Contact Lens Spectrum


May 2014

Document #222

(p. 14) Refractive Focus – Multifocal Lenses: Presbyopia and Beyond
By David A. Berntsen, OD, PhD, FAAO

    1. Morgan PB, Woods CA, Tranoudis IG, et al. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2013. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Jan;29:30-35.

    2. Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low-astigmatic presbyopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 May;83:266-273.

    3. Ferrer-Blasco T, Madrid-Costa D. Stereoacuity with balanced presbyopic contact lenses. Clin Exp Optom. 2011 Jan;94:76-81.

    4. Fernandes PR, Neves HI, Lopes-Ferreira DP, Jorge JM, González-Meijome JM. Adaptation to multifocal and monovision contact lens correction. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Mar;90:228-235.

    5. Gupta N, Naroo SA, Wolffsohn JS. Visual comparison of multifocal contact lens to monovision. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Feb;86:E98-105.

    6. Kollbaum PS, Jansen ME, Tan J, Meyer DM, Rickert ME. Vision performance with a contact lens designed to slow myopia progression. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Mar;90:205-214.

    7. Berntsen DA, Barr JT, Mitchell GL. The effect of overnight contact lens corneal reshaping on higher-order aberrations and best-corrected visual acuity. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Jun;82:490-497.

    8. Lam CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, Tang YY, To CH. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;98:40-45.

Table 1 References

    1. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E 3rd, et al. Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Dec 9;52:9362-9367.

    2. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children. Ophthalmology. 2011 Jun;118:1152-1161.

    3. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.

    4. Lam CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, Tang YY, To CH. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;98:40-45.

    5. Aller TA, Laure A, Wildsoet C. Results of a one-year prospective clinical trial (CONTROL) of the use of bifocal soft contact lenses to control myopia progression. International Myopia Conference, Singapore. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2006;26(Suppl 1):8-9.

    6. Holden BA, Sankaridurg PR, Lazon De La Jara P, et al. Decreasing Peripheral Hyperopia With Distance-centre Relatively-plus Powered Periphery Contact Lenses Reduced The Rate Of Progress Of Myopia: A 5 Year Vision CRC Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:ARVO E-Abstract 6300.

(p. 17) Prescribing for Presbyopia – Centration Is Key for GP Multifocal Lenses
By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Carney LG, Mainstone JC, Quinn TG, and Hill RM. Rigid Lens Centration: Effects of Lens Design and Material Density. International Contact Lens Clinic. 1996 Jan/Feb;23:6-12.

    2. Quinn TG, and Carney LG. Controlling lens centration through specific gravity. International Contact Lens Clinic. 1992 Mar/Apr;19:84-88.

(p. 18) GP Insights – Reshaping Your Practice Success
By Robert Ensley, OD, and Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO

    1. Morrison RJ. Contact lenses and the progression of myopia. Optometry Weekly. 1956;47:1487-1488

    2. Kerns RL. Research in orthokeratology. Part VIII: results, conclusions and discussion of techniques. J Am Optom Assoc. 1978;49:308-314.

    3. Binder PS, May CH, Grant SC. An evaluation of orthokeratology. Ophthalmology. 1980;87:729-744.

    4. Polse KA, Brand RJ, Keener RJ, Vastine DW, Schwalbe JS. Corneal change accompanying orthokeratology, plastic or elastic? Results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 1983;101:1873-1878

    5. Smith EL, 3rd. Spectacle lenses and emmetropization: the role of optical defocus in regulating ocular development. Optom Vis Sci. 1998;75:388-398.

    6. Smith EL, 3rd, Hung LF, Huang J. Relative peripheral hyperopic defocus alters central refractive development in infant monkeys. Vision Res. 2009;49:2386-2392

    7. Mountford J. An analysis of the changes in corneal shape and refractive error induced by accelerated orthokeratology. Int Contact Lens Clin. 1997;24:128-144

(p. 21) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Pearls for Prescribing Artificial Tears
By Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD, FAAO

    1. DiPascuale MA, Goto E, Tseng SC. Sequential changes of lipid tear film after the instillation of a single drop of a new emulsion eye drop in dry eye patients. Ophthalmology 2004 Apr;111:783-791.

    2. Khanal S, Tomlinson A, Pearce EI, et al. Effect of an oil-in-water emulsion on the tear physiology of patients with mild to moderate dry eye. Cornea 2007 Feb;26:175-181.

    3. Korb DR, Scaffidi RC, Greiner JV, et al. The effect of two novel lubricant eye drops on tear film lipid layer thickness in subjects with dry eye symptoms. Optom Vis Sci 2005 July;82:594-601.

    4. Baudouin C, de Lunardo C. Short term comparative study of topical 2% carteolol with and without benzalkonium chloride in healthy volunteers. Br J Ophthalmol. 1998 Jan;82:39-42.

(p. 23) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – New Hydrogen Peroxide Lens Care System Enters U.S. Market
By Susan J. Gromacki, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Gromacki SJ. Hydrogen Peroxide Contact Lens Disinfection, Part 1. Contact Lens Spectrum 2012 May;27:23.

    2. Gromacki SJ. Hydrogen Peroxide Contact Lens Disinfection, Part 2. Contact Lens Spectrum 2012 Sept;27:25.

    3. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2013. Contact Lens Spectrum 2014 Jan;29:22-28.

(p. 24) Overnight Corneal Reshaping in 2014 and Beyond
By Michael J. Lipson, OD, FAAO

    1. Lipson MJ, Sugar A, Musch DC. Overnight Corneal Reshaping versus soft contact lenses: Vision-related quality of life differences from a randomized clinical trial. Optom Vis Sci 2005;82:886-891.

    2. Santolaria E, et al. Subjective satisfaction in long-term Orthokeratology patients. Eye & Contact Lens. 2013 Nov;39:388-393.

    3. Rah MJ, et al. Comparison of NEI RQL–42 scores in LASIK vs. CRT patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:E-Abstract 1578.

    4. Berntsen DA, Mitchell GL, Barr JT. The effect of overnight contact lens corneal reshaping on refractive error-specific quality of life. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Jun;83:354-359.

    5. Walline JJ et al. Benefits of contact lens wear for children and teens. Eye & Contact Lens. 2007 Nov;33(Pt 1):317-321.

    6. Personal communication: Joe Sicari, Jonathan Jacobson, PM Hawkins, David Bland and Cary Herzberg. Aug 2013. Data reported are estimates, no accurate data available.

    7. Haque S, et al. Corneal and epithelial thickness changes after 4 weeks of overnight corneal refractive therapy lens wear measured with Optical Coherence Tomography. Eye Cont Lens. 2004 Oct;30:189-193, discussion 205-6.

    8. Alharbi A, Swarbrick HA. The Effects of Overnight Orthokeratology Lens Wear on Corneal Thickness. Invest OphthVis Sci. 2003 Jun;44:2518-2523.

    9. Tsukiyama J, et al. Changes in the Anterior and Posterior Radii of the Corneal Curvature and Anterior Chamber Depth by Orthokeratology. Eye & Contact Lens. 2008 Jan;34:17-20.

    10. Swarbrick HA, Wong G, O’Leary DJ. Corneal response to orthokeratology. Opt Vis Sci. 1998 Nov;75:791-799.

    11. Barr JT, Rah MJ, Meyers W, Legerton J. Recovery of Refractive Error After Corneal Refractive Therapy. Eye & Contact Lens. 2004 Oct;30:247-251.

    12. Soni PS, Nguyen TT, Bonanno JA. Overnight Orthokeratology: Refractive and Corneal Recovery After Discontinuation of Reverse-Geometry Lenses. Eye & Contact Lens. 2004 Oct;30:254-262.

    13. Kobayashi Y, et al. Reversibility of Effects of Orthokeratology on Visual Acuity, Refractive Error, Corneal Topography, and Contrast Sensitivity. Eye & Contact Lens. 2008 Jul;34:224-228.

    14. Lipson MJ. Long-term clinical outcomes for overnight corneal reshaping in children and adults. Eye Cont Lens. 2008 Mar;34:94-99.

    15. Walline JJ, Holden BA, Bullimore MA, Rah MJ, et al. The current state of corneal reshaping. Eye Contact Lens. 2005 Sep;31:209-214.

    16. Bullimore MA, Sinott LT, Jones-Jordan LA. The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Sep;90:937-944.

    17. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden BA. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis In Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct;115:1655-1662.

    18. Dart JK, Radford CF, Minassian D, Verma S, Stapleton F. Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses: A case-control study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct;115:1647-1654.

    19. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of Myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) study: A 2-year randomized clinical trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Oct:53:7077-7085.

    20. Downie LE, Lowe R. Corneal Reshaping Influences Myopic Prescription Stability (CRIMPS): An analysis of the effect of orthokeratology on childhood myopic refractive stability. Eye Cont Lens. 2013 Jul;39:303-310.

    21. Kakita T, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr;52:2170-2174.

    22. Walline JJ, Rah MJ, Jones LA. The Children’s Overnight Orthokeratology Investigation (COOKI) pilot study. Optom Vis Sci. 2004 Jun;81:407-413.

    23. Hiraoka T, et al. Long-term effect of overnight orthokeratology on axial length elongation in childhood myopia: A 5-year follow-up study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jun 22;53:3913-3919.

    24. Charman WN, et al. Peripheral refraction in orthokeratology patients. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Sep;83:641-648.

    25. Queiros A, et al. Peripheral refraction in myopic patients after orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 May;87:323-329.

    26. Mutti DO, et al. Relative peripheral refractive error and the risk of onset and progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jan 5;52:199-205.

(p. 30) Prescribing Lenses for Athletic Patients
By Kristine Dalton, OD, PhD, MCOptom, FAAO, FBCLA, & Gavin Rebello, BSc(Hons), MCOptom, dipSpVis, dipScVis

    1. Falcetti C and Esterow G. The Vision Care Institute LLC Helps 2008 U.S. Olympic Hopefuls and Athletes See Gold Through its New AchieveVision Program: New State-Of-The-Art Vision Program to Optimize Vision of U.S. Athletes. Press Release from The Vision Care Institute LLC, a Johnson & Johnson company. August 2007.

    2. Beckerman SA and Hitzeman S. The ocular and visual characteristics of an athletic population. Optometry. 2001 Aug;72:498-509.

    3. Pfeiffer K, Sickenberger W, and Nick J. Comparative performance study of soft contact lenses and spectacles in suitability for alpine skiing. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:E-abstract 075134.

    4. Pesudovs K, Garamendi E, and Elliott DB. A quality of life comparison of people wearing spectacles or contact lenses or having undergone refractive surgery. J Refract Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb;22:19-27.

    5. Beran RF, Stewart C, and Doty J. Refractive surgery and the athlete. J Ophthalmic Nurs Technol. 1995 Jan-Feb;14:11-16.

    6. Tetz M, Werner L, Müller M, and Dietze U. Late traumatic LASIK flap loss during contact sport. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007 Jul;33:1332-1335.

    7. Stapleton, F, Keay L, Edwards K, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, and Holden BA. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct;115:1655-1662.

    8. Erickson G.B. Sports Vision: Vision care for the Enhancement of Sports Performance. St. Louis: Butterworth-Heinemann Elsevier. 2007.

    9. McKenzie RL, Aucamp PJ, Bais AF, Björn LO, and Ilyas M. Changes in biologically-active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2007 Mar;6:218-231.

    10. Accessed April 8, 2014.

    11. Stiegemeier M and Thomas S. Seasonal Allergy Relief with Daily Disposable Lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2001 Apr;16:24-28.

    12. Willmann G, Schatz A, Fischer, MD, et al. Dry eye syndrome during acute high altitude exposure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;ARVO Abstract 557 (Poster A25).

    13. Efron N, Young G, and Brennan NA. Ocular surface temperature. Curr Eye Res. 1989 Sept;8:901-906.

    14. Maruyama K, Yokoi N, Takamata A, and Kinoshita S. Effect of environmental conditions on tear dynamics in soft contact lens wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Aug;45:2563-2568.

    15. Butovich IA, Arciniega JC, and Wojtowicz JC. Meibomian lipid films and the impact of temperature. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Nov;51:5508-5518.

    16. Socks JF. Contact lenses in extreme cold environments: response of rabbit corneas. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1982 Apr;59:297-300.

    17. Galkin KA and Semes L. Risk of loss of Soflens during water skiing. J Am Optom Assoc. 1983 Mar;54:267-269.

    18. Wu YT, Tran J, Truong M, Harmis N, Zhu H, and Stapleton F. Do swimming goggles limit microbial contamination of contact lenses? Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Apr; 88:456-460.

    19. Gordon KD. The incidence of eye injuries in Canada. Can J Ophthalmol. 2012 Aug;47:351-353.

(p. 35) Custom Soft Toric Lenses Can Fill the Gap
By Rajni Rajan, MPhil, & Rajeswari Mahadevan, PhD

    1. Morgan PB, Woods CA, Tranoudis IG. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2012. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Jan;28:31-38, 44.

    2. Efron N, Morgan PB, Helland M et al. Soft toric contact lens prescribing in different countries. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Feb;34:36-38.

    3. Morgan PB, Efron N. Prescribing soft contact lenses for astigmatism. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2009 Apr;32:97-98.

    4. Dandona R, Dandona L, Naduvilath TJ, Srinivas M, McCarty CA, Rao GN. Refractive errors in an urban population in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Nov;40:2810-2818.

    5. Sanker N, Noushad B. Trend of soft contact lens prescribing in an optometry centre in India: A 6-year analysis. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Aug;36:196-198.

    6. Thite N, Noushad B, Kunjeer G. Contact lens prescribing pattern in India—2011. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Aug;36:182-185.

    7. Cole J. Torics for Astigmatism: Soft Lenses, Hard Choices. Review of Optometry. 2013 Jul;150:24-26

    8. Efron N, Morgan PB, Woods CA. Trends in Australian contact lens prescribing during the first decade of the 21st Century (2000–2009). Clin Exp Optom. 2010 Jul;93:243-252.

    9. Woods CA, Jones DA, Jones LW, Morgan PB. A seven year survey of the contact lens prescribing habits of Canadian optometrists. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Jun;84:505-510.

    10. Morgan PB, Efron N. A decade of contact lens prescribing trends in the United Kingdom (1996–2005). Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2006 May;29:59-68.

    11. Douthwaite WA. Initial selection of soft contact lenses based on corneal characteristics. Eye Contact lens. 2002 Oct;28:202-205.

    12. Goto T, Klyce S, Zheng X, Maeda N, Kuroda T, Ide C. Gender-and age-related differences in corneal topography. Cornea. 2001 Apr;20:270-276.

    13. Scott AR, Collins MJ, and Carney LG. A review of astigmatism and its possible genesis. Clin Exp Optom. 2007 Jan;90:5-19.

    14. Young G, Sulley A, Hunt C. Prevalence of astigmatism in relation to soft contact lens fitting. Eye Contact Lens. 2011 Jan;37:20-25.

    15. Carney LG, Mainstone JC, Henderson BA. Corneal topography and myopia. A cross-sectional study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1997 Feb;38:311-320.

    16. Rajan R, Mahadevan R. Customized Lens Fitting in Microcornea. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Aug;28:40-42,55.

    17. Maldonado-Codina C, Morgan PB, Schnider CM, et al. Short-term physiologic response in neophyte subjects fitted with hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2004 Dec;81:911–921.

    18. Morgan PB, Chamberlain P, Moody K, Maldonado-Codina C. Ocular physiology and comfort in neophyte subjects fitted with daily disposable silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013;36:118-125.

(p. 46) The Scleral Lens Vault – Selecting Scleral Lens Diameter
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. van der Worp E. A Guide to Scleral Lens Fitting [monograph online]. Scleral Lens Education Society; 2010. Available from:

(p. 48) Treatment Plan – Managing Herpes Simplex Epithelial Keratitis
By William L. Miller, OD, MS, PhD, FAAO

    1. Barron BA, Gee L, Hauck WW, et al. Herpetic eye disease study. A controlled trial of oral acyclovir for herpes simplex stromal keratitis. Ophthalmol. 1994;101:1871-1882

    2. The Herpetic Eye Disease Study Group. A controlled trial of acyclovir for the prevention of stromal keratitis or iritis in patients with herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis. The Epithelial Keratitis Trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115:703-712.

    3. Liesegang TJ, Melton LJ, Daly PJ, et al. Epidemiology of ocular herpes simplex: incidence in Rochester, Minn, 1950 through 1982. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989;107:1155-1159

    4. Lairson DR, Begley CE, Reynolds TF, et al. Prevention of herpes simplex virus eye disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:108-112

    5. Collum LM, McGettrick P, Akhtar J. et al. Oral acyclovir (Zovirax) in herpes simplex dendritic corneal ulceration. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 1986;70:435-438.

    6. Young RC, Hodge DO, Liesegang TJ and Baratz KH. Incidence, recurrence, and outcomes of herpes simplex virus eye disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1976-2007. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:1178-1183

    7. Farooq AV and Shukla D. Herpes simplex epithelial and stromal keratitis: An epidemiologic update. Surv Ophthalmol. 2012;57:448-462

    8. Sahin A and Hamrah P. Acute herpetic keratitis: What is the role of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel? Ophthamol Eye Dis. 2012;4:23-34

    9. Croxtall JD. Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15%. In acute herpetic keratitis (dendritic ulcers). Drugs. 2011;71:603-610