Contact Lens Spectrum


August 2014

Document #225

(p. 12) Refractive Focus – Vector Representation of an Optical Correction
By Jason Marsack, PhD

    1. Thibos LN, Wheeler W, Horner D. Power vectors: an application of Fourier analysis to the description and statistical analysis of refractive error. Optom Vis Sci. 1997 Jun;74:367-375.

    2. Raasch TW, Schechtman KB, Davis LJ, Zadnik K; CLEK Study Group. Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus Study. Repeatability of subjective refraction in myopic and keratoconic subjects: results of vector analysis. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2001 Sep;21:376-383.

    3. Scopus search for title “Power vectors: an application of Fourier analysis to the description and statistical analysis of refractive error” performed on 6/8/14.

(p. 15) Prescribing for Astigmatism – Measuring Toric Lens Rotation
By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Snyder C, Daum KM. Rotational position of toric soft contact lenses on the eye-clinical judgements. ICLC. 1989;16:146-151.

    2. Snyder C. A review and discussion of crossed cylinder effects and over-refractions with toric soft contact lenses. ICLC. 1989;16:113-116.

    3. Bayer S, Young G. Fitting low astigmats with toric soft contact lenses-what are the benefits and how easily it is achieved? Am Academy of Optom Meeting. Poster. December 2005.

    4. Chin J, Moody K. Evaluation of fit and visual acuity of the Acuvue Oasys for Astigmatism on Asian eyes in a non-dispensing comparison to Soflens Toric and Acuvue 2. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting. Poster #57. October 22, 2008.

    5. Richdale K, Bernsten DA, Mack CJ, Merchea MM, Barr JT. Visual acuity with spherical and toric soft contact lenses in low-to-moderate astigmatic eyes. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84: 969-975.

(p. 16) GP Insights – Tear Film Power and OR Effects with Scleral Lenses
By Nancy Chan, OD, & John Mark Jackson, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Schornack MM, Nau CB, Brown WL, Estimation of Refractive Power of Scleral Lens/Fluid Reservoir Optical Systems in Non-Parallel Scleral Lens Fits. Poster presented at Global Specialty Lens Symposium. Las Vegas, 2014.

(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Adopt Changes Today to Help Patients Tomorrow, Part 1
By Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD

    1. Korb DR, Blackie CA. Debridement-scaling: a new procedure that increases meibomian gland function and reduces dry eye symptoms. Cornea. 2013 Dec;32:1554-1557.

    2. Mastrota KM. Method to identify Demodex in the eyelash follicle without epilation. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Jun;90:e172-e174.

(p. 19) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Should Tap Water Be Used to Rinse GP Contact Lenses?
By Michael A. Ward, MMSC, FAAO

    1. Ward MA. In Defense of Water: Another Look at Lenses and Water. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2009 May;24:27.


    3. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with contact lenses--United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1986;35:405-408.

    4. CDC. Acanthamoeba Keratitis --- Multiple States, 2005-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. May 26, 2007/56(Dispatch);1-3.

    5. Joslin CE, Tu EY, McMahon TT, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of a Chicago-area Acanthamoeba keratitis outbreak. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Aug;142:212–217.

    6. Stehr-Green JK, Bailey TM, Visvesvara GS. The epidemiology of Acanthamoeba keratitis in the United States. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989 Apr 15;107:331-336.

    7. Higginbotham E, MD. May 13, 2014 meeting of the Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee.

    8. Watt K, Swarbrick HA. Microbial keratitis in overnight orthokeratology: review of the first 50 cases. Eye Contact Lens. 2005 Sep;31:201–208.


    10. Ralph Stone, Contact Lenses Today, June1, 2014

    11. CDC-1:

(p. 20) Myopia Control Today
By Katherine M. Bickle, OD, MS, & Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO

    1. Vitale S, Sperduto RD, Ferris FL, 3rd. Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009; 127:1632-1639.

    2. Braun Cl, Freidlin V, Sperduto RD, Milton RC, Strahlman ER. The progression of myopia in school age children: data from the Columbia Medical Plan. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1996;3:13-21.

    3. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M, et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:1492-1500.

    4. Goss DA. Cessation age of childhood myopia progression. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1987;7:195-197.

    5. Wong TY, Klein BE, Klein R, Knudtson M, Lee KE. Refractive errors, intraocular pressure, and glaucoma in a white population. Ophthalmology. 2003;110: 211-217.

    6. The Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. Risk factors for idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;137:749-757.

    7. Younan C, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ. Myopia and incident cataract and cataract surgery: the blue mountains eye study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:3625-3632.

    8. Pierro L, Camesasca FI, Mischi M, Brancato R. Peripheral retinal changes and axial myopia. Retina. 1992;12:12-17.

    9. Yen MY, Liu JH, Kao SC, Shiao CH. Comparison of the effect of atropine and cyclopentolate on myopia. Ann Ophthalmol. 1989;21:180-182, 187.

    10. Shih YF, Chen CH, Chou AC, Ho TC, Lin LL, Hung PT. Effects of different concentrations of atropine on controlling myopia in myopic children. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1999;15: 85-90.

    11. Chua WH, Balakrishnan V, Chan YH, et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:2285-2291.

    12. Wu PC, Yang YH, Fang PC. The long-term results of using low-concentration atropine eye drops for controlling myopia progression in schoolchildren. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011;27:461-466.

    13. Chia A, Chua WH, Cheung YB, et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia: safety and efficacy of 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01% doses (Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2). Ophthalmology. 2012:119:347-354.

    14. Tan DT, Lam DS, Chua WH, Shu-Ping DF, Crockett RS. One-year multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel safety and efficacy study of 2% pirenzepine ophthalmic gel in children with myopia. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:84-91.

    15. Siatkowski RM, Cotter SA, Crockett RS, Miller JM, Novack GD, Zadnik K; U.S. Pirenzepine Study Group. Two-year multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel safety and efficacy study of 2% pirenzepine ophthalmic gel in children with myopia. J AAPOS. 2008;12:332-339.

    16. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E 3rd, et al. Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011:52:9362-9367.

    17. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1152-1161.

    18. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1207-1214.

    19. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res. 2005:30:71-80.

    20. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1181-1185.

    21. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) study: a 2-year randomized clinical trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7077-7085.

    22. Katz J, Schein OD, Levy B, et al. A randomized trial of rigid gas permeable contact lenses to reduce progression of children's myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003:136:82-90.

    23. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. A randomized trial of the effects of rigid contact lenses on myopia progression. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:1760-1766.

    24. Fulk GW, Cyert LA, Parker DE. A randomized trial of the effect of single-vision vs. bifocal lenses on myopia progression in children with esophoria. Optom Vis Sci. 2000;77:395-401.

    25. Edwards MH, Li RW, Lam CS, Lew JK, Yu BS. The Hong Kong progressive lens myopia control study: study design and main findings. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:2852-2858.

    26. Adler D, Millodot M. The possible effect of undercorrection on myopic progression in children. Clin Exp Optom. 2006; 89:315-321.

    27. Chung K, Mohidin N, O’Leary DJ. Undercorrection of myopia enhances rather than inhibits myopia progression. Vision Res. 2002:42:2555-2559.

    28. North RV, Kelly ME. A review of the uses and adverse effects of topical administration of atropine. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1987:7:109-114.

    29. Fang YT, Chou YJ, Pu C, et al. Prescription of atropine eye drops among children diagnosed with myopia in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007: a nationwide study. Eye (Lond). 2013;27:418-424.

    30. Ostrin LA, Frishman LJ, Glasser A. Effects of pirenzepine on pupil size and accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:3620-3628.

    31. Holden BA, Sankaridurg P, Lazon de la Jara P, Smith EL 3rd, Chen X, Kwan J, et al. Reduction in the rate of progress of myopia with a contact lens designed to reduced relative peripheral hyperopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51: E-Abstract 2220.

    32. Aller TA, Laure Z, Wildsoet C. Results of a one-year prospective clinical trial (CONTROL) of the use of biofocal soft contact lenses to control myopia progression. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2006; 26(Suppl 1):8-9.

    33. Kakita T, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2170-2174.

    34. Smith EL 3rd, Hung LF, Huang J. Relative peripheral hyperopic defocus alters central refractive development in infant monkeys. Vision Res. 2009;49:2386-2392.

    35. Liu Y, Wildsoet C. The effective add inherent in 2-zone negative lenses inhibits eye growth in myopic young chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5085-5093.

    36. Chen C, Cheung SW, Cho P. Myopia Control Using Toric Orthokeratology (TO-SEE study). Invest Ophthamol Vis Sci. 2013;54:6510-6517.

    37. Kollbaum PS, Jansen ME, Tan J, Meyer DM, Rickert ME. Vision performance with a contact lens designed to slow myopia progression. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:205-214.

    38. Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, Gutierrez-Ortega R. Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain: a comparison of vision-related quality-of-life measures between orthokeratology contact lenses and single-vision spectacles. Eye Contact Lens. 2013;39:153-157.

    39. Charm J Cho P. High myopia-partial reduction ortho-k: a 2-year randomized study. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:530-539.

    40. Dumbleton K, Woods C, Jones L, Fonn D, Sarwer DB. Patient and practitioner compliance with silicone hydrogel and dialy disposable lens replacement in the United States. Eye Contact Lens. 2009;35:164-171.

    41. Walline JJ, Gaume A, Jones LA, et al. Benefits of contact lens wear for children and teens. Eye Contact Lens. 2007;33:317-321.

    42. Hyman L, Gwizada J, Hussein M, et al. Relationship of age, sex, and ethnicity with myopia progression and axial elongation in the correction of myopia evaluation trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:977-987.

    43. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Rah MJ, et al. Contact Lenses in Pediatrics (CLIP) Study: chair time and ocular health. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:896-902.

    44. Rah MJ, Walline JJ, Jones-Jordan LA, et al; ACHIEVE Study Group. Vision specific quality of life of pediatric contact lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci. 2010;87:560-566.

    45. Walline JJ, Lorenz KO, Nichols JJ. Long-term Contact Lens wear of children and teens. Eye Contact Lens. 2013;39:283-289.

    46. Cheung SW, Lam C, Cho P. Parents’ knowledge and perspective of optical methods for myopia control in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2014;91:634-641.

(p. 28) Personalizing Vision with Custom Soft Lenses
By Robert L. Davis, OD, FAAO; S. Barry Eiden, OD, FAAO; & Jeffrey Sonsino, OD, FAAO

    1. “The Eyecare Professional’s Specialty Contact Lens Company" RJ Falkner & Company, Inc. Stock Release Notes Aug/Sept 2013.

    2. Benjamin WJ. Simultaneous vision contact lenses: why the dirty window argument doesn’t wash. Int Cont Lens Clinic. 1993;20:239–242.

    3. Charman WN, Saunders B. Theoretical and practical factors influencing the optical performance of contact lenses for the presbyope. J Brit Cont Lens Ass. 1990;13:67–75.

    4. Charman WN, Walsh G. Retinal images with centred aspheric varifocal contact lenses. Int Cont Lens Clinic. 1988;15:87–94.

    5. Bakaraju RC, Ehrmann K, Ho A, Papas E. Inherent ocular spherical aberration and multifocal contact lens optical performance. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Dec;87:1009-1022.

    6. Montés-Micó R, Madrid-Costa D, Radhakrishnan H, Charman WN, Ferrer-Blasco T. Accommodative functions with multifocal contact lenses: a pilot study. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Aug;88:998-1004.

    7. Rajagopalan AS, Bennett ES, Lakshminarayanan V. Visual performance of subjects wearing presbyopic contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Aug;83:611-615.

    8. Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low-astigmatic presbyopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 May;83:266-273.

    9. Woods RL, Colvin CR, Vera-Diaz FA, Peli E. A relationship between tolerance of blur and personality. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Nov;51:6077-6082.

    10. Bradley A, Abdul Rahman H, Soni PS, Zhang X. Effects of target distance and pupil size on letter contrast sensitivity with simultaneous vision bifocal contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 1993 Jun;70:476-481.

    11. Bakaraju RC, Ehrmann K, Falk D, Ho A, Papas E. Optical performance of multifocal soft contact lenses via a singlepass method. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Aug;89:1107-1118.

    12. Ruiz-Alcocer J, Madrid-Costa D, Radhakrishnan H, Ferrer-Blasco T, Montés-Micó R. Changes in accommodation and ocular aberration with simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens 2012; 38: 288–294.

    13. Plainis S, Petratou D, Giannakopoulou T, Atchison DA, Tsilimbaris MK. Binocular summation improves performance to defocus-induced blur. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr 25;52:2784-2789.

    14. Sulley A, Young G, Lorenz KO, Hunt C. Clinical evaluation of fitting toric soft contact lenses to current non-users. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013 Mar;33:94-103.

    15. Young G et al. Clinical evaluation of factors influencing toric soft contact lens fit. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Jan;79:11-19.

    16. McIlraith R, Young G, Hunt H. Toric lens orientation and visual acuity in non-standard conditions Contact Lens & Anterior Eye. 2010 Feb;33:23-26.

(p. 36) Corneal Lenses After Keratoplasty
By Korine van Dijk, BSc; Lamis Baydoun, MD; Ricarda M. Konder; & Gerrit R. I. Melles, MD, PhD

    1. Melles GR, Remeijer L, Geerards AJ, Beekhuis WH. The future of lamellar keratoplasty. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1999;10:253-259.

    2. Reinhart WJ, Musch DC, Jacobs DS, Lee WB, Kaufman SC, Shtein RM. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty as an alternative to penetrating keratoplasty. A report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:209-218.

    3. Melles GR. Posterior lamellar keratoplasty: DLEK to DSEK to DMEK. Cornea. 2006;25:879-881.

    4. Tan DT, Dart JK, Holland EJ, Kinoshita S. Corneal transplantation. Lancet. 2012;379:1749-1761.

    5. Dapena I, Ham L, Melles GR. Endothelial keratoplasty: DSEK/DSAEK or DMEK--the thinner the better? Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2009;20:299-307.

    6. Bahar I, Kaiserman I, McAllum P, Slomovic A, Rootman D. Comparison of posterior lamellar keratoplasty techniques to penetrating keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1525-1533.

    7. Williams KA, Muehlberg SM, Lewis RF, Coster DJ. How successful is corneal transplantation? A report from the Australian Corneal Graft Register. Eye (Lond). 1995;9:219-227.

    8. Jonas JB, Rank RM, Budde WM. Visual outcome after allogenic penetrating keratoplasty. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;240:302-307.

    9. Claesson M1, Armitage WJ, Fagerholm P, Stenevi U. Visual outcome in corneal grafts: a preliminary analysis of the Swedish Corneal Transplant Register. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:174-180.

    10. Szczotka LB, Lindsay RG. Contact lens fitting following corneal graft surgery. Clin Exp Optom. 2003;86:244-249.

    11. Wietharn BE, Driebe WT Jr. Fitting contact lenses for visual rehabilitation after penetrating keratoplasty. Eye Contact Lens. 2004;30:31-33.

    12. Price MO, Price FW Jr. Endothelial keratoplasty - a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2010;38:128-140.

    13. van Dijk K, Ham L, Tse WHW, et al. Near complete visual recovery and refractive stability in modern corneal transplantation: Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2013;36:13–21.

    14. Price MO, Fairchild KM, Price DA, Price FW Jr. Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty five-year graft survival and endothelial cell loss. Ophthalmology 2011;118:725-729.

    15. Guerra FP, Arundhati A, Price MO, Price FW. Endothelial keratoplasty: Fellow eyes comparison of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2011;30:1382–1386.

    16. Dapena I, Yeh RY, Baydoun L, et al. Potential causes of incomplete visual rehabilitation at 6 months postoperative after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;156:780-788.

    17. van Dijk K, Parker J, Liarakos V, Ham L, Frank L, Melles GR. Incidence of irregular astigmatism eligible for contact lens fitting after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). J Cataract Refract Surg. 2013;39:1036–1046.

    18. Felipe AF, Hammersmith KM, Nottage JM, et al. Indications, visual outcome, and ectasia in clear corneal transplants 20 years old or more. Cornea. 2013;32:602-607.

    19. Niziol LM, Musch DC, Gillespie BW, Marcotte LM, Sugar A. Long-term outcomes in patients who received a corneal graft for keratoconus between 1980 and 1986. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;155:213-219.

    20. Ing JJ, Ing HH, Nelson LR, Hodge DO, Bourne WM. Ten-year postoperative results of penetrating keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:1855-1865.

    21. Bourne WM, Nelson LR, Hodge DO. Continued endothelial cell loss ten years after lens implantation. Ophthalmology. 1994;101:1014–1022.

    22. Bourne WM, Hodge DO, Nelson LR. Corneal endothelium five years after transplantation. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;118:185–196.

    23. Cornea Donor Study Investigator Group, Lass JH, Gal RL, Dontchev M, et al. Donor age and corneal endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation. Specular microscopy ancillary study results. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:627-632.

    24. Edelhauser HF. The balance between corneal transparency and edema: the Proctor Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:1754-1767.

    25. Borderie VM1, Sandali O, Bullet J, Gaujoux T, Touzeau O, Laroche L. Long-term results of deep anterior lamellar versus penetrating keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:249-255.

    26. Price MO, Gorovoy M, Price FW Jr, Benetz BA, Menegay HJ, Lass JH. Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty: Three-year graft and endothelial cell survival compared with penetrating keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:246-251.

    27. Baydoun L, Tong CM, Tse WW, et al. Endothelial cell density after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty: 1 to 5-year follow-up. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154:762-763.

    28. Panda A, Vanathi M, Kumar A, Dash Y, Priya S. Corneal graft rejection. Surv Ophthalmol. 2007;52:375-396.

    29. Borderie VM1, Guilbert E, Touzeau O, Laroche L. Graft rejection and graft failure after anterior lamellar versus penetrating keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151:1024-1029.

    30. Dapena I, Ham L, Netukova M, van der Wees J, Melles GR. Incidence of early allograft rejection after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2011;30(12):1341–1345.

    31. Anshu A, Price MO, Price FW Jr. Risk of corneal transplant rejection significantly reduced with Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(3):536-540.

    32. Visser ES, Van der Linden BJ, Otten HM, Van der Lelij A, Visser R. Medical applications and outcomes of bitangential scleral lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1078-1085.

    33. Elder MJ, Stack RR. Globe rupture following penetrating keratoplasty: how often, why, and what can we do to prevent it? Cornea. 2004;23:776-780.

    34. Setälä K, Vasara K, Vesti E, Ruusuvaara P. Effects of long-term contact lens wear on the corneal endothelium. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1998:76:299–303.

(p. 44) Is This the New Norm? – Is Meibomian Gland Expression the New Norm?
By Mile Brujic, OD, & David L. Kading, OD, FAAO

    1. Yu J, Asche CV, Fairchild CJ. The economic burden of dry eye disease in the United States: A decision tree analysis. Cornea. 2011;30:379-387.

    2. Blackie CA, Korb DR, Knop E, Bedi R, Knop N, Holland EJ. Nonobvious obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction. Cornea. 2010;29:1333-1345.

    3. Greiner JV. A Single LipiFlow® Thermal Pulsation System treatment improves meibomiam gland function and reduces dry eye symptoms for 9 months. Curr Eye Res. 2012;37:272-278.

(p. 48) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Want to Grow Your Teen Patient Population? Throw a Party
By Christine W. Sindt, OD, FAAO

    1. Sindt CW. Makeup and Teens. Contact Lens Spectrum 2013 Dec;28(12):48.

    2. Ward MA. Contact Lenses and Makeup Contamination. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Feb;28(2):23.

(p. 50) Treatment Plan – Navigation 2020: The Future of Visual Correction
By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

    1. Shahani A. Google is becoming a car manufacturer. Accessed May 28, 2014.

    2. Nissan self-driving car. Accessed May 28, 2014.

    3. Toyota self-driving car. Accessed May 28, 2014.

    4. Volvo autonomous driving: Accessed May 28, 2014.

    5. Google self-driving car. Accessed May 28, 2014.

    6. Elliott DB. The Glenn A. Fry award lecture 2013: blurred vision, spectacle correction, and falls in older adults. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Jun;91:593-601.

    7. Vetter P, Smith FW, Muckli L. Decoding sound and imagery content in early visual cortex. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1256-1262.

    8. Borghino, D. Hi-tech glasses aim to assist the blind with directions and obstacle detection. Accessed May 28, 2014.