Contact Lens Spectrum


December 2015

Document #241

(p. 18) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – How Treatment for Sleep Apnea Can Lead to Dry Eye
By Katherine M. Mastrota, MS, OD, FAAO

    1. Punjabi MN. The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008 Feb 15;5:136-143.


    3. Accessed September 29, 2015.

    4. Accessed September 29, 2015.

    5. Caples SM, Gami AS, Somers VK. Obstructive sleep apnea. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Feb 1;142:187-197.

    6. Lee W, Nagubadi S, Kryger MH, Mokhlesi B. Epidemiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Population-based Perspective. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2008 Jun 1;2:349-364.

    7. Tishler PV, Larkin EK, Schluchter MD, Redline S. Incidence of sleep-disordered breathing in an urban adult population: the relative importance of risk factors in the development of sleep-disordered breathing. JAMA. 2003 May 7;289:2230-2237.

    8. Young T, Skatrud J, Peppard PE. Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. JAMA. 2004 Apr 28;291:2013-2016.

    9. Sullivan CE, Issa FG, Berthon-Jones M, Eves L. Reversal of obstructive sleep apnoea by continuous positive airway pressure applied through the nares. Lancet. 1981 Apr 18;1:862-865.

    10. Sharma SK, Katoch VM, Mohan A, Kadhiravan T, Elavarasi A, Ragesh R, Nischal N, Sethi P, Behera D, Bhatia M, Ghoshal AG, Gothi D, Joshi J, Kanwar MS, Kharbanda OP, Kumar S, Mohapatra PR, Mallick RN, Mehta R, Prasad R, Sharma SC, Sikka K, Aggarwal S, Shukla G, Suri JC, Vengamma B, Grover A, Vijayan VK, Ramakrishnan N, Gupta R. Consensus and evidence-based Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea guidelines 2014 (first edition). Lung India. 2015 Jul-Aug;32:422-434.

    11. Harrison W, Pence N, Kovavich S. Anterior segment complications secondary to continuous positive airway pressure machine treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Optometry. 2007 Jul;78:352-355.

(p. 19) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – New Technology Coming to Peroxide-Based Lens Care
By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO


    2. Ward, MA Revisiting Hydrogen Peroxide Disinfection. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2006 May;21:23.

(p. 20) Advances in Soft Lens Materials and Designs
By Thomas Dursch, PhD; Tatyana F. Svitova, PhD; & Meng C. Lin, OD, PhD

    1. Fonn, D. Targeting contact lens induced dryness and discomfort: what properties will make lenses more comfortable. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:279-285.

    2. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Contact Lens Clin. 1999 Nov;26:157-162.

    3. Dumbleton K, Woods CA, Jones LW, Fonn D. The impact of contemporary contact lenses on contact lens discontinuation. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:93-99.

    4. Guillon, M. Are silicone hydrogel contact lenses more comfortable than hydrogel contact lenses? Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:86-92.

    5. Nicolson, PC, Vogt J. Soft contact lens polymers: an evolution. Biomaterials. 2001 Dec;22:3273-3283.

    6. Stapleton F, Stretton S, Papas E, Skotnitsky C, Sweeney DF. Silicone hydrogel contact lenses and the ocular surface. Ocul. Surf. 2006 Jan;4:24-43.

    7. Sweeney DF. Have silicone hydrogel lenses eliminated hypoxia? Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:53-60.

    8. Szczotka-Flynn L, Diaz M. Risk of corneal inflammatory events with silicone hydrogel and low dk hydrogel extended contact lens wear: a meta-analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:247-256.

    9. Nichols JJ, Willcox MD, Bron AJ, Belamonte C, Ciolino JB, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Jones L, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    10. Jones L, Brennan NA, González-Méijome J, Lally J, Maldonado-Codina C, Schmidt TA, Subbaraman L, Young G, Nichols JJ; members of the TFOS International Workshop of Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens materials, design, and care subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS37-TFOS70.

    11. Truong TN, Graham AD, Lin MC. Factors in contact lens symptoms: evidence from a multistudy database. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Feb;91:133-141.

    12. Nichols JJ, Sinnott LT. Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;47:1319-1328.

    13. Thai LC, Tomlinson A, Doane MG. Effect of contact lens materials on tear physiology. Optom Vis Sci. 2004 Mar;81:194-204.

    14. Dunn AC, Urueña JM, Huo Y, Perry SS, Angelini TE, Sawyer WG. Lubricity of surface hydrogel layers. Tribol Lett. 2013 Feb;49:371-378.

    15. Roba M, Duncan EG, Hill GA, Spencer ND, Tosatti. Friction measurements on contact lenses in their operating environment. Tribol Lett. 2011 Dec;44:387-397.

    16. Chauhan A, Radke CJ. Modeling the vertical motion of a soft contact lens. Curr Eye Res. 2001 Feb;22:102-108.

    17. Hoch G, Chauhan A, Radke CJ. Permeability and diffusivity for water transport through hydrogel membranes. J Memb Sci. 2003 Apr;214:199-209.

    18. Guan L, Gonzalez Jimenez ME, Walowski C, Boushehri A, Prausnitz JM, Radke CJ. Permeability and partition coefficient of aqueous sodium chloride in soft contact lenses. J Appl Polym Sci. 2011 Nov 5;122:1457-71.

    19. King-Smith PE, Fink BA, Hill RM, Koelling KW, Tiffany JM. The thickness of the tear film. Curr Eye Res. 2004 Oct-Nov;29:357-368.

    20. Rohit A, Wilcox M, Stapleton F. Tear lipid layer and contact lens comfort: a review. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 May;39:247-253.

    21. Korb DR, Herman JP, Greiner JV, Scaffidi RC, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Blackie CA, Douglass T. Lid wiper epitheliopathy and dry eye symptoms. Eye Contact Lens 2005 Jan;31:2-8.

    22. Korb DR, Greiner JV, Herman JP, Hebert E, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Glonek T, Olson MC. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J. 2002 Oct;28:211-216.

    23. Shiraishi A, Yamaguchi M, Ohashi Y. Prevalence of upper- and lower-lid-wiper epitheliopathy in contact lens wearers and non-wearers. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 Jul;40:220-224.

    24. Holly FJ, Refojo MF. Wettability of hydrogels I. Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). J Biomed Mater Res. 1975 May;9:315–326.

    25. Lin MC, Svitova TF. Contact lens wettability in vitro: effect of surface-active ingredients. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Jun;87:440-447.

    26. Svitova TF, Lin MC. Wettability conundrum: discrepancies of soft contact lens performance in vitro and in vivo. EPJ ST. 2011 Aug;197:295-303.

    27. Nagoyová B, Tiffany JM., Components responsible for the surface tension of human tears. Curr Eye Res. 1999 Jul;19:4-11.

    28. Keir N, Jones L. Wettability and silicone hydrogel lenses: a review. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:100-108.

    29. Blake TD. In Wettability; Berg JC, Ed. Marcel Dekker, NY, 1993, 253-309.

    30. Fatt I. Prentice medal lecture: contact lens wettability–myths, mysteries, and realities. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1984 Jul;61:419-430.

    31. Campbell D, Carnell SM, Eden RJ. Applicability of contact angle techniques used in the analysis of contact lenses, part 1: comparative methodologies. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 May;39:254-262.

    32. Dunn AC, Tichy JA, Urueña JM, Sawyer WG. Lubrication regimes in contact lens wear during a blink. Tribol Int. 2013 Jul;63:45-50.

    33. Peng C-C, Lim PS, Chong H, Dursch TJ, Radke CJ. Critical coefficient of friction of in-vitro spoiled soft contact lenses. Invest Opthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Apr;55:ARVO E-Abstract 4652.

    34. Tucker RC, Quinter B, Patel D, Pruitt J, Nelson J. Qualitative and quantitative lubricity of experimental contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Mar;53:ARVO E-Abstract: 6093.

    35. Roba M, Duncan EG, Hill GA, Spencer ND, Tosatti GP. Friction measurements on contact lenses in their operating environment. Tribol Lett. 2011 Dec;44:387-397.

    36. Radke CJ, Bregante DT, Pang V, Dursch TJ. Brushed soft contact lenses for reducing lid-wiper sliding friction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;ARVO E-abstract: 1044.

    37. Rennie AC, Dickrell PL, Sawyer WG. Friction coefficient of soft contact lenses: measurements and modeling. Tribol Lett. 2005 Apr;18:499-504.

    38. Subbaraman LN, Jones LW. Measuring friction and lubricity of soft contact lenses: a review. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Special Edition;28:28-34.

    39. Coles C, Brennan NA. Coefficient of friction and soft contact lens comfort. Optom Vis Sci 2012;88:ARVO E-Abstract 125603.

    40. Brennan, NA. Contact lens-based correlates of soft lens wearing comfort. Optom Vis Sci 2009;86:ARVO E-Abstract 90957.

(p. 26) Multifocal Scleral Lenses
By Melissa Barnett, OD, FAAO, FSLS

    1. Market Scope. Global Presbyopia-Correcting Surgery Market Report, April 2012. Accessed July 1, 2014.

    2. Woods J, Woods CA, Fonn D. Early symptomatic presbyopes--what correction modality works best? Eye Contact Lens. 2009 Sep;35:221-226.

    3. Reindel WT, Edmunds FR. A clinical assessment of presbyopic soft contact lens designs: comparing the impact of SofLens multifocal contact lenses and Acuvue bifocal contact lenses on successfully adapted monovision patients. Rev Optom. 2003 Apr 15;140(4).

    4. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: A survey. ICLC. 1999 Nov;26:157-162.

    5. Young G, Veys J, Pritchard N, Coleman S. A multi-centre study of lapsed contact lens wearers. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2002 Nov;22:516-527.

    6. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    7. Rumpakis J. New Data on Contact Lens Dropouts: An International Perspective. Review Optom. 2010 Jan 15;147:37-42.

    8. Dumbleton K, Woods CA, Jones LW, Fonn D. The impact of contemporary contact lenses on contact lens discontinuation. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:93-99.

    9. Nichols JJ, Willcox MD, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    10. Brujic M, Miller, J. Minimizing Dropouts: What You Can Do. Rev Cornea Contact Lens. 2011 March 17.

    11. Lin PY, Tsai SY, Cheng CY, Liu JH, Chou P, Hsu WM. Prevalence of dry eye among an elderly Chinese population in Taiwan: The Shihpai eye study. Ophthalmology. 2003 Jun;110:1096-1101.

    12. McCarty CA, Bansal AK, Livingston PM, et al. The epidemiology of dry eye in Melbourne, Australia. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:1114–1119.

    13. Market ScopeReport on the global dry eye market. St. Louis, MO: Market Scope, July 2004.

    14. Doughty MJ, Fonn D, Richter D, Simpson T, Caffery B, Gordon K. A patient questionnaire approach to estimating the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in patients presenting to optometric practices across Canada. Optom Vis Sci. 1997 Aug;74:624-631.

    15. Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K. Results of a population-based questionnaire on the symptoms and lifestyles associated with dry eye. Cornea. 1999 Jul;18:408-411.

    16. Multi-sponsor surveys, Inc. The 2005 Gallup Study of Dry Eye Sufferers. Princeton, NJ. August 2005.

    17. Miljanović B, Dana R, Sullivan DA, Schaumberg DA. Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Mar;143:409-415.

    18. Pflugfelder SC. Prevalence, burden, and pharmacoeconomics of dry eye disease. Am J Manag Care. 2008 Apr;14:S102-S106.

    19. Schiffman RM, Walt JG, Jacobsen G, Doyle JJ, Lebovics G, Sumner W. Utility assessment among patients with dry eye disease. Ophthalmolmology. 2003 Jul;110:1412-1419.

    20. Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK, Caffery B, Simpson T, DuToit R, Portello J, Davis L. Characterization of ocular surface symptoms from optometric practices in North America. Cornea. 2001 Aug;20:610-618.

    21. Bennett E. GP Annual Report 2015. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Oct;30:24-27, 29-31.

(p. 34) Staging Ectatic Diseases: A Therapeutic Approach
By Robert L. Davis, OD, FAAO, & William L. Miller, OD, MS, PhD, FAAO

    1. Belin MW, Kim JT, Zloty P, Ambrosio R Jr. Simplified Nomenclature for describing Keratoconus. Int J Keratoco Ectatic Corneal Dis. 2012;1(1):31-35.

    2. Bergmanson J, Gromacki S, Caroline P, Tullo W. Keratoconus - Lasers, Lenses and Boomerangs! Section on Cornea, Contact Lenses & Refractive Technologies Symposium. Presented at Academy 2014, Denver. November 14, 2014.

    3. Meek KM, Tuft SJ, Huang Y, Gill PS, Hayes S, Newton RH, Bron AJ. Changes in collagen orientation and distribution in keratoconus corneas. Invest Opthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jun;46:1948-1956.

    4. Ambrósio R Jr, Belin MW, Perez VL, Abad JC, Gomes JAP. Definitions and Concepts on Keratoconus and Ectatic Corneal Diseases: Panamerican Delphi Consensus - A Pilot for the Global Consensus on Ectasias. Int J Kerat Ect Cor Dis. 2014;3(3):99-106.

    5. Caroline PJ, Doughman DJ, McGuire JR. A new contact lens design for keratoconus: a continuing report. Contact Lens J. 1978;12(1):17-20.

    6. Perry HD, Buxton JN, Fine BS. Round and oval cones in keratoconus. Ophthalmol. 1980 Sept;87:905-909.

    7. Rabinowitz YS, Yang H, Brickman Y, Akkino J, Riley C, Rotter JI, Elashoff J. Videokeratography database of normal human corneas. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996 Jul;80:610-616.

    8. Li X, Rabinowitz YS, Rasheed K, Yang H. Longitudinal study of the normal eyes in unilateral keratoconus patients. Ophthalmol. 2004 Mar:11:440-446

    9. Krumeich JH, Kezirian GM. Circular keratotomy to reduce astigmatism and improve vision in stage I and II keratoconus. J. Refract. Surg. 2009 Apr;25:357-365.

    10. John T. A Wide-Angle View of Keratoconus. [CE Lesson]. Rev Optom. 2012 Oct. Available at

    11. Viswanathan D, Kumar NL, Males JJ, Graham SL. Relationship of Structural Characteristics to Biomechanical Profile in Normal, Keratoconic, and Crosslinked Eyes. Cornea. 2015 Jul;34:791-796.

    12. McMahon TT, Szczotka-Flynn L, Barr JT, Anderson RJ, Slaughter ME, Lass JH, Iyengar SK; CLEK Study Group. A new method for grading the severity of keratoconus: the keratoconus severity score (KSS). Cornea. 2006 Aug;25:794-799.

    13. Wu Y, Tan Q, Zhang W, Wang J, Yang B, Ma W, Wang X, Liu L. Rigid gas-permeable contact lens related life quality in keratoconic patients with different grades of severity. Clin Exp Optom. 2015 Mar;98:150-154.

    14. Abu Ameerh MA, Bussières N, Hamad GI, Al Bdour MD. Topographic characteristics of keratoconus among a sample of Jordanian patients. Int J Ophthalmol. 2014 Aug 18;7:714-19.

    15. Sahebjada S, Xie J, Chan E, Snibson G, Daniel M, Baird PN. Assessment of anterior segment parameters of keratoconus eyes in an Australian population. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Jul;91:803-809.

    16. Demir S, Ortak H, Yeter V, Alim S, Sayn O, Taş U, Sönmez B. Mapping corneal thickness using dual-scheimpflug imaging at different stages of keratoconus. Cornea. 2013 Nov;32:1470-1474.

    17. Abou Shousha M, Perez VL, Fraga Santini Canto AP, Vaddavalli PK, Sayyad FE, Cabot F, Feuer WJ, Wang J, Yoo SH. The use of Bowman’s layer vertical topographic thickness map in the diagnosis of keratoconus. Ophthalmology. 2014 May;121:988-993.

    18. Brautaset RL, Nilsson M, Miller WL, Leach NE, Tukler JH, Bergmanson JP. Central and peripheral corneal thinning in keratoconus. Cornea. 2013 Mar;32:257-261.

    19. Kanellopoulos AJ, Asimellis G. Revisiting keratoconus diagnosis and progression classification based on evaluation of corneal asymmetry indices, derived from Scheimpflug imaging in keratoconic and suspect cases. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013;7:1539-1548.

    20. Mannion LS, Tromans C, O’Donnell C. Reduction in corneal volume with severity of keratoconus. Curr Eye Res. 2011 Jun;36:522-527.

    21. Sandali O, El Sanharawi M, Temstet C, Hamiche T, Galan A, Ghouali W, Goemaere I, Basli E, Borderie V, Laroche L. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography imaging in keratoconus: a corneal structural classification. Ophthalmology. 2013 Dec;120:2403-2412.

    22. Ishii R, Kamiya K, Igarashi A, Shimizu K, Utsumi Y, Kumanomido T. Correlation of corneal elevation with severity of keratoconus by means of anterior and posterior topographic analysis. Cornea. 2012 Mar;31:253-258.

    23. Krachmer JH, Feder RS, Belin MW. Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders. Surv Ophthalmol. 1984 Jan-Feb;28:293-322.

    24. Edrington T, Szczotka LB, Begley CG, Burger DS, Wilson BS, Barr JT, Zadnik K, Gordon MO. Repeatability and agreement of two corneal-curvature assessments in keratoconus: keratometry and the first definite apical clearance apical clearance lens (FDACL). CLEK Study Group. Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus. Cornea. 1998 May;17:267-277.

    25. Romero-Jiménez M, Santodomingo-Rubido J, González-Méijome JM. An assessment of the optimal lens fit rate in keratoconus subjects using a three-point-touch and apical touch fitting approaches with the rose K2 lens. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jul;39:269-272.

    26. Burger D. Contact lens alternative for keratoconus: an overview. Contact Lens Spectrum 1993; 8:49-53.

    27. Mannis MJ, Zadnik K. Contact lens fitting in keratoconus. CLAO J. 1989 Oct-Dec; 15:282-289.

    28. Shneor E, Millodot M, Blumberg S, Ortenberg I, Behrman S, Gordon-Shaag A. Characteristics of 244 patients with keratoconus seen in a optometric contact lens practice. Clin Exp Optom. 2013 Mar;96:219-224.

    29. McMonnies CW, Boneham GC. Keratoconus, allergy, itch, eye-rubbing and hand-dominance. Clin Exp Optom. 2003 Nov;86:376-384.

    30. Karseras AG, Ruben M. Aetiology of keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol. 1976 Jul;60:522-525.

    31. Gordon-Shaag A, Millodot M, Shneor E. The epidemiology and etiology of keratoconus. Int J Keratoco Ectatic Corneal Dis. 2012;1:7-15.

    32. Georgiou T, Funnell CL, Cassels-Brown A, O’Conor R. Influence of ethnic origin on the incidence of keratoconus and associated atopic disease in Asians and white patients. Eye (Lond). 2004 Apr;18:379-383.

    33. Hawkes E, Nanavaty MA. Eye Rubbing and Keratoconus: A Literature Review. Int J Kerat Ect Cor Dis. 2015 May;3:118-121.

    34. Zadnik K, Barr JT, Edrington TB, Everett DF, Jameson M, McMahon TT, Shin JA, Sterling JL, Wagner H, Gordon MO. Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Dec;39:2537-2546.

    35. Owens H, Gamble G. A profile of keratoconus in New Zealand. Cornea. 2003 Mar;22:122-125.

    36. Alio J, Burguera-Gimenez N, Vega-Estrada A. Relevance of a New Integral Keratoconus Grading System for the Outcomes of Intracorneal Ring Segment Implantation. Int J Kerat Ect Cor Dis. 2012;1(2):79-86.

(p. 42) The Benefits of Silicone Hydrogel Daily Disposable Lenses
By Desmond Fonn, MOptom, & Deborah Sweeney, PhD

    1. Holden BA, Mertz GW. Critical oxygen levels to avoid corneal edema for daily and extended wear contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1984 Oct;25:1161-1167.

    2. Morgan P, Woods CA, Tranoudis IG, Helland M, Efron N, Jones L, Dávila-Garcia E, Magnelli P, eufl M, Grupcheva CN, Jones D, Beeler-Kaupke M, Tan K-O, Pesinova A, Pult H, Ravn O, Santodomingo J, Malet F, Plakitsi A, Végh M, Erdinest N, Chande PK, Itoi M, Bendoriene J, van der worp E, Pintor R, Moroy JL, Chia J, Awasthi S, Lam W, Ronualdez-Oo J, Abesamis-Dichoso C, González-Méijome JM, Belousov V, Gierow P, Silih MS, Hsiao H, Nichols JJ. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum 2015 Jan;30:28-33.

    3. Polse KA, Sarver MD, Harris MG. Corneal edema and vertical striae accompanying the wearing of hydrogel lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1975 Mar;52:185-191.

    4. Harris MG, Sarver MD and Polse KA. Corneal curvature and refractive error changes associated with wearing hydrogel contact lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1975 May;52:313-319.

    5. Holden BA, Fonn D, Moezzi A, Lazon de la Jara P, Richter D, La Hood D. Revised estimate of the oxygen transmissibility needed to produce same level of overnight corneal swelling as that which occurs when no lens is worn. Optom Vis Sci 2012;91:E120676.

    6. Moezzi AM, Fonn D, Simpson TL. Overnight corneal swelling with silicone hydrogel contact lenses with high oxygen transmissibility. Eye Contact Lens. 2006 Dec;32:277-278.

    7. Holden BA, Sweeney DF. The significance of the microcyst response: a review. Optom Vis Sci. 1991 Dec; 68:703-707.

    8. Keay L, Jalbert I, Sweeney DF, Holden BA. Microcysts: clinical significance and differential diagnosis. Optometry 2001 Jul;72:452-460.

    9. Holden BA, Sweeney DF, Vannas A, Nilsson KT, Efron N. Effects of long-term extended contact lens wear on the human cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1985 Nov;26:1489-501.

    10. Dumbleton KA, Chalmers RL, Richter DB, Fonn D. Changes in myopic refractive error with nine months’ extended wear of hydrogel lenses with high and low oxygen permeability. Optom Vis Sci 1999 Dec;76:845-849.

    11. Jalbert I, Stretton S, Naduvilath T, Holden B, Keay L, Sweeney D. Changes in myopia with low-Dk hydrogel and high-Dk silicone hydrogel extended wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2004 Aug;81:591-596.

    12. Grosvenor T. Changes in corneal curvature and subjective refraction of soft contact lens wearers. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1975 Jun;52:405-413.

    13. Kinoshita BT, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Richdale K, Lam DY, Sorbara L, Jansen ME, Wagner H; CLAY Study Group. Rate of change and predictive factors for increasing minus contact lens powers in young myopes. Clin Exp Optom. 2015 Jul;98:323-329.

    14. Papas EB, Vajdic CM, Austen R, Holden BA. High-oxygen-transmissibility soft contact lenses do not induce limbal hyperaemia. Curr Eye Res. 1997 Sep;16:942-948.

    15. Maldonado-Codina C, Morgan PB, Schnider CM, Efron N. Short-term physiologic response in neophyte subjects fitted with hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2004 Dec;81:911-921.

    16. Dumbleton K, Keir N, Moezzi A, Feng Y, Jones L, Fonn D. Objective and subjective responses in patients refitted to daily-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Oct;83:758-768.

    17. Cogan DG. Vascularisation of the cornea: Its experimental induction by small lesions and a new theory of its pathogenesis. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1948;46:457-471.

    18. Collin HB. Limbal vascular response prior to corneal vascularization. Exp Eye Res. 1973 Sep;16:443-455.

    19. Sweeney DF, Gauthier C, Terry R et al. The effects of long-term contact lens wear on the anterior eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.1992;33(S):1293.

    20. McMonnies CW. Contact lens-induced corneal neovascularization. Int Cont lens Clin 1983;10:12-15.

    21. McMonnies CW, Chapman-Davies A, Holden BA. The vascular response to contact lens wear. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1982 Oct;59:795-799.

    22. Nomura K, Nakao M, Matsubara K. Subjective symptom of eye dryness and lifestyle factors with corneal neovascularization in contact lens wearers. Eye Contact Lens. 2004 Apr;30:95-98.

    23. Dumbleton KA, Chalmers RL, Richter DB, Fonn D. Vascular response to extended wear of hydrogel lenses with high and low oxygen permeability. Optom Vis Sci. 2001 Mar;78:147-151.

    24. Fonn D, MacDonald KE, Richter D, Pritchard N. The ocular response to extended wear of a high Dk silicone hydrogel contact lens. Clin Exp Optom. 2002 May;85:176-182.

    25. Bergenske P, Long B, Dillehay S, Barr JT, Donshik P, Secor G, Yoakum J, Chalmers RL. Long-term clinical results: 3 years of up to 30-night continuous wear of lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel and daily wear of low-Dk/t hydrogel lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 Mar;33:74-80.

    26. Horton P, Brennan NA, Efron N. Changes in corneal edema response with age. Clinical & Experimental Optometry. 1989;72(6):206.

    27. Polse KA, Brand R, Mandell R, Vastine D, Demartini D, Flom R. Age differences in corneal hydration control. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1989 Mar;30:392-399.

    28. Lira M, Pereira C, Real Oliveira ME, Castanheira EM. Importance of contact lens power and thickness in oxygen transmissibility. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015 Apr;38:120-126.

    29. Morgan P and Efron N. The oxygen performance of contemporary hydrogel contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 1998;21(1):3-6.

    30. Covey M, Sweeney DF, Terry R, Sankaridurg PR, Holden BA. Hypoxic effects on the anterior eye of high-Dk soft contact lens wearers are negligible. Optom Vis Sci. 2001 Feb;78:95-99.

    31. Morgan PB, Chamberlain P, Moody K, Maldonado-Codina C. Ocular physiology and comfort in neophyte subjects fitted with daily disposable silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Jun;36: 118-125.

    32. Dumbleton K, Richter D, Woods C, Jones L, Fonn D. Compliance with contact lens replacement in Canada and the United States. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Feb;87:131-139.

    33. Dumbleton K, Woods C, Jones L, Fonn D, Sarwer DB. Patient and practitioner compliance with silicone hydrogel and daily disposable lens replacement in the United States. Eye Contact Lens. 2009 Jul;35:164-171.

    34. Dumbleton KA, Richter D, Woods CA, Aakre BM, Plowright A, Morgan PB, Jones LW. A multi-country assessment of compliance with daily disposable contact lens wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Dec;36: 304-312.

    35. Chalmers RL, Keay L, McNally J, Kern J. Multicenter case-control study of the role of lens materials and care products on the development of corneal infiltrates. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Mar;89:316-325.

    36. Young G, Garofalo R, Peters S, Harmer O. The effect of temperature on soft contact lens modulus and diameter. Eye Contact Lens. 2011 Nov;37:337-341.

    37. Dillehay SM, Miller MB. Performance of lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel contact lenses in experienced low Dk/t daily lens wearers. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 Nov;33:272-277.

    38. Riley CM, Young G, Chalmers RL. Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers. The effect of refitting with daily wear silicone hydrogel lenses (stenfilcon A). Eye Contact Lens 2006 Dec;32:281-286.

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(p. 46) Is This the New Norm? – Is Scleral Fogging the New Norm?
By Mile Brujic, OD, FAAO, & David L. Kading, OD, FAAO

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    2. Morrison S. Personal communication. 2015.

    3. Kading D. Personal communication. 2015.

(p. 47) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – The Contact Lens Test Drive
By Jason R. Miller, OD, MBA, FAAO

    1. Dumbleton K, Richter D, Bergenske P, Jones LW. Compliance with lens replacement and the interval between eye examinations. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Apr;90:351-358.

    2. Dumbleton KA, Woods CA, Jones LW, Fonn D. The relationship between compliance with lens replacement and contact lens-related problems in silicone hydrogel wearers. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Oct;34:216-222.

(p. 48) The Business of Contact Lenses – It’s Time to Change the Patient
By Clarke D. Newman, OD, FAAO

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    2. Korb DR, Grenier JV, Herman JP, Hebert E, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Glonek T, Olson MC. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J. 2002 Oct;28:211-216.

    3. Dzurinko V, Quinn, Woods J. Today's Multifocal Opportunity: To grow your practice with a new generation of presbyopes, use the next generation of multifocal contact lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum. February 2012: 2-3.

    4. TFOS International Workshop on Cotnact Lens Discomfort. Invest Ophthamol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;54. Available at

(p. 49) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Colored Contact Lenses for Children
By Melanie Frogozo, OD, FAAO

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(p. 54) Treatment Plan – The Care and Feeding of Contact Lenses
By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO; Monica K. Hines, OD; & Daniel Deligio, OD

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fast Facts. Available at Accessed October 1, 2015.

    2. Collier SA, Gronostaj MP, MacGurn AK, Cope JR, Awsumb KL, Yoder JS, Beach MJ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Estimated burden of keratitis—United States, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Nov;63:1027-1030.