Contact Lens Spectrum


October 2015

Document #239

(p. 14) Research Review – Current GP Lens Research
By S. Barry Eiden, OD, FAAO

    1. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:22-27.

    2. Morgan PB, Woods CA, Tranoudis IG, Helland M, Efron N, Jones L, Dávila-Garcia E, Magnelli P, Teufl IM, Grupcheva CN, Jones D, Beeler-Kaupke M, Tan K, Pesinova A, Pult H, Ravn O, Santodomingo J, Malet F, Plakitsi A, Végh M, Erdinest N, Chande PK, Itoi M, Bendoriene J, van der Worp E, Pintor R, Moroy JL, Chia J, Awasthi S, Lam W, Romualdez-Oo J, Abesamis-Dichoso C, González-Méijome JM, Belousov V; Gierow P, Silih MS, Hsiao J, Nichols JJ. International contact lens prescribing in 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:28-33

    3. Wolffsohn JS, Tharoo A, Lakhlani N. Optimal time following fluorescein instillation to evaluate rigid gas permeable contact lens fit. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015 Apr;38:110-114.

    4. Carracedo G, Martin-Gil A, Peixoto-de-Matos SC, Abejón-Gil P, Macedo-de-Araújo R, González-Méijome JM. Symptoms and Signs in Rigid Gas Permeable Lens Wearers During Adaptation Period. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 May 2. [Epub ahead of print].

    5. Opačić D, Miljak S, Ćuruvija-Opačić K. The level of improvement of visual acuity in high corneal astigmatism with rigid gas permeable contact lenses. Coll Antropol. 2015 Mar;39:229-232.

    6. Wu Y, Tan Q, Zhang W, Wang J, Yang B, Ma W, Wang X, Liu L. Rigid gas-permeable contact lens related life quality in keratoconic patients with different grades of severity. Clin Exp Optom. 2015 Mar;98:150-154.

    7. Pauné J, Queiros A, Lopes-Ferreira D, Faria-Ribeiro M, Quevedo L, González-Méijome JM. Efficacy of a gas permeable contact lens to induce peripheral myopic defocus. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 May;92:596-603.

(p. 19) Contact Lens Design & Materials – What Are the Latest GP Trends
By Ronald K. Watanabe, OD, FAAO

    1. Efron N. Obituary–rigid contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010 Oct;33:245-52.

    2. Bennett ES. Gas permeable lenses are alive and well in 2010. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Apr;34:95-96.

(p. 21) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Implications of the Lacrimal Functional Unit
By William Townsend, OD, FAAO

    1. Bron AJ, Tomlinson A, Foulks GN, Pepose JS, Baudouin C, Geerling G, Nichols KK, Lemp MA. Rethinking dry eye disease: a perspective on clinical implications. Ocul Surf. 2014 Apr;12(2 Suppl):S1-S31.

    2. Stern ME, Beuerman RW, Fox RI, Gao J, Mircheff AK, Pflugfelder SC. The pathology of dry eye: the interaction between the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. Cornea. 1998 Nov;17(6):584-589.

    3. Stern ME, Gao J, Siemasko KF, Beuerman RW, Pflugfelder SC. The role of the lacrimal functional unit in the pathophysiology of dry eye. Exp Eye Res. 2004 Mar;78:409-416.

    4. Dartt DA. Neural regulation of lacrimal gland secretory processes: relevance in dry eye diseases. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2009 May;28:155-177.

    5. Manaviat MR, Rashidi M, Afkhami-Ardekani M, Shoja MR. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. BMC Ophthalmol. 2008 Jun;810.

    6. Fuest N, Langelier N, Massaro-Giordano M, Pistilli M, Stasi K, Burns C, Cardillo S, Bunya VY. Tear osmolarity and dry eye symptoms in diabetics. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar;8:507-515.

    7. Achtsidis V, Eleftheriadou I, Kozanidou E, Voumvourakis KI, Stamboulis E, Theodosiadis PG, Tentolouris N. Dry eye syndrome in subjects with diabetes and association with neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2014 Oct;37:e210-e211.

    8. Glaser, JS “Neuroophthalmic exam: considerations & techniques” in Neuro-ophthalmology, Third Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999. p. 67.

(p. 23) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Contact Lens Risk Survey Results
By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO

    1. Cope JR, Collier SA, Rao MM, Chalmers R, Mitchell GL, Richdale K, Wagner H, Kinoshita BT, Lam DY, Sorbara L, Zimmerman A, Yoder JS, Beach MJ. Contact Lens Wearer Demographics and Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections –United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 August 21;64:865-870.

    2. Porter Novelli. ConsumerStyles 2014 – Methodology. Washington, DC: Deanne Weber; 2014.

    3. Wagner H, Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Lam DY, Jansen ME, Kinoshita BT, Sorbara L, Chalmers RL; CLAY Study Group. Age, behavior, environment, and health factors in the soft contact lens risk survey. Optom Vis Sci. 2014;91:252-261.

    4. United States Census Bureau. US Census June, 2014. Accessed at

    5. Franks WA, Adams GG, Dart JK, Minassian D. Relative risks of different types of contact lenses. BMJ. 1988 August 20-27;297:524-525.

    6. Stehr-Green JK, Bailey TM, Visvesvara GS. The epidemiology of Acanthamoeba keratitis in the United States. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989 Apr;107:331-336.

    7. Dart JK, Stapleton F, Minassian D. Contact lenses and other risk factors in microbial keratitis. Lancet. 1991 Sep;338:650-653.

    8. Ward, MA. My List of Contact Lens Care Recommendations. CL Spectrum. 2015 June;30:21.

(p. 24) GP Annual Report 2015
By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO

    1. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2013. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Jan;29:22-28.

    2. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:22-27, 55.

    3. Efron N, Nichols JJ, Woods CA, Morgan PB. Trends in US Contact Lens Prescribing 2002 to 2014. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Jul;92:758-767.

    4. Contact Lenses Today Quick Poll, June 28, 2015.

    5. Bennett ES. GP Annual Report 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Oct;29:20,21,23-25,27-30.

    6. Barnett M, Lien V, Li JY, Durbin-Johnson B, Mannis MJ. Use of scleral lenses and miniscleral lenses after penetrating keratoplasty. Eye Contact Lens. 2015, July 24. [E-pub ahead of print]

    7. Picot C, Gauthier AS, Campolmi N, Delbosc B. Quality of life in patients wearing scleral lenses. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2015 Sep;38;615-619.

    8. Bennett ES. Are scleral lenses impacting corneal transplants? Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Sep;30:13.

    9. Bennett ES. A report from the 2013 GSLS meeting. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Apr;28:22-29, 52.

    10. Nichols JJ, Bennett ES, Starcher L. Education Highlights from the 2015 GSLS. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Apr;30:22-30, 55.

    11. Jaynes JM, Edrington TB, Weissman BA. Predicting scleral GP lens entrapped tear layer oxygen tensions. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015 Feb;38:44-7.

    12. Sun Y, Xu F, Zhang T, Liu M, Wang D, Chen Y, Liu Q. Orthokeratology to control myopia progression: A meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 9;10: e0124535.

    13. González-Méijome JM, Peixoto-de-Matos SC, Faria-Ribeiro M, Lopes-Ferreira DP, Jorje J, Legerton J, Queiros A. Strategies to regulate myopia progression with contact lenses: A review. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 Feb 13 [Epub ahead of print].

    14. Efron N, Nichols JJ, Woods CA, Morgan PB. Trends in US Contact Lens Prescribing 2002 to 2014. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Jul;92:758-767.

    15. Ward MA. New option for peroxide disinfection. Contact Lens Spectrum. 29/Special Edition, Oct. 2014.

    16. Gromacki SJ. New hydrogen peroxide lens care system enters U.S. market. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 May;29:23.

    17. Bausch + Lomb Launches PeroxiClear™, the Most-Advanced Peroxide-Based Cleaning and Disinfecting Lens Solution in Almost a Decade. Available at:

    18. Millard KA, Xia E, Groemminger S, Kilbury J. Peroxide lens care solution. U.S. Patent Application 13/835237, filed March 15, 2013, Pub. No.: US 2013/0209313.

(p. 34) Scleral Lenses for Severely Diseased Eyes
By Karen Carrasquillo, OD, PhD, FAAO, & Greg DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. Pflugfelder SC, Geerling G, Kinoshita S, Lemp MA, McCulley J, Nelson D, Novack GN, Shimazaki J, Wilson CW. Management and Therapy of Dry Eye Disease: Report of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Workshop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5:163-178.

    2. Theophanous C, Irvine JA, Parker P, Chiu GB. Use of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) Scleral Lenses in Ocular Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Patients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015 Jul 31:S1083-S8791.

    3. Cressey A, Jacobs DS, Carrasquillo KG. Management of vascularized limbal keratitis with prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface system. Eye Contact Lens. 2012 Mar;38:137-140.

    4. Papakostas TD, Le HG, Chodosh J, Jacobs DS. Prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem as treatment for ocular surface disease in patients with a history of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Ophthalmology. 2015 Feb;122:248-253.

    5. Chiu GB, Bach D, Theophanous C, Heur M. Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) scleral lens for Salzmann's nodular degeneration. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jul;28:203-206.

    6. Heur M, Bach D, Theophanous C, Chiu GB. Prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem scleral lens therapy for patients with ocular symptoms of chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jul;158:49-54.

    7. DeLoss KS, Fatteh NH, Hood CT. Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) scleral device compared to keratoplasty for the treatment of corneal ectasia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Nov.;158:974-982

    8. Mahadevan R, Fathima A, Rajan R, Arumugam AO. An ocular surface prosthesis for keratoglobus and Terrien's marginal degeneration. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Apr;91(4 Suppl 1):S34-S39.

    9. Lee JC, Chiu GB, Bach D, Bababeygy SR, Irvine J, Heur M. Functional and visual improvement with prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem scleral lenses for irregular corneas. Cornea. 2013 Dec;32:1540-1543.

    10. Lim P, Ridges R, Jacobs DS, Rosenthal P. Treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defect with overnight wear of a prosthetic device for the ocular surface. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Dec156:1095-1101.

    11. Dimit R, Gire A, Pflugfelder SC, Bergmanson JP. Patient ocular conditions and clinical outcomes using a PROSE scleral device. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Aug;36:159-163.

    12. Ling JD, Gire A, Pflugfelder SC. PROSE therapy used to minimize corneal trauma in patients with corneal epithelial defects. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr;155:615-619.

    13. Gire A, Kwok A, Marx DP. PROSE treatment for lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013 Mar-Apr;29:e38-e40.

    14. Rosenthal P, Cotter JM, Baum J. Treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defect with extended wear of a fluid-ventilated gas-permeable scleral contact lens. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Jul;130:33-41.

    15. Ciralsky JB, Chapman KO, Rosenblatt MI, Sood P, Fernandez AG, Lee MN, Sippel KC. Treatment of Refractory Persistent Epithelial Defects: A Standardized Approach Using Continuous Wear PROSE Therapy. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2015 Jun;23:219-224.

    16. Gris O, Plazas A, Lerma E, Güell JL, Pelegrín L, Elíes D. Conjunctival resection with and without amniotic membrane graft for the treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis. Cornea. 2010 Sep;29:1025-1030.

    17. Sonsino J. Mathe DS. Central vault in dry eye patients successfully wearing scleral lens. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Sep;90:e248-e251.

    18. Caroline P, André M. The Effect of Corneal Diameter on Soft Lens Fitting, Part 1. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2002 April;17:56.

    19. Morrison S, Walker M, Caroline P, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, André M, Kojima R. Tear Exchange Beneath Scleral Lenses. Poster presented at the 2014 Global Specialty Lens Symposium, 2014 Jan, Las Vegas. Available at Accessed August 16, 2015.

(p. 46) What Causes Settling in Scleral Contact Lenses?
By Chuck Aldridge, OD, MBA, FAAO

    1. Caroline P, McMahon J, Lotoczky J, Johns L, Michaud L, Rosen C. Scleral Lenses….New Opportunities, Parts 1 and 2. 2015 Global Specialty Lens Symposium. Las Vegas.

    2. Kauffman MJ, Gilmartin CA, Bennett ES, Bassi CJ. A Comparison of the Short-Term Settling of Three Scleral Lens Designs. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Dec;91:1462-1466.

    3. Caroline PJ, André MP. Scleral Lens Settling. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2012 May;27:56.

    4. DeNaeyer, GW. Improve Your Scleral Lens Fitting Success. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Nov;29:22-25

    5. Shaw AJ, Collins MJ, Davis BA, Carney LG. Eyelid Pressure and Contact with the Ocular Surface. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 April;51:1911-1917.

    6. Meyers MA, Chawla KK. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. 1999. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ. pp .98-103.

    7. Humphrey JD. Continuum biomechanics of soft biological tissues. The Royal Society, ed. Proceedings A of the Royal Society of London. 2003;4592:3-46.

    8. Fung Y-C. Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues. 1993. New York: Springer-Veriag. p. 568.

    9. Wilhelmi BJ, Blackwell SJ, Mancoll JS, Phillips LG. Creep vs. stretch: a review of viscoelastic properties of skin. Ann Plast Surg. 1998 Aug;41:215-219.

(p. 50) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – When Multifocals Don’t Succeed
By Gregory J. Nixon, OD, FAAO

    1. Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low-astigmatic presbyopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 May;83:266-273.

    2. Woods J, Woods CA, Fonn D. Early symptomatic presbyopes--what correction modality works best? Eye Contact Lens. 2009 Sep;35:221-226.

(p. 44) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Treatment Choices for Pediatric and Infantile Aphakia
By Melanie Frogozo, OD, FAAO

    1. Holmes JM, Leske DA, Burke JP, Hodge DO. Birth prevalence of visually significant infantile cataract in a defined U.S. population. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2003 Apr;10:67-74.

    2. Moore BD. Optometric Management of congenital cataracts. J Am Optom Assoc. 1994 Oct;65:719-724.

    3. Lloyd IC, Ashworth J, Biswas S, Abadi RV. Advances in the management of congenital and infantile cataract. Eye (Lond). 2007 Oct;21:1301-1309.

    4. Wilson ME. Intraocular lens implantation: has it become standard of care for children? Ophthalmology. 1996 Nov;103:1719-1720.

    5. Lundvall A, Zetterstrom C. Primary intraocular lens implantation in infants: complications and visual results. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006 Oct;32:1672-1677.

    6. Baradaran-Rafil A, Shirzadeh E, Eslani M, Akbari M. Optical correction of aphakia in children. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2014 Jan;9:71-82.

    7. The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group; Lambert SR, Lynn MJ, Hartmann EE, DuBois L, Drews-Botsch C, Freedman SF, Plager DA, Buckley EG, Wilson ME. Comparison of contact lens and intraocular lens correction of monocular aphakia during infancy: a randomized clinical trial of HOTV optotype acuity at age 4.5 years and clinical findings at age 5 years. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 June;132:676-682.

    8. Chen YC, Hu AC, Rosenbaum A, Spooner S, Weissman BA. Long-term results of early contact lens use in pediatric unilateral aphakia. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Jan;1:19-25.

    9. Lindsay R., Chi J. Contact lens management of infantile aphakia. Clin Exp Optom. 2010 Jan;93:3-14.

(p. 54) Treatment Plan – Conquering Dry Eyes, One at a Time
By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

    1. AOA Clinical Practice Guideline. Care of the Patient with Ocular Surface Disorders. Accessed July 22, 2015.

    2. Dry Eye Syndrome PPP – 2013. Accessed July 22, 2015.

    3. Methodologies to diagnose and monitor dry eye disease: report of the Diagnostic Methodology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop. Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5:108-152.

    4. Bron AJ, Tomlinson A, Foulks GN, Pepose JS, Baudouin C, Geerling G, Nichols KK, Lemp MA. Rethinking dry eye disease: a perspective on clinical implications. Ocul Surf. 2014 Apr;12:S1-S31.

    5. Liu, A, Ji, J. Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids Therapy for Dry Eye Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Studies. Med Sci Monit. 2014 Sep 6;20:1583-1589.

    6. Soni NG, Jeng BH. Blood-derived topical therapy for ocular surface diseases. Br J Ophthalmol. 2015 Jul 15. [Epub ahead of print]

    7. Nugent RB, Lee GA. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products. Surv Ophthalmol. 2015 Sep-Oct;60:406-434.

    8. Grateful Dead. Touch of Grey. Accessed July 22, 2015.