Contact Lens Spectrum


June 2015

Document #235

(p. 12) Refractive Focus –Myopia Update: The Case for More Myopic Defocus
By David A. Berntsen, OD, PhD, FAAO

    1. Katz J, Schein OD, Levy B, et al. A randomized trial of rigid gas permeable contact lenses to reduce progression of children's myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Jul;136:82-90.

    2. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. A randomized trial of the effects of rigid contact lenses on myopia progression. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Dec;122:1760-1766.

    3. Chia A, Chua WH, Wen L, Fong A, Goon YY, Tan D. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia: changes after stopping atropine 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.5%. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb;157:451-457.e1.

    4. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M, et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Apr;44:1492-1500.

    5. Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial 2 Study Group for the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Progressive-addition lenses versus single-vision lenses for slowing progression of myopia in children with high accommodative lag and near esophoria. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr;52: 2749-2757.

    6. Berntsen DA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. A randomized trial using progressive addition lenses to evaluate theories of myopia progression in children with a high lag of accommodation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Feb 13;53:640-649.

    7. Berntsen DA, Barr CD, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. Peripheral defocus and myopia progression in myopic children randomly assigned to wear single vision and progressive addition lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Aug 27;54:5761-5770.

    8. Cheng D, Woo GC, Drobe B, Schmid KL. Effect of bifocal and prismatic bifocal spectacles on myopia progression in children: three-year results of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar;132:258-264.

    9. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res. 2005 Jan;30:71-80.

    10. Kakita T, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr 6;52:2170-2174.

    11. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep;93:1181-1185.

    12. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) study: a 2-year randomized clinical trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Oct 11;53:7077-7085.

    13. Kang P, Swarbrick H. Peripheral refraction in myopic children wearing orthokeratology and gas-permeable lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Apr;88:476-482.

    14. Charm J, Cho P. High myopia-partial reduction ortho-k: a 2-year randomized study. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Jun;90(6):530-539.

    15. Zhong Y, Chen Z, Xue F, Zhou J, Niu L, Zhou X. Corneal power change is predictive of myopia progression in orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Apr;91:404-411.

    16. Berntsen DA, Kramer CE. Peripheral defocus with spherical and multifocal soft contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1215-1224.

    17. Lam CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, Tang YY, To CH. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;98:40-45.

    18. Aller T, Wildsoet C, Liu M. CONTROL: A 12 month, randomized bifocal soft contact lens trial targeting myopia progression. Optom Vis Sci. 2014:E-abstract 140007.

    19. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.

(p. 14) Prescribing for Astigmatism – Correcting Higher Levels of Regular Astigmatism
By Heidi G. Miller, OD; Tiffany Gates, OD; & Timothy B. Edrington, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Snyder, C. A Review and Discussion of Crossed Cylinder Effects and Over-refractions with Toric Soft Contact Lenses. International Contact Lens Clinic. 1989 Apr:16;113-118.

(p. 15) GP Insights – Toric GP Lens Rotation and Induced Astigmatism
By John Mark Jackson, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Jackson JM. Tune up Your Torics. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Feb;29:22, 23, 25-27.

(p. 19) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Prescribe Lid Hygiene, Especially for Makeup Wearers
By Katherine M. Mastrota, MS, OD, FAAO

    1. Ng A, Evans K, North RV, Purslow C. Migration of Cosmetic Products into the Tear Film. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 Mar 3 [Epub ahead of print].

    2. Kadri R, Achar A, Tantry TP, Parameshwar D, Kudva A, Hegde S. Mascara induced milphosis, an etiological evaluation. Int J Trichology. 2013 Jul;5:144-147.

    3. Amano Y, Sugimoto Y, Sugita M. Ocular disorders due to eyelash extensions. Cornea. 2012 Feb;31:121-125.

    4. Ianchenko SV, Sakhnov SN, Malyshev AV, Fedotova NV, Orekhova OIu, Grishchenko IV. [Treatment of chronic allergic blepharoconjunctivitis]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2014 Sep-Oct;130(5):78, 80-84.

    5. Morris S. New Standards for Dry Eye Disease. Optometric Management. 2015 Apr;50:16-18.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – My List of Contact Lens Care Recommendations
By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO

    1. Ward MA. The Bullet List of Contact Lens Care Recommendations. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2008 Sep;23:21.

    2. UT Health Science Center San Antonio, Department of Ophthalmology. Conact Lens Safety, Joint Recommendations. Accessed at Link doesn’t work. Gives garbled characters.

    3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Contact Lens Solutions and Products. Accessed at

    4. Centers for Disease Control. Healthy Contact Lens Wear and Care. Accessed at

(p. 22) Daily Disposables for the 21st Century
By Stephanie M. Cox, OD, FAAO, & Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO

    1. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:22-27.

    2. Ablamowicz A, Nichols JJ. 2014 Report on Dry Eye Diseases. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Jul;22-25, 27-29.

    3. Chalmers RL, Hickson-Curran SB, Keay L, Gleason WJ, Albright R. Rates of adverse events with hydrogel and silicone hydrogel daily disposable lenses in a large postmarket surveillance registry: the TEMPO Registry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jan;56:654-663.

    4. Lazon de la Jara P, Papas E, Diec J, Naduvilath T, Willcox MD, Holden BA. Effect of lens care systems on the clinical performance of a contact lens. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Apr;90:344-350.

    5. Nason RJ, Boshnick EL, Cannon WM, et al. Multisite comparison of contact lens modalities. Daily disposable wear vs. conventional daily wear in successful contact lens wearers. J Am Optom Assoc. 1994 Nov;65:774-780.

    6. Nilsson SEG, Söderqvist M. 1995. Clinical performance of a daily disposable contact lens: a 3-month prospective study. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 1995 Jan;18:81-86.

    7. Hickson-Curran S, Spyridon M, Hunt C, Young G. The use of daily disposable lenses in problematic reusable contact lens wearers. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2014 Aug;37:285-291.

    8. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    9. Dumbleton KA, Richter D, Woods CA, et al. A multi-country assessment of compliance with daily disposable contact lens wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Dec;36:304-312.

    10. Bonanno JA, Clark C, Pruitt J, Alvord L. Tear oxygen under hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses in humans. Optom Vis Sci. 2009Aug;86:E936-E942.

    11. Filipecki J, Sitarz M, Kocela A, et al. Studying functional properties of hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses with PALS, MIR and Raman spectroscopy. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Oct;131:686-690.

    12. Guillon M. Are silicone hydrogel contact lenses more comfortable than hydrogel contact lenses? Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:86-92.

    13. Szczotka-Flynn L. Looking at silicone hydrogels across generations. Optometric Management. 2008 May;43:68-71.

    14. Chou, BC. The evolution of silicone hydrogel lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum 2008 Jun; 22:37-39.

    15. Varikooty J, Schulze MM, Dumbleton K, et al. Clinical Performance of Three Silicone Hydrogel Daily Disposable Lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Jan 25. [Epub ahead of print]

    16. Jones L, Brennan NA, Gonzalez-Meijome J, et al; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the Contact Lens Materials, Design, and Care Subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;54:TFOS37-TFOS70.

    17. Cho P, Cheung SW, Charm J. Visual outcome of Soflens Daily Disposable and Soflens Daily Disposable for Astigmatism in subjects with low astigmatism. Clin Exp Optom. 2012 Jan;95:43-47.

    18. Sulley A, Young G, Lorenz KO, Hunt C. Clinical evaluation of fitting toric soft contact lenses to current non-users. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013 Mar;33:94-103.

    19. Morgan PB, Efron N, Woods CA; International Contact Lens Prescribing Survey Consortium. An international survey of toric contact lens prescribing. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Mar;39:132-137.

    20. Efron N, Morgan PB, Woods CA, International Contact Lens Prescribing Survey Consortium. An international survey of daily disposable contact lens prescribing. Clin Exp Optom. 2013 Jan;96:58-64.

    21. Efron N, Morgan PB, Helland M, et al. Soft toric contact lens prescribing in different countries. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Feb;34:36-38.

    22. Efron N, Efron SE, Morgan PB, Morgan SL. A 'cost-per-wear' model based on contact lens replacement frequency. Clin Exp Optom. 2010 Jul;93:253-260.

    23. Morgan PB, Efron N, Woods CA; International Contact Lens Prescribing Survey Consortium. An international survey of contact lens prescribing for presbyopia. Clin Exp Optom. 2011 Jan;94:87-92.

    24. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.

    25. Smith EL 3rd. Optical treatment strategies to slow myopia progression: Effects of the visual extent of the optical treatment zone. Exp Eye Res. 2013 Sep;114:77-88.

    26. Chalmers RL, Wagner H, Mitchell GL, et al. Age and other risk factors for corneal infiltrative and inflammatory events in young soft contact lens wearers from the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Aug;52:6690-6696.

    27. Peterson RC, Wolffsohn JS, Nick J, Winterton L, Lally J. Clinical performance of daily disposable soft contact lenses using sustained release technology. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2006 Jul;29:127-134.

    28. Wolffsohn JS, Hunt OA, Chowdhury A. Objective clinical performance of 'comfort-enhanced' daily disposable soft contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010 Apr;33:88-92.

    29. Koh S, Maeda N, Hamano T, et al. Effect of internal lubricating agents of disposable soft contact lenses on higher-order aberrations after blinking. Eye Contact Lens. 2008 Mar;34:100-105.

    30. Tashakori-Sabzevar F, Mohajeri SA. Development of ocular drug delivery systems using molecularly imprinted soft contact lenses. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2014 Aug 12. [Epub ahead of print]

    31. Morrison PW, Khutoryanskiy VV. Advances in ophthalmic drug delivery. Ther Deliv. 2014 Dec;5:1297-1315.

    32. Carvalho IM, Marques CS, Oliveira RS, Coelho PB, Costa PC, Ferreira DC. Sustained drug release by contact lenses for glaucoma treatment-a review. J Control Release. 2015 Mar 28;202:76-82.

    33. Bajgrowicz M, Phan CM, Subbaraman L, Jones L. Release of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin from daily disposable contact lenses from an in vitro eye model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Mar 12. [Epub ahead of print]

    34. Tieppo A, Pate KM, Byrne ME. In vitro controlled release of an anti-inflammatory from daily disposable therapeutic contact lenses under physiological ocular tear flow. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2012 May;81:170-177.

    35. Hui A, Willcox M, Jones L. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of novel ciprofloxacin-releasing silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Jul;55:4896-4904.

    36. Farandos NM, Yetisen AK, Monteiro MJ, Lowe CR, Yun SH. Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics. Adv Healthc Mater 2015 Apr;4:792-810.

(p. 38) Beyond Irregular: Scleral Lenses for Everyday Use
By Langis Michaud, OD, MSc, FAAO (Dipl), FSLS, FBCLA

    1. Van der Worp E, Bornman D, Ferreira DL, Faria-Ribeiro M, Garcia-Porta N, González-Meijome JM. Modern scleral contact lenses: A review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2014 Aug;37:240-250.

    2. Rumpakis, J. New data on contact lens dropouts: An international perspective. Rev Optom. 2010;147(1):37-44.

    3. Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R. Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a). Eye Contact Lens. 2006 Dec;32:281-286.

    4. Alipour F, Kheirkhah A, Jabarvand Behrouz M. Use of mini scleral contact lenses in moderate to severe dry eye. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2012 Dec;35:272-276.

    5. Maeda N. Evaluation of optical quality of corneas using corneal topographers. Cornea. 2002 Oct;21(7 Suppl):S75-S78.

    6. Altman B. Injury of a mini-scleral contact lens wearer. Contact Lenses Today Jan 20, 2013. Accessible at

    7. Walker M, Caroline P, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, Zheng F, André M, Kojima R. The protective advantage of scleral contact lenses. Poster presented at Global Specialty Lens Symposium. Las Vegas, Jan. 2015.

    8. Michaud L, van der Worp E, Brazeau D, Warde R, Giasson CJ. Predicting estimates of oxygen transmissibility for scleral lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2012 Dec;35:266-71.

    9. Compañ V, Oliveira C, Aguilella-Arzo M, Mollá S, Peixoto-de-Matos S, González-Méijome JM. Oxygen diffusion and edema with modern scleral rigid gas permeable contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Sep 4;55:6421-9. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14038.

    10. Jaynes JM, Edrington TB, Weissman BA. Predicting scleral GP lens entrapped tear layer oxygen tensions. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015 Feb;38:44-7.

    11. Van der Worp E. 2015.

    12. Caroline P, McMahon J, Lotoczky, J, Rosen C, Michaud L. Scleral lenses: new opportunities, new challenges. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Jan. 2015.

    13. DeNaeyer, GW. The scleral lens vault: Scleral lenses and the limbus. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:46.

    14. Bath C, Yang S, Muttuvelu D, Fink T, Emmersen J, Vorum H, Hjortdal J, Zachar V. Hypoxia is a key regulator of limbal epithelial stem cell growth and differentiation. Stem Cell Res. 2013 May;10(3):349-60.

    15. Caroline P. Managing corneal-scleral lenses and scleral lenses complications. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Jan. 2014.

    16. Schornack MM, Patel SV. Scleral lenses in the management of keratoconus. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Jan;36:39–44.

    17. Sweeney DF, Millar TJ, Raju SR. Tear film stability: a review. Exp Eye Res. 2013 Dec;117:28-38.

    18. Madrid-Costa D, Tomás E, Ferrer-Blasco T, García-Lázaro S, Montés-Micó R. Visual performance of a multifocal toric soft contact lens. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Nov;89:1627-35.

    19. Cho P, Cheung SW, Charm J. Visual outcome of Soflens Daily Disposable and Soflens Daily Disposable for Astigmatism in subjects with low astigmatism. Clin Exp Optom. 2012 Jan;95:43-7.

    20. Richdale K, Berntsen DA, Mack CJ, Merchea MM, Barr JT. Visual acuity with spherical and toric soft contact lenses in low- to moderate-astigmatic eyes. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Oct;84:969-75.

    21. Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low-astigmatic presbyopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 May;83:266-73.

    22. Messer BM, Woo SL, Bennett ES. Presbyopic lens patient management and troubleshooting. Contact Lens Spectrum 2015 Mar;30:20-23, 25-28

(p. 38) More Screen Time = More Digital Eye Strain
By Lee Hall, BSc (Hons), PhD, FBCLA, & Chantal Coles-Brennan, BSc, OD, FAAO

    1. The Vision Council. DigitEYEzed: The daily impact of digital screens on the eye health of Americans. 2013.

    2. American Optometric Association. Screen Time. AOA Focus. 2014 Jul/Aug:20. Available at

    3. Lubell J. Solving for Sight. AOA Focus, 2014 Jul/Aug:21-31. Available at

    4. The Nielson Company. The U.S. Digital Consumer Report: 2.10.2014. Accessed April 24, 2014.

    5. Bababekova Y, Rosenfield M, Hue JE, Huang RR. Font size and viewing distance of handheld smart phones. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Jul;88:795-797.

    6. Young G, Sulley A, Hunt C. Prevalence of astigmatism in relation to soft contact lens fitting. Eye Cont Lens. 2011 Jan;37:20-25.

    7. Collier JD, Rosenfield M. Accommodation and convergence during sustained computer work. Optometry. 2011 Jul;82:434-440.

    8. Gray LS, Winn B, Gilmartin B. Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1993 Jul;13:258-265.

    9. Simmers AJ, Gray LS, Wilkins AJ. The influence of tinted lenses upon ocular accommodation. Vision Res. 2001 Apr;41:1229-1238.

    10. Watten RG, Lie I, Birketvedt O. The influence of long-term visual near-work on accommodation and vergence: A field study. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo). 1994 Jun;23:27-39.

    11. Nyman KG, Knave BG, Voss M. Work with video display terminals among office employees: IV. Refraction, accommodation, convergence and binocular vision. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1985 Dec;11:483-487.

    12. Cole BL, Maddocks JD, Sharpe K. Effect of VDUs on the eyes: Report of a 6-year epidemiological study. Optom Vis Sci. 1996 Aug;73:512-528.

    13. Thorud HM, Helland M, Aarås A, Kvikstad TM, Lindberg LG, Horgen G. Eye-related pain induced by visually demanding computer work. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Apr;89:E452-E464.

    14. Rosenfield M. Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2011 Sep:31:502-515.

    15. Hayes JR, Sheedy JE, Stelmack JA, Heaney CA. Computer use, symptoms, and quality of life. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Aug;84:738-755

    16. Portello JK, Rosenfield M, Chu CA. Blink Rate, incomplete blinks and computer vision syndrome. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 May;90:482-487.

    17. Patel S, Henderson R, Bradley L, Galloway B, Hunter L. Effect of visual display unit use on blink rate and tear stability. Optom Vis Sci. 1991Nov;68:888-892.

    18. Collins MJ, Iskander DR, Saunders A, Hook S, Anthony E, Gillon R. Blinking patterns and corneal staining. Eye Contact Lens. 2006 Dec;32:287-293.

    19. Chu CA, Rosenfield M, Portello JK. Blink Patterns: Reading from a computer screen versus hard copy. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Mar;91:297-302.

    20. González-Méijome JM, Parafita MA, Yebra-Pimentel E, Almeida JB. Symptoms in a population of contact lens and noncontact lens wearers under different environmental conditions. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:296-302.

    21. Pult H, Purslow C, Berry M, Murphy PJ. Clinical Tests for successful contact lens wear: relationship and predictive potential. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Oct;85:E924-E929.

(p. 44) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – Ready for Something New?
By Jason R. Miller, OD, MBA, FAAO

    1. Studebaker J. Soft Multifocals: Practice Growth Opportunity. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2009 June;6:40-43.