Contact Lens Spectrum


July 2014

Document #224

(p. 16) Research Review – Lissamine Green Versus Rose Bengal
By Eric Papas, PhD, MCOptom, DipCL, FAAO

    1. Manning FJ, Wehrly SR, Foulks GN. Patient tolerance and ocular surface staining characteristics of lissamine green versus rose bengal. Ophthalmology. 1995;102:1953-1957.

    2. Amaki S, Ogata T, Konishi M, Shimizu K, Yamada M, Mashima Y. Lissamine green B staining in the evaluating of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Folia Ophthalmologica Japonica. 1999;50:536-539.

    3. Jans RG, Hassard DT. Lissamine green--a supravital stain for determination of corneal endothelial viability. Can J Ophthalmol. 1967;2:297-302.

    4. Kirk AH, Hassard DTR. Supravital staining of the cornea endothelium and evidence for a membrane on its surface. Canad J Ophthalmol. 1969;4:405-415.

    5. Norn MS. Lissamine green. Vital staining of cornea and conjunctiva. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1973;51:483-491.

    6. Chodosh J, Dix RD, Howell RC, Stroop WG, Tseng SCG. Staining characteristics and antiviral activity of sulforhodamine B and lissamine green B. Invest Ophthalmol and Vis Sci. 1994;35:1046-1058.

    7. Kim J, Foulks GN. Evaluation of the effect of lissamine green and rose bengal on human corneal epithelial cells. Cornea. 1999;18:328-332.

    8. Feenstra RP, Tseng SC. What is actually stained by rose bengal? Arch Ophthalmol. 1992 Jul;110:984-993.

    9. Doughty MJ, Hagan S. On the staining of human tissue-cultured (Chang) conjunctival cells with rose bengal and lissamine green. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2013;36:32-40.

(p. 19) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – What’s on the Horizon in Dry Eye Diagnosis and Treatment
By William Townsend, OD, FAAO

    1. Uchida A, Uchino M, Goto E, Hosaka E, et al. Noninvasive interference tear meniscometry in dry eye patients with Sjögren syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Aug;144(2):232-237.

    2. Zeev MS, Douglas Miller DD, Latkany R. Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies Clin Ophthalmol. 2014; 8: 581–590.

    3. Bandlitz S, Purslow C, Murphy PJ, Pult H, Bron AJ. A new portable digital meniscometer. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Jan;91(1):e1-8.

    4. Yamaoka,K, Saharinen P et al , The Janus kinases (Jaks) Genome Biol. 2004; 5(12): 253


    6. Zerbini CA, Lomonte AB Tofacitinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2012 May;8(4):319-31.

    7. Liew MS, Zhang M, Kim E, Akpek EK. Prevalence and predictors of Sjogren's syndrome in a prospective cohort of patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012 Dec;96(12):1498-503

    8. Kashima T, Itakura H2, Akiyama H1, Kishi S1 Lomonte: a critical appraisal. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014 May 30;8:1003-1010.

    9. Kinoshita S, Oshiden K, Awamura S, et al. Ophthalmic Suspension Phase 3 Study Group. A randomized, multicenter phase 3 study comparing 2% rebamipide (OPC-12759) with 0.1% sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eye. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jun;120(6):1158-65.

    10. Contreras-Ruiz L, Zorzi GK, Hileeto Det al. A nanomedicine to treat ocular surface inflammation: performance on an experimental dry eye murine model. Gene Ther. 2013 May;20(5):467-77

    11. Rocha EM, Mantelli F, Nominato LF, Bonini S. Hormones and dry eye syndrome: an update on what we do and don't know. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2013 Jul;24(4):348-55.

    12. Módulo CM, Jorge AG, Dias AC, Braz AM, Bertazolli-Filho R, Jordão AA Jr, Sérgio Marchini J, Rocha EM.Influence of insulin treatment on the lacrimal gland and ocular surface of diabetic rats. Endocrine. 2009 Aug;36(1):161-8.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Contact Lens Discomfort and Contact Lens Care
By Susan J. Gromacki, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Nichols JJ, Willcox MDP, Bron AJ, et al. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Executive Summary. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science. 2013;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    2. Jones L, Brennan NA, González-Méijome J, et al. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the Contact Lens Materials, Design, and Care Subcommittee. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science. 2013;54:TFOS37-TFOS70.

(p. 22) 2014 Report on Dry Eye Diseases
By Anna Ablamowicz, OD, & Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO

    1. Begley, C. G., B. Caffery, K. K. Nichols and R. Chalmers (2000). "Responses of contact lens wearers to a dry eye survey." Optom Vis Sci 77(1): 40-46.

    2. Bron, A. J., A. Tomlinson, G. N. Foulks, J. S. Pepose, C. Baudouin, G. Geerling, K. K. Nichols and M. A. Lemp (2014). "Rethinking dry eye disease: a perspective on clinical implications." Ocul Surf 12(2 Suppl): S1-31.

    3. Chalmers, R. L., C. G. Begley, K. Moody and S. B. Hickson-Curran (2012). "Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire-8 (CLDEQ-8) and opinion of contact lens performance." Optom Vis Sci 89(10): 1435-1442.

    4. Jones, L., N. A. Brennan, J. Gonzalez-Meijome, J. Lally, C. Maldonado-Codina, T. A. Schmidt, L. Subbaraman, G. Young and J. J. Nichols (2013). "The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens materials, design, and care subcommittee." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54(11): Tfos37-70.

    5. Korb, D. R. and C. A. Blackie (2008). "Meibomian gland diagnostic expressibility: correlation with dry eye symptoms and gland location." Cornea 27(10): 1142-1147.

    6. Lemp, M. A., C. Baudouin, J. Baum and M. Dogru (2007). "The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007)." Ocul Surf 5(2): 75-92.

    7. Nichols, J. J., M. D. P. Willcox, A. J. Bron, C. Belmonte, J. B. Ciolino, J. P. Craig, M. Dogru, G. N. Foulks, L. Jones, J. D. Nelson, K. K. Nichols, C. Purslow, D. A. Schaumberg, F. Stapleton and D. A. Sullivan (2013). "The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Executive Summary." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 54(11): TFOS7-TFOS13.

    8. Sullivan, B. D., L. A. Crews, E. M. Messmer, G. N. Foulks, K. K. Nichols, P. Baenninger, G. Geerling, F. Figueiredo and M. A. Lemp (2014). "Correlations between commonly used objective signs and symptoms for the diagnosis of dry eye disease: clinical implications." Acta Ophthalmol 92(2): 161-166.

(p. 30) Severe Forms of Ocular Surface Disease
By Karen G. Carrasquillo, OD, PhD, FAAO; Alan Kwok, OD, FAAO; & Chirag Patel, OD, FAAO

    1. Carrasquillo KG, Barnett M. Scleral Lens Applications in Unique Populations. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Feb; 29:29-34.

    2. Townley JR, Dana R, Jacobs DS. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca manifestations in ocular graft versus host disease: pathogenesis, presentation, prevention, and treatment. Semin Ophthalmol. 2011;26:251-260.

    3. Ferrara JL, Levine JE, Reddy P, Holler E. Graft-versus-host disease. Lancet. 2009;373:1550-1561.

    4. Franklin RM, Kenyon KR, Tutschka PJ, Saral R, Green WR, Santos GW. Ocular manifestations in graft-vs-host-disease. Ophthalmology. 1983;90:4-13.

    5. Tichelli A, Duell T, Weiss M, et al. Late-onset keratoconjunctivitis sicca syndrome after bone marrow transplantation: Incidence and risk factors. European Group or Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Working Party on Late effects. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996;17:1105-1111.

    6. Storb R, Pepe M, Anasetti C, et al. What role for prednisone in prevention of acute graft-versus-host-disease in patients undergoing marrow transplants? Blood. 1990;76:1037-1045.

    7. Bolwell B, Sobecks R, Pohlman B, et al, A prospective randomized trial comparing cyclosporine and short course methotrexate with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil for GVHD prophylaxis in myeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004;34:621-625.

    8. Beetham WP. Filamentary Keratitis. Trans. Am. Ophthalmol Soc. 1935;33:413-435.

    9. Balaram M, Rashid S, Dana R. Chronic ocular surface disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Ocul Surf. 2005;3:203-211.

    10. Balaram M, Schaumberg DA, Dana MR. Efficacy and tolerability outcomes after punctal occlusion with silicone plugs in dry eye syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:30-36.

    11. Kojima T, Ishida R, Dogru M, et al. (2005) The effect of autologous serum eye drops in the treatment of severe dry eye disease. A prospective randomized case-control study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:242-246.

    12. Nussenblat RB, Palestine AG. Cyclosporin: Immunology, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses. Surv Ophthalmol. 1986;31:159-169.

    13. Kino T, Hatanaka H, Miyata S, et al. FK-506, a novel immunosuppressant isolated from Streptomyces. II. Immunosuppressive effect of FK-506 in vitro. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1987;40:1256-1265.

    14. Ogawa Y, Dogru M, Uchino M, et al. Topical tranilast for treatment of the early stage of mild dry eye associated with chronic GVHD. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2010;45:565-569.

    15. Mohty M, Kuentz M, Michallet M, et al. Chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation: Long-term results of a randomized study. Blood. 2002;100:3128-3134.

    16. McGhee CN, Dean S, Danesh-Meyer H. Locally administered ocular corticosteroids: benefits and risks. Drug Saf. 2002;25:33-55.

    17. Russo PA, Bouchard CS, Galasso JM. Extended-wear silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses in the management of moderate to severe dry eye signs and symptoms secondary to graft-versus-host-disease. Eye Contact Lens. 2007; 33:144-147.

    18. Kikuchi T, Parker PM, Wu M, et al. Use of fluid-ventilated, gas-permeable scleral lens for management of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca secondary to chronic graft-versus-host- disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007;13:1016-1021.

    19. Schornack MM, Baratz KH, Patel SV, Maguire LJ. Jupiter scleral lenses in the management of chronic graft versus host disease. Eye Contact Lens. 2008;34:302-305.

    20. Yip LW, Thong BY, Lim J, et al. Ocular manifestations and complications of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: an Asian series. Allergy. 2007;62:527-531.

    21. Gueudry J, Roujeau JC, Binaghi M, Soubrane G, Muraine M. Risk factors for the development of ocular complications of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Arch Dermatol.2009;145:157-162.

    22. Shammas MC, Lai EC, Sarkar JS, Yang J, Starr CE, Sippel KC. Management of acute Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis utilizing amniotic membrane and corticosteroids. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149:203-213.

    23. Gregory DG. Treatment of acute Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis using amniotic membrane: a review of 10 consecutive cases. Ophthalmlology. 2001;118:908-914.

    24. Ciralsky JB, S. K. (2013). Current Ophthalmologic treatment strategies for acute and chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol , 321-328.

    25. Ciralsky JB, Sippel KC. Prompt versus delayed amniotic membrane application in a patient with acute Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Clinical Ophthamol. 2013;7:1031-1034.

    26. Tomlins PJ, Parulekar MV, Rauz S. “Triple-TEN” in the treatment of acute ocular complications from toxic epidermal necrolysis. Cornea. 2013 Mar;32:365-369.

    27. Heur M, Bach D, Theophanous C, Chiu GB. Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem Scleral lens therapy for patients with ocular symptoms of chronic Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar 31, Epub ahead of print.

    28. Ling JD, Gire A, Pflugfelder SC. PROSE therapy used to minimize corneal trauma in patients with corneal epithelial defects. AM J Ophthalmol. 2013;155:615-619.

    29. Kheirkhah A, Ghaffari R, Kaghazkanani R, Hashemi H, Behrouz MJ, Raju VK. A combined approach of amniotic membrane and oral mucosa transplantation for fornix reconstruction in severe symblepharon. Cornea. 2013;32:155-160.

    30. Grey F, Carley F, Biswas S, Tromans C. Scleral contact lens management of bilateral and neurotrophic keratopathy. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2012;35:288-291.

    31. Williams ZR, Aquavella JV. Management of exposure keratopathy associated with severe craniofacial trauma. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1647-1650.

    32. Zwick OM, Seiff SR. Supportive care of facial nerve palsy with temporary external eyelid weights. Optometry. 2006;77:340-342

    33. Baheerathan N, Ethunandan M, Ilankovan V. Gold weight implants in the management of paralytic lagophthalmos. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38:632-636

    34. Gris O, Wolley-Dod C, Güell JL, et al. (2002) Histologic findings after amniotic membrane graft in the human cornea. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:508-512.

    35. de Rötth A. Plastic repair of conjunctival defects with fetal membranes. Arch.\ Ophthalmol. 1940;23:552-525.

    36. Kim JC, Tseng SCG. Transplantation of preserved human amniotic membrane for surface reconstruction in severely damaged rabbit corneas. Cornea. 1995;14:473-484.

    37. Hanada K, Shimazaki J, Shigeto S, Tsubota K. Multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation for severe ulceration of the cornea and sclera. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:324-331.

    38. Gire A, Kwok A, Marx DP. PROSE treatment for lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;29:e38-e40.

    39. Schornack MM, Pyle J, Patel SJ. Scleral lenses in the management of ocular surface disease. Ophthalmology. 2014 March 14; Epub ahead of print.

    40. Müller LJ, Marfurt CF, Kruse F, Tervo TM. Corneal nerves: structure, contents and function. Exp Eye Res. 2003;76:521-542.

    41. Golebiowski B, Lim M, Papas E, Stapleton F. Understanding the stimulus of an air-jet aesthesiometer: computerised modelling and subjective interpretation. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013;33: 104-113.

    42. Nishida T, Yanai R. Advances in treatment for neurotrophic keratopathy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2009;20: 276-281.

    43. Matsumoto Y, Dogru M, Goto E, et al. Autologous serum application in the treatment of Neurotrophic Keratopathy. Ophthalmology. 2004;111: 1115-1120.

    44. Rao K, Leveque C, Pflugfelder SC. Corneal nerve regeneration in neurotrophic keratopathy following autologous plasma therapy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:584-591.

    45. Yoon KC, Im SK, Park YG, Jung YD, Yang SY, Choi J. Application of umbilical cord serum eye drops for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. Cornea. 2006;25:268-272

    46. Weyns M, Koppen C, Tassignon MJ. Scleral contact lenses as an alternative to tarsorrhapy for the long-term management of combined exposure and neurotrophic keratopathy. Cornea. 2013;32:35

(p. 36) Building a Dry Eye Practice in 2014
By Clarke Newman, OD, FAAO, & John Rumpakis, OD, MBA

    1. Rumpakis J. Economics of Apathy. Review of Optometry 2013 Oct.

    2. Chotikavanich S, de Paiva CS, Li de Q, et al. Production and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 on the ocular surface increase in dysfunctional tear syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Jul;50(7):3203-9.

    3. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. ICLC. 1999;26(6);157-162.

(p. 41) Identifying Sjögren’s Syndrome
By Melissa Barnett, OD, FAAO

    1. Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Jonsson R, et al. Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European consensus group. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:554–558.

    2. Zoukhri D. Effect of inflammation on lacrimal gland function. Exp Eye Res. 2006;82:885-898.

    3. Pflugfelder, SC. What causes dryness in Sjögren’s syndrome patients and how can it be targeted? Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2014;10:425–427.

    4. Stern ME, Beuerman RW, Fox RI, Gao J, Mircheff AK, Pflugfelder SC. The pathology of dry eye: the interaction between the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. Cornea. 1998;17:584-589.

    5. Stern ME, Schaumburg CS, Pflugfelder SC. Dry eye as a mucosal autoimmune disease. Int Rev Immunol. 2013;32:19-41.

    6. Humphreys-Beher MG, Brinkley L, Purushotham KR, et al. Characterization of antinuclear autoantibodies present in the serum from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1993;68:350-356.

    7. Kovacs L, Marczinovits I, Gyorgy A, et al. Clinical associations of autoantibodies to human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3(213-228) in primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44:1021-1025.

    8. Zoukhri D, Macari E, Kublin CL. A single injection of interleukin-1 induces reversible aqueous-tear deficiency, lacrimal gland inflammation, and acinar and ductal cell proliferation. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84:894-904.

    9. Rahimy E, Pitcher JD 3rd, Pangelinan SB, et al. Spontaneous autoimmune dacryoadenitis in aged CD25KO. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:744-753.

    10. Nguyen CQ, Peck AB. Unraveling the pathophysiology of Sjögren syndrome-associated dry eye disease. Ocul Surf. 2009;7:11-27.

    11. Alex A, Edwards A, Hays JD, et al. Factors predicting the ocular surface response to desiccating environmental stress. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:3325-3332.

    12. Sobrin L, Selzer MG, Lokeshwar BL, et al. Regulation of MMP-9 activity in human tear fluid and corneal epithelial culture supernatant. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:1703-1709.

    13. Chotikavanich S, de Paiva CS, Li DQ, et al. Production and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 on the ocular surface increase in dysfunctional tear syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3203-3209.

    14. Sjogren H. On knowledge of kerataconjunctivitis sicca. Keratitis filiformis due to lacrimal gland hypofunction. Acts Opthslmol. 1933;Suppl2:1-151.

    15. Uchino M, Schaumberg DA. Dry Eye Disease: Impact on Quality of Life and Vision. Curr Ophthalmol Rep. 2013;1:51-57.

    16. Chen KS, Jiang MC, Li CJ, Liu OK, Tsai CS. Discrimination between Sjögren’s and non-Sjögren’s sicca syndrome by sialoscintiography and antibodies against alpha-fodrin and Ro/La autoantigens. J Intern Med Res. 2009;37:1008-1096.

    17. Reichlin M. Clinical significance of anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies. UpToDate. October 2008.

    18. Shen L, Surest L, Lindemann M, et al. Novel autoantibodies in Sjögren’s syndrome. Clin Immunol. 2012;145:251-255.

    19. Risselada AP, Kruize AA, Goldschmeding R, Lafeber FP, Bijlsma JW, van Roon JA. The prognostic value of routinely performed minor salivary gland assessments in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014. [Epub ahead of print]

    20. Theander E, Vasaitis L, Baecklund E, et al. Lymphoid organisation in labial salivary gland biopsies is a possible predictor for the development of malignant lymphoma in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:1363-1368

    21. Giannouli S, Voulgarelis M. Predicting progression to lymphoma in Sjögren's syndrome patients. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2014:10 501-512.

    22. Lucchesi, D, Pitzalis, C, Bombardieri, M. EBV and other viruses as triggers of tertiary lymphoid structures in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2014;10:445-455.

    23. Brkic, Z, Versnel, MA. Type 1 IFN signature in primary Sjögren’s syndrome patients. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2014;10:457-467.

    24. Chotikavanich S, de Paiva, CS, Li de Q, et al. Production and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 on the ocular surface increase in dysfunctional tear syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3203-3209.

    25. Qiao, J, Yan X. Emerging treatment options for meibomian gland dysfunction. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013;7:1797-1803.

    26. Risselada AP, Looije MF, Kruize AA, Bijlsma JW, van Roon JA. The role of ectopic germinal centers in the immunopathology of primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2013;42:368-376

(p. 51) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – Managing Logistics with Autologous Serum Eye Drops
By Gregory J. Nixon, OD, FAAO

    1. Jirsova K, Brejchova K, Krabcova I, Filipec M, Al Fakih A, Palos M, Vesela V. The Application of Autologous Serum Eye Drops in Severe Dry Eye Patients; Subjective and Objective Parameters Before and After Treatment. Curr Eye Res. 2014 Jan;39(1):21-30. doi: 10.3109/02713683.2013.824987. Epub 2013 Sep 27.

    2. Celebi AR, Ulusoy C, Mirza GE. The efficacy of autologous serum eye drops for severe dry eye syndrome: a randomized double-blind crossover study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;252(4):619-26.

    3. Geerling G, Maclennan S, Hartwig D. Autologous serum eye drops for ocular surface disorders. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Nov;88(11):1467-74.

(p. 54) The Business of Contact Lenses – Get Your Practice into the Dry Eye Zone
By Gary Gerber, OD

    Ablamowicz A, Nichols J. 2014 Report on Dry Eye Diseases. Contact Lens Spectrum 2014 July;29(7):22-29.

(p. 55) The Scleral Lens Vault – Graft-Versus-Host Disease
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. Ogawa Y, Kim SK, Dana R, et al. International Chronic Ocular Graft-vs-Host-Disease (GVHD) Consensus Group: proposed diagnostic criteria for chronic GVHD (Part I). Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 5;3:3419.

    2. Nassiri N, Eslani M, Panahi N, et al. Ocular Graft Versus Host Disease Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2013 Oct;8:351-358.

    3. Westeneng AC, Hettinga Y, Lokhorst H, et al. Ocular graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Cornea. 2010 Jul;29:758-763.

    4. Hessen M, Akpek EK. Ocular graft-versus-host-disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12:540-547.

    5. Jacobs DS, Rosenthal P. Boston scleral lens prosthetic device for treatment of severe dry eye in chronic graft-versus-host disease. Cornea. 2007 Dec;26:1195-1199.

    6. Schornack MM, Baratz KH, Patel SV, Maguire LJ. Jupiter scleral lenses in the management of chronic graft versus host disease. Eye Contact Lens. 2008 Nov;34:302-305.

    7. Sonsino J, Mathe DS. Central vault in dry eye patients successfully wearing scleral lens. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Sep;90:e248-51.

(p. 56) Treatment Plan – Dry Eye Associated with Pingueculae and Pterygia
By William L. Miller, OD, MS, PhD, FAAO

    1. Karai I, Horiguchi S. Pterygium in welders. Br J Ophthalmol. 1984;68:347-349.

    2. Norm M, Franck C. Long-term changes in the outer part of the eye in welders. Prevalence of spheroid degeneration, pinguecula, pterygium, and corneal cicatrices. Acta Ophthalmol. 1991;69:382-386.

    3. Dake Y, Mukae R, Soda Y, Kaneko M, Amemiya T. Immunohistochemical localization of collagen types I, II, III, and IV in pterygium tissues. Acta Histochem. 1989;87:71-74.

    4. Tong L, Lan W, Sim HS, Hou A. Conjunctivochalasis is the precursor to pterygium. Med Hypotheses. 2013 Nov;81:927-930.

    5. Hashemi H, Khabazkhoob M, Kheirkhah A, et al. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome in an adult population. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;42:242-248.

    6. Hilgers JH. Pterygium: Its incidence, heredity and etiology. Am J Ophthalmol. 1960;50:635-644.

    7. Julio G, Lluch S, Pujol P, Alonso S, Merindano D. Tear osmolarity and ocular changes in pterygium. Cornea. 2012 Dec;31:1417-1421.