Contact Lens Spectrum


November 2015

Document #240

(p. 14) Refractive Focus – Maximizing Vision: Managing Underachieving Scleral Lenses
By Maria K. Walker, OD, MS, & David Berntsen, OD, PhD, FAAO

    1. Messer B, Edrington TB. For ghosting with scleral lenses, call in the experts. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2011 Apr;26:21.

    2. Lee K, Messer B, Edrington TB. Managing scleral lens residual astigmatism. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Apr;29:16.

    3. van der Worp E. A Guide to Scleral Lens Fitting [monograph online]. 1st ed. Forest Grove, OR: Pacific University; 2010.

    4. Visser ES, Visser R, Van Lier HJ. Advantages of toric scleral lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;83:233-236.

    5. Michaud L, van der Worp E, Brazeau D, Warde R, Giasson CJ. Predicting estimates of oxygen transmissibility for scleral lenses. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2012 Dec;35:266-271.

    6. Compañ V, Oliveira C, Aguilella-Arzo M, Mollá S, Peixoto-de-Matos SC, González-Méijome JM. Oxygen Diffusion and Edema With Modern Scleral Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Sep 4;55:6421-6429.

    7. Jaynes J, Edrington T, Weissman BA. Predicting scleral GP lens entrapped tear layer oxygen tensions. Contact Lens Ant Eye. 2015 Feb;38:44-47.

    8. Michaud L, Giasson CJ, Morency J. Evaluation of oxygen under scleral lenses fitted with different fluid reservoir thicknesses. Presented at the American Academy of Optometry annual meeting, October 2015, New Orleans.

    9. Tan B, Moy A, Graham AD, Michaud L, Lin MC. Pilot study of post-lens fluorogram with scleral lenses of various clearances. Presented at the American Academy of Optometry annual meeting, October 2015, New Orleans.

    10. Caroline P, André M. Cloudy Vision With Sclerals. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2012 Jun;27:56.

    11. Miller W. Scleral Contact Lens Fog. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Sep;28:52.

    12. McKinney A, Miller W, Leach N, Polizzi C, van der Worp E, Bergmanson J. The Cause of Midday Visual Fogging in Scleral Gas Permeable Lens Wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013:ARVO E – Abstract 5483.

    13. Walker M. Scleral lenses, clearing the fog. I-Site Newsletter Online J. December 2014. Accessible at

    14. Chaglasian E, Autry J. Ease the frustration: treating RK. Review of Cornea & Contact Lens. 2012 Apr. Accessible at

    15. Thordsen JE, Bower KS, Warren BB, Stutzman R. Miotic effect of brimonidine tartrate 0.15% ophthalmic solution in normal eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004 Aug;30:1702-1706.

    16. Edwards JD, Burka JM, Bower KS, Stutzman RD, Sediq DA, Rabin JC. Effect of brimonidine tartrate 0.15% on night-vision difficulty and contrast testing after refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008 Sept;34:1538-1541.

    17. Sabesan R, Johns L, Tomashevskaya O, Jacobs DS, Rosenthal P, Yoon G. Wavefront-guided scleral lens prosthetic device for keratoconus. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Apr;90:314-323.

    18. Marsack JD, Ravikumar A, Nguyen C, Ticak A, Koenig DE, Elswick JD, Applegate RA. Wavefront-guided scleral lens correction in keratoconus. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Oct;91:1221-1230.

(p. 16) Prescribing for Presbyopia – Dominant or Nondominant, That Is the Question
By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Shor C, Landsman L, Erickson P. Ocular dominance and the interocular suppression of blur in monovision. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987 Oct;64:723-730.

    2. Erickson P, McGill EC. Role of visual acuity, stereoacuity, and ocular dominance in monovision patient success. Optom Vis Sci. 1992 Oct;69:761-764.

    3. Robboy MW, Cox IG, Erickson P. Effects of sighting and sensory dominance on monovsion high and low contrast visual acuity. CLAO J. 1990 Oct-Dec;16:299-301.

    4. Collins MJ, Goode A. Interocular blur suppression and monovision. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1994 Jun; 72:376-380.

    5. Handa T, Shimizu K, Mukuno K, Kawamorita T, Uozato H. Effects of ocular dominance on binocular summation after monocular reading adds. J Catract Refract Surg. 2005 Aug;31:1588-1592.

    6. Zheleznyak L, Alarcon A, Dieter KC, Tadin D, Yoon G. The role of sensory ocular dominance on through-focus visual performance in monovision presbyopia corrections. J Vis. 2015;15(6):17.

(p. 17) GP Insights – Are Scleral Lenses Impacting Corneal Transplants?
By Javeria Azhar, OD; Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO; & Carmen F. Castellano, OD, FAAO

    1. Edrington TB, Barr JT. Peripheral Corneal Desiccation. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2002 Jan;17:46.

    2. Henry VA, Bennett ES, Forrest JF. Clinical investigation of the Paraperm EW rigid gas-permeable contact lens. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987 May;64:313-320.

    3. Fonn D, Sorbara L. Rigid Gas-permeable lens problem solving. In: Bennett ES, Weissman BA, eds. Clinical Contact Lens Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005:341-354.

    4. Schnider CM, Terry RL, Holden BA. Effects of lens design on peripheral corneal desiccation. J Am Optom Assoc. 1997 Mar;68:163-170.

(p. 19) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Sjögren’s Syndrome…in a 10-Year-Old Boy?
By Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD, FAAO

    1. Akinci A, Cakar N, Uncu N, Kara N, Acaroglu G. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Cornea. 2007 Sep;26:941–944.

    2. Akinci A, Cetinkaya E., Aycan Z. Dry eye syndrome in diabetic children. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007 Nov-Dec;17:873-878.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Prevent Cosmetic Deposition from Affecting Lens Comfort
By Susan J. Gromacki, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Gromacki SJ. Contact Lens Deposition and Dry Eye. Contact Lens Spectrum 2012 Jul;28:23.

    2. Subbaraman LN, Jones L. Kinetics of lysozyme activity recovered from conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2010;21(3):343-358.

    3. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    4. Brennan NA, Chantal-Coles ML. Deposits and symptomatology with soft contact lens wear. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2000 May-June;27:75-100.

    5. Nilsson SE, Andersson L. Contact lens wear in dry environments. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1986 Apr;64:221-225.

    6. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Weed K. Ocular and subjective responses to frequent replacement of daily wear soft contact lenses. CLAO J. 1996 Jan;22:53-59.

    7. Gromacki SJ. Care Solution Corner: Mascara and Scleral GP Contact Lenses. Contact Lenses Today. January 12, 2014. Accessible at

    8. Gromacki SJ. Makeup and Scleral GP Lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Mar;29:23.

    9. American Optometric Association. Contact Lenses and Cosmetics. 2014. Accessible at

    10. Sindt C. Makeup and teens. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Dec;28:48.

    11. Ward M. Contact Lenses and Makeup Contamination. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Feb;28:23.

    12. CooperVision. Makeup for Contact Lens Wearers. June 25, 2014. Accessible at

Additional Resources

    • Weisbarth RE, Henderson B. Hydrogel Lens Care Regimens and Patient Education. In: Bennett ES, Weissman BA, eds. Clinical Contact Lens Practice. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia; 2005:409.

    • Bennett E, Wagner H Rigid Lens Care and Patient Education. In: Bennett ES, Weissman BA, eds. Clinical Contact Lens Practice Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia; 2005:289.

(p. 25) Corneal Oxygen: 2015
By Barry A. Weissman, OD, PhD, FAAO (Dipl CCL), Dipl ABO

Mentioned in article:

    1. Goodlaw E. Contact lens solutions and their wearing time. Optom Weekly. 1946 Nov 28;37:1675-1679.

    2. Smelser G, Ozanics V. Importance of atmospheric oxygen for maintaining the optical properties of the human cornea. Science. 1952;115:140.

    3. Kleinstein RN, Kwan M, Fatt I, Weissman BA. In vivo aqueous humor oxygen tension--as estimated from measurements on bare stroma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1981 21(3):415-421.

    4. Korb DR, Exford JM. The phenomenon of central circular clouding. J Am Optom Assoc. 1968 Mar;39:223-230.

    5. Polse KA, Mandell RB. Critical oxygen tension at the corneal surface. Arch Ophthalmol. 1970 Oct;84:505-508.

    6. Zantos SG, Holden BA. Transient endothelial changes soon after wearing soft contact lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1977 Dec;54:856-858.

    7. Klyce SD. Stromal lactate accumulation can account for corneal oedema osmotically following epithelial hypoxia in the rabbit. J Physiol. 1981 Dec;321:49-64.

    8. Bonanno JA, Polse KA. Measurement of in vivo human corneal stromal pH: open and closed eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1987 Mar;28:522-530.

    9. Leung BK, Bonanno JA, Radke CJ. Oxygen-deficient metabolism and corneal edema. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011 Nov;30:471-492.

    10. Millodot M, O'Leary DJ. Effect of oxygen deprivation on corneal sensitivity. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1980 Jun;58:434-439.

    11. Holden BA, Sweeney DF, Vannas A, Nilsson KT, Efron N. Effects of long-term extended contact lens wear on the human cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1985 Nov;26:1489-1501.

    12. Madigan MC, Holden BA, Kwok LS. Extended wear of contact lenses can compromise corneal epithelial adhesion. Curr Eye Res. 1987 Oct;6:1257-1260.

    13. Duffin RM, Weissman BA, Ueda J. Complications of extended-wear hard contact lenses in rabbits. Int Cont Lens Clin. 1982;9(2):101-105.

    14. Schoessler JP. Contact lens wear and the corneal endothelium. J Am Optom Assoc. 1987 Oct;58:804-810.

    15. Chan WK, Weissman BA. Corneal pannus associated with contact lens wear. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996 May;121:540-546.

    16. Mandell RB, Farrell R. Corneal swelling at low atmospheric oxygen pressures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1980 Jun;19:697-702.

    17. Holden BA, Sweeney DF, Sanderson G. The minimal precorneal oxygen tension to avoid corneal edema. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1984 Apr;25:476-480.

    18. Papas E. On the relationship between soft contact lens oxygen transmissibility and induced limbal hyperaemia. Exp Eye Res. 1998 Aug;67:125-131.

    19. Weissman BA, Ye P. Calculated tear oxygen tension under contact lenses offering resistance in series: piggyback and scleral lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2006 Dec;29:231-237.

    20. Hamano H, Hori M. Effect of contact lens wear on the mitoses of corneal epithelial cells: preliminary report. CLAO J. 1983 Apr-Jun;9:133-136.

    21. Masters BR. Noninvasive redox fluorometry: how light can be used to monitor alterations of corneal mitochondrial function. Curr Eye Res. 1984 Jan;3:23-26.

    22. Mandell RB, Fatt I. Thinning of the human cornea on awakening. Nature. 1965 Oct 16;208:292-293.

    23. Gaylord N. Oxygen-permeable contact lens composition, methods and article of manufacture. US Patent 3,808,178, 1974.

    24. Tanaka K. Copolymer for soft contact lens, its preparation and soft contact lens made thereof. US Patent 4139513, 1979.

    25. Wichterle O, Lim D. Hydrophilic Gels for Biological Uses. Nature. 196 Jan; 185:117-118.

    26. Morrison DR, Edelhauser HF. Permeability of hydrophilic contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol. 1972 Jan;11:58-63.

    27. Fatt I. Dk #1 is retired after 20 years of service. CL Spectrum 1989 November;4:35-37.

    28. Fatt I, St Helen R. Oxygen tension under an oxygen-permeable contact lens. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom. 1971 Jul;48:545-555.

    29. Aiba S, Ohashi M, Huang SY. Rapid determination of oxygen permeability of polymer membranes. Ind Eng Chem Fundamen. 1968 Aug;7:497-502.

    30. Fatt I. Gas transmission properties of soft contact lenses. In Ruben M (ed): Soft Contact Lenses; clinical and applied technology. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1978, p. 83-110.

    31. Refojo MF. The siloxane bond in contact lens materials: effect of methyl and phenyl content on oxygen permeability of silicone lenses. ICLC. 1984;11:83-86.

    32. Benjamin WJ, and the Dk Reference Study Group. Revised Oxygen Permeability (Dk) of Reference Materials. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 47:ARVO E-Abstract 97/B385, 2006.

    33. Weissman BA. Designing uniform thickness contact lens shells. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1982 Nov;59:902-903.

    34. Morris JA, Fatt I. A survey of gas permeable contact lenses. Optician 1977;174:27-36.

    35. Fatt I. The definition for thickness of a lens. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1979 May;56:324-337.

    36. Brennan NA. Average thickness of a hydrogel lens for gas transmissibility calculations. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1984 Oct;61:627-635.

    37. Weissman, BA. Calculating area average thickness of rigid gas permeable contact lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1986 Nov;63:922-926.

    38. Holden BA, Mertz GW. Critical oxygen levels to avoid corneal edema for daily and extended wear contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1984 Oct;25:1161-1167.

    39. Tomlinson A, Bibby MM. Determination of the effective diameter for the calculation of the equivalent thickness of soft contact lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1985 Jun;62:398-401.

    40. Fatt I, Neumann S. The average oxygen transmissibility of contact lenses: application of the concept to laboratory measurements, clinical performance and marketing. Neue Otickerjournal 1989;31:55-58.

    41. Fatt I, Chaston J. Measurement of oxygen transmissibility and permeability of hydrogel lenses and materials. ICLC 1982;9:76-88.

    42. Fatt I, Rasson JE, Melpolder JB. Measuring oxygen permeability of gas permeable hard and hydrogel lenses and flat samples. ICLC 1987 Oct;14:389-401.

    43. Brennan NA, Efron N, Newman SD. An examination of the "edge effect" in the measurement of contact lens oxygen transmissibility. ICLC 1987;14(10):407-411.

    44. Fatt I, Mueller TD. Application of guard ring technology to measurement of oxygen permeability of contact lens materials by the polarographic method. ICLC 1994;21(5-6):96-104.

    45. Harvitt DM, Bonanno JA. Re-evaluation of the oxygen diffusion model for predicting minimum contact lens Dk/t values needed to avoid corneal anoxia. Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Oct;76:712-719.

    46. Fatt I. New physiological paradigms to assess the effect of lens oxygen transmissibility on corneal health. CLAO J. 1996 Jan;22:25-29.

    47. Hill RM, Fatt I. Oxygen deprivation of the cornea by contact lenses and lid closure. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom. 1964 Nov;41:678-687.

    48. Larke JR, Parrish ST, Wigham CG. Apparent human corneal oxygen uptake rate. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1981 Oct;58:803-807.

    49. Brennan NA. Beyond flux: total corneal oxygen consumption as an index of corneal oxygenation during contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Jun;82:467-472.

    50. Huang P, Zwang-Weissman JM, Weissman BA. Is contact lens “T” still important? Contact Lens and Anterior Eye. 2004 Mar;27:9-14.

    51. Fatt I, Ruben CM. A new oxygen transmissibility concept for hydrogel contact lenses. JBCLA 1993;16(4):141-149.

    52. Efron N, Carney LG. Oxygen tension beneath contact lenses under the closed eyelid: human eye measurements. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1981 Oct;58:806-809.

    53. Holden BA, Sweeney DF. The oxygen tension and temperature of the superior palpebral conjunctiva. Acta Ophtalmol (Copenh). 1985 Feb;63:100-103.

    54. McLaren JW, Dinslage S, Dillon JP, Roberts JE, Brubaker JE, Brubaker RF. Measuring oxygen tension in the anterior chamber of rabbits. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Sep;39;1899-1909.

    55. Fatt I, Bieber MT. The steady-state distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the in vivo cornea; I. The open eye in air and the closed eye. Exp Eye Res. 1968 Jan;7:103-112.

    56. Fatt I. Steady-state distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the in vivo cornea. II The open eye in nitrogen and the covered eye. Exp Eye Res. 1968 Jul;7:413-430.

    57. Fatt I, Freeman RD, Lin DB. Oxygen tension distributions in the cornea: a re-examination. Exp Eye Res. 1974 Apr;18:357-365.

    58. Fatt I, Weissman BA. Physiology of the Eye (2/e). Boston, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1992.

    59. Sweeney DF, Keay L, Jalbert I et al. Clinical performance of silicone hydrogel lenses. In Sweeney D (ed). Silicone hydrogels: the rebirth of continuous wear contact lenses. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000, p. 92-93.

    60. Fatt I. Oxygen transmissibility considerations for a hard-soft contact lens combination. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1977 Oct;54:666-672.

    61. Fatt I, Lin D. Oxygen tension under a soft or hard gas permeable contact lens in the presence of tear pumping. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1976 Mar;53:104-111.

    62. Fatt I, Lin D. Oxygen tension under a hard, gas permeable contact lens. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1977 Mar;54:146-148.

    63. Fatt I, Liu SKM. Oxygen tension under a gas permeable hard contact lens. ICLC 1984;11(2):93-105.

    64. Jaynes JM, Edrington TE, Weissman BA. Predicting Scleral GP Lens Entrapped Tear Layer Oxygen Tensions. Cont Lens and Anterior Eye. 2015 Feb;38:44-47.

    65. Lee KLY, Nguyen DP, Edrington TB, Weissman BA. Calculated in situ tear oxygen tension under hybrid contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 Mar;41:111-116.

    66. Michaud L, van der Worp E, Brazeau D, Warde R, Giasson CJ. Predicting estimates of oxygen transmissibility for scleral lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2012 Dec;35:266–271.

    67. Brennan NA, Efron N. Corneal oxygen consumption and hypoxia. In Bennett ES, Weissman BA (eds). Clinical Contact Lens Practice. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2005, p. 41-65.

Additional references:

    • ANSI Z80.20-2004. American National Standard for Ophthalmics – Contact Lenses – Standard Terminology, Tolerances, Measurements and Physicochemical Properties. American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Inc., 1819 L Street, 6th Floor, Washington, D.C. 20036.

    • Baldone JA, Clark WB. Contact lenses in the aphakic child. Contact Lens Med Bull 1970;3:25-27.

    • Bonanno JA, Stickel T, Nguyen T, Biehl T, Carter D, Benjamin WJ, Soni PS. Estimation of human corneal oxygen consumption by noninvasive measurement of tear oxygen tension while wearing hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Feb;43:371-376.

    • Doughty MJ, Zaman ML. Human corneal thickness and its impact on intraocular pressure measurements: a review and meta-analysis approach. Surv Ophthalmol. 2000 Mar-Apr;44:367-408.

    • Freeman RD. Oxygen consumption by the component layers of the cornea. J Physiol. 1972 Aug;225:15-32.

(p. 30) The History of Hybrid Lenses
By Roxanna Potter, OD, FAAO

    1. Ferguson, C. Chapter 4: Specialty Hybrid Lenses. In Contact Lens Indications, Fitting and Management in a Medical Environment, Vickery JA, Ward MA, eds. Contact Lens Society of America; 2012.

(p. 36) What Is Lid Wiper Epitheliopathy?
By Jalaiah Varikooty, MSc, BMed

    1. Korb DR, Greiner JV, Herman JP, Hebert E, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Glonek T, Olson MC. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J. 2002 Oct;28:211-216.

    2. Korb DR, Herman JP, Greiner JV, Scaffidi RC, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Blackie CA, Douglass T. Lid wiper epitheliopathy and dry eye symptoms. Eye Contact Lens. 2005 Jan;31:2-8.

    3. Corfield A, Carrington S, Hicks S, Berry M, Ellingham R. Ocular mucins: Purification, metabolism and functions. Prog Retinal Eye Res.1997 Oct;16:627-656.

    4. Ehlers N. The Precorneal Film. Biomicroscopical, Histological and Chemical Investigations. Acta Ophthalmol Suppl. 1965:Suppl 81:1-134.

    5. Knop N, Korb DR, Blackie CA, Knop E. The lid wiper contains goblet cells and goblet cell crypts for ocular surface lubrication during the blink. Cornea. 2012 Jun;31:668-679.

    6. Korb DR, Herman JP, Blackie CA, Scaffidi RC, Greiner JV, Exford JM, Finnemore VM. Prevalence of lid wiper epitheliopathy in subjects with dry eye signs and symptoms. Cornea. 2010 Apr;29:377-383.

    7. Berry M, Pult H, Purslow C, Murphy PJ. Mucins and ocular signs in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Oct;85:E930-E938.

    8. Best N, Drury L, Wolffsohn JS. Predicting success with silicone-hydrogel contact lenses in new wearers. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Oct;36:232-237.

    9. McMonnies CW. Incomplete blinking: exposure keratopathy, lid wiper epitheliopathy, dry eye, refractive surgery, and dry contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2007 Mar;30:37-51.

    10. Knop E, Knop N, Zhivov A, Kraak R, Korb DR, Blackie C, Greiner JV, Guthoff R. The lid wiper and muco-cutaneous junction anatomy of the human eyelid margins: an in vivo confocal and histological study. J Anat. 2011 Apr;218:449-461.

    11. Korb DR, Blackie CA. Marx’s line of the upper lid is visible in upgaze without lid eversion. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 May;36:149-151.

    12. Knop E, Korb DR, Blackie CA, Knop N. The Lid Wiper — a specialized structure at the inner eyelid margin for distribution of the tear film. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012 Sept;90(Suppl):s249.

    13. Jalbert I, Madigan MC, Shao M, Ng J, Cheng J, Wong D, McMonnies C. Assessing the human lid margin epithelium using impression cytology. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012 Nov;90:e547-e552.

    14. Golebiowski B, Chim K, So J, Jalbert I. Lid margins: sensitivity, staining, meibomian gland dysfunction, and symptoms. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Oct;89:1443-1449.

    15. Shiraishi A, Yamaguchi M, Ohashi Y. Prevalence of upper- and lower-lid-wiper epitheliopathy in contact lens wearers and non-wearers. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 Jul;40:220-224.

    16. Pult H, Purslow C, Berry M, Murphy PJ. Clinical tests for successful contact lens wear: relationship and predictive potential. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Oct;85:E924-E929.

    17. Jones L, Varikooty J, Keir N, Soong F, Patel P. The evaluation of lid wiper epitheliopathy in contact lens wearers in a controlled low humidity environmental exposure chamber. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:E-abstract 5475.

    18. Pult H, Purslow C, Murphy PJ. The relationship between clinical signs and dry eye symptoms. Eye (Lond). 2011 Apr;25:502-510.

    19. Yeniad B, Beginoglu M, Bilgin LK. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy in contact lens users and patients with dry eye. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 May;36:140-143.

    20. Efron N, Jones L, Bron AJ, Knop E, Arita R, Barabino S, McDermott AM, Villani E, Willcox MD, Markoulli M; members of the TIWoCLD. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens interactions with the ocular surface and adnexa subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;54:TFOS98-TFOS122.

    21. Willis T, Blackie C, Korb DR. Meibomian gland function, lid wiper epitheliopathy, and dry eye symptoms. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:E-abstract 3740.

    22. Stahl UG, Delaveris A, Madigan M, Jalbert I. Lid wiper epitheliopathy: exploring the links to comfort and osmolality in contact lens wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Dec;34(Suppl1):S18.

    23. Varikooty J, Lay B, Keir N, Burdin H, Jones L, Simpson T, Lemp J. The relationship between clinical grading and objective image analysis of Lid Wiper Epitheliopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jun;54:E-abstract 5460.

    24. Varikooty J, Keir N, Jones LW. Optimization of assessment and grading for lid wiper epitheliopathy. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:E-abstract 120241.

    25. Varikooty J, Subbaraman L, Simpson T, Srinivasan S, Woods CA, Fonn D, Jones L, Chan A. Clinical manifestations of upper lid staining in adapted silicone hydrogel lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci. 2006;83:E-abstract 065257.

    26. Varikooty J, Srinivasan S, Jones L. Atypical manifestation of upper lid margin staining in silicone hydrogel lens wearers with symptoms of dry eye. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2008 Feb;31:44-46.

    27. Herman JP, Greiner JV, Korb DR, Blackie CA, Scaffidi RC. Treatment of lid wiper epitheliopathy with a metastable lipid emulsion or a corticosteroid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:E-abstract 055060.

    28. Herman JP, Kleiner-Goudey S, Korb DR. Long term treatment of lid wiper epitheliopathy with an oil-in-water emulsion lubricant eye drop. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 May;47:E-abstract 275.

    29. Itakura H, Kashima T, Itakura M, Akiyama H, Kishi S. Topical rebamipide improves lid wiper epitheliopathy. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013;7:2137-2141.

    30. Zhang CW, Mo JS. Preliminary observation of the clinical therapeutic effect of artificial tears combined with bFGF on lid-wiper epitheliopathy. International Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011;11:1654-1655.

    31. Shuang L, Haili L, Xiaoming Y. Clinical study of the treatment of lid-wiper epitheliopathy. Chinese Ophthalmic Research 2009;27:1110-1114.

(p. 42) Breaking the Cycle of Contact Lens Dropout
By Chuck Aldridge, OD, MBA, FAAO

    1. Schlanger JL. A study of contact lens failures. J Am Optom Assoc. 1993 Mar;64:220-224.

    2. Weed K, Fonn D, Potvin R. Discontinuation of contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 1993;70(12s):140.

    3. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: A survey. ICLC. 1999 Nov;26:157-162.

    4. Young G, Veys J, Pritchard N, Coleman S. A multi-centre study of lapsed contact lens wearers. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2002 Nov;22:516-527.

    5. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    6. Rumpakis J. New Data on Contact Lens Dropouts: An International Perspective. Review Optom. 2010 Nov;147:37-42.

    7. Dumbleton K, Woods CA, Jones LW, Fonn D. The impact of contemporary contact lenses on contact lens discontinuation. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:92-98.

    8. Morgan PM., Woods CA, Tranoudis IG, Helland M, Efron N, Jones L, Dávila-Garcia E, Magnelli P, Teufl M, Grupcheva CN, Jones D, Beeler-Kaupke M, Tan K, Pesinova A, Pult H, Ravn O, Santodomingo J, Malet F, Plakitsi A, Végh M, Erdinest N, Chande PK, Itoi M, Bendoriene J, van der Worp E, Pintor R, Moroy JL, Chia J, Awasthi S, Lam W, Romualdez-Oo J, Abesamis-Dichoso C, González-Méijome JM, Belousov V; Gierow P, Stabuc Silih M, Hsiao J, Nichols JJ. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:28-33.

    9. Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society. (accessed on October 15, 2015).

    10. Nichols JJ, Willcox MD, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Jones L, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA, member of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 13;54:TFOS7-13.

    11. Schaumberg DA, Sullivan DA, Buring JE, Dana MR. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Aug:136;318-326.

    12. Christen WG, Manson JE, Glynn RJ, Ajani UA, Schaumberg DA, Sperduto RD, Buring JE, Hennekens CH. Low-dose aspirin and risk of cataract and subtypes in a randomized trial of US physicians. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1998 Sep;5:133-142.

    13. Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Abetz L, Venkataraman K, Mertzanis P, Caffery BA, Snyder C, Edrington T, Nelson D, Simpson T. The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Nov;44:4753-4761.

    14. Bjerrum KB. Test and symptoms in keratoconjunctivitis sicca and their correlation. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1996 Oct;74:436-441.

    15. Goto E, Yagi Y, Matsumoto Y, Tsubota K. Impaired functional visual acuity of dry eye patients. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133:181-186.

    16. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    17. Report of the International Dry Eye WorkShop. Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5:65-204.

(p. 47) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – Is Contact Lens Compliance Out of Our Hands?
By Jessica H. Mathew, OD, PhD, FAAO

    1. Bowerman M. Study: Bad Hygeine a prolbem for nearly all contact lens users. USA Today. 2015 Aug 20. Available at Accessed October 6, 2015.

(p. 49) Scleral Vault – Fitting Back-Surface Toric Scleral Lenses
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. van der Worp E. A Guide to Scleral Lens Fitting [monograph online]. Forest Grove, OR: Pacific University; 2010. Available from:

    2. Ritzmann M, Caroline P, Walker M, Stephens P, Kojima R, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, André M, Zheng F. Understanding scleral shape with the Eaglet Eye Surface Profiler. Scientific Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, January 2015.

    3. Visser ES, Visser R, van Lier HJ. Advantages of Toric Scleral Lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;83:233-236.

    4. Visser ES, Visser R, van Lier HJ, Oten HM. Modern Scleral Lenses Part II: Patient Satisfaction. Eye Contact Lens. 2007;33:21-25.

(p. 50) Treatment Plan – How to Treat Episcleritis
By William L. Miller, OD, MS, PhD, FAAO

    1. Watson PG and Hayreh SS. Scleritis and episcleritis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1976 Mar;60:163-191.

    2. Sainz de la Maza M, Jabbur NS, Foster CS. Severity of scleritis and episcleritis. Ophthalmology. 1994 Feb;101:389-396.

    3. Akpek EK, Uy HS, Christen W, Gurdal C, Foster CS. Severity of episcleritis and systemic disease association. Ophthalmology. 1999 Apr;106:729-731.

    4. Sainz de la Maza M, Molina N, Gonzalez-Gonzalez LA, Doctor PP, Tauber J, Foster CS. Clinical characteristics of a large cohort of patients with scleritis and episcleritis. Ophthalmology. 2012 Jan;119:43-50.

    5. Jabs DA, Mudun A, Dunn JP, Marsh MJ. Episcleritis and Scleritis: Clinical features and treatment results. Ophthalmology. 2000 Oct;130:469-476.

(p. 51) Reader and Industry Forum – Fingers, Bugs, and Contact Lenses
By Mike Killpartrick

    1. Larkin DF, Kilvington S, Easty DL. Contamination of contact lens storage cases by Acanthamoeba and bacteria. Brit J Ophthalmol. 1990 Mar;74:133-135.

    2. Wilson LA, Sawant AD, Ahearn DG. Comparative efficacies of soft contact lens disinfectant solutions against microbial films in lens cases. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991 Aug;109:1155-1157.

    3. Kilvington S, Powell CH, Lam A, Lonnen J. Antimicrobial efficacy of multi-purpose contact lens disinfectant solutions following evaporation. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Aug;34:183-187.

    4. Stapleton F, Edwards K, Keay L, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden B. Risk factors for moderate and severe microbial keratitis in daily wear contact lens users. Ophthalmology. 2012 Aug;119:1516-1521.

    5. Kilvington S, Shovlin J, Nikolic M. Identification and susceptibility to multipurpose disinfectant solutions of bacteria isolated from contact lens storage cases of patients with corneal infiltrative events. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Dec;36:294-298.

    6. Dart JK, Radford CF, Minassian D, Verma S, Stapleton F. Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses: a case-control study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct;115:1647-1654.

    7. Winstanley C. Pesudomonas aeruginosa population diversification during infections. Presentation at Society for General Microbiology Annual Conference, Liverpool. April 2014.

    8. Kilvington S. Bacteria biofilms provide protection from disinfection by multipurpose contact lens care solutions. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015 Feb:38(Suppl 1):e11-e12.