Kim DU, et al. Progress on Developing Adaptive Optics–Optical Coherence Tomography for In Vivo Retinal Imaging. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. 2014 Mar/Apr; 20: doi: 10.1109/JSTQE.2013.2288302.

    3. Malihi M, Filho, ERM, Hidge DO, et al. Long-Term Trends in Glaucoma-Related Blindness in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:134-141.