Contact Lens Spectrum


August 2015

Document #237

(p. 12) Refractive Focus – Visual Assessment in the Digital Age
By Jason Marsack, PhD

    1. Kollbaum PS, Jansen ME, Kollbaum EJ, Bullimore MA. Validation of an iPad test of letter contrast sensitivity. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Mar;91:291-296.

    2. Dorr M, Lesmes LA, Lu ZL, Bex PJ. Rapid and reliable assessment of the contrast sensitivity function on an iPad. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;54:7266-7273.

    3. Lesmes LA, Lu ZL, Baek J, Albright TD. Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method. J Vis. 2010 Mar;10:17.1-21.

    4. Turpin A, Lawson DJ, McKendrick AM. PsyPad: a platform for visual psychophysics on the iPad. J Vis. 2014 Mar;14:16.

    5. Templeton JP, Struebing FL, Lemmon A, Geisert EE. ImagePAD, a novel counting application for the Apple iPad, used to quanify axons in the mouse optic nerve. Exp Eye Res. 2014 Nov;128:102-108.

(p. 14) Prescribing for Astigmatism – Tips for Fitting Daily Disposable Lenses for Astigmatism
By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Snyder, C. A review and discussion of crossed cylinder effects and over-refractions with toric soft contact lenses. ICLC. 1989 Apr;16:113-118.

    2. Quinn, TG. Soft Toric Rotation: How Much is Too Much? Contact Lens Spectrum. 2009 Mar;24:48.

    3. Richdale K, Berntsen DA, Mack CJ, Merchea MM, Barr JT. Visual acuity with spherical and toric soft contact lenses in low-to-moderate astigmatic eyes. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Oct;84:969-975.

    4. Bergenske P. Correcting astigmatism: more or less. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2003 June;18:21.

(p. 15) GP Insights – Optical Zone Size Changes and GP Lens Performance
By Catherine Tuong, OD, & John Mark Jackson, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Kojima R. Personal communication (2015).

    2. Theodoroff CD, Lowther GE. Quantitative effect of optic zone diameter changes on rigid gas permeable lens movement and centration. International Contact Lens Clinic. 1990 Mar-Apr;17:92-95.

    3. Kojima R, Caroline P. Designing GPs from Corneal Topography. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2009 Oct;24:34-36, 38-40. Available at

(p. 19) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – An Upgraded Peroxide Lens Care Solution Enters the Market
By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO

    1. Personal communication, Bill Redman, Brand Manager, Alcon Laboratories, Inc.

    2. Clear Care Plus with HydraGlyde product insert.

    3. Gabriel M, Walters R, McAnally C, Bartell J, Crary M, Catalone B. Biocidal Efficacy of a Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Incorporating a Novel Wetting Agent. Poster presented at the British Contact Lens Association Clinical Conference (BCLA poster ID#49), May 2015.

    4. Ward MA. Revisiting Hydrogen Peroxide Disinfection. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2006 May;21:23.

    5. Ward MA. Soft Contact Lens Care Products. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2003 July;18:30-34.

(p. 20) Practical Red Eye Problem-Solving
By Thomas G. Quinn, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Paley L, Zornitzki T, Cohen J, Friedman J, Kozak N. Schattner A. Utility of clinical examination in the diagnosis of emergency department patients admitted to the department of medicine of an academic hospital. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Aug;171:1394-1396.

    2. Nichols KK, Foulks GN, Bron AJ, Glasgow BJ, Dogru M. Tsubota K, Lemp MA, Sullivan DA. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar;52:1922-1929.

    3. Papas EB, Vajdic CM, Austen R, Holden BA. High oxygen transmissibility soft contact lenses do not induce limbal hyperaemia. Curr Eye Res. 1997 Sept;16:942-948.

    4. Mueller N, Caroline P, Smythe J, Mai-Le K, Bergemske G. A comparison of overnight swelling response with two high Dk silicone hydrogel contact lenses. [AAO Abstract] Optom Vis Sci.2001;78:199.

    5. Quinn TG, Schoessler JP. Human corneal epithelial oxygen demand-population characteristics. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1984 Jun;61:386-388.

    6. Larke JR, Parrish ST, Wigham CG. Apparent human corneal oxygen uptake rate. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1981 Oct;58:803-805.

    7. Dumbleton KA, Chalmers RL, Richter DB, Fonn D. Vascular response to extended wear of hydrogel lenses with high and low oxygen permeability. Optom Vis Sci. 2001 Mar;78:147-151.

    8. Keay L, Sweeney D, Jalbert, I et al, Microcyst response to high Dk/t silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2000 Nov;77:582-585.

    9. Chalmers RL, Hickson-Curran SB, Keay L, Gleason WJ, Albright R. Rates of adverse events with hydrogel and silicone hydrogel daily disposable lenses in a large post market surveillance registry: the TEMPO Registry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jan 8;56:654-663.

    10. Dumbleton KA, Chalmers RL, Richter DB, Fonn D. Changes in myopic refractive error with nine months’ extended wear of hydrogel lenses with high and low oxygen permeability. Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Dec;76:845-849.

    11. Holden BA, Stephenson A, Stretton S, Sankaridurg PR, O’Hare N, Jalbert I, Sweeney DF. Superior epithelial arcuate lesions with soft contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2001 Jan;78:9-12.

    12. Sankaridurg P, Skotnitsky C, Pearce DJ, Sweeney DF, Holden BA. Contact lens papilliary conjunctivitis - A review. In Optometry in Practice, vol 2, 19-28.

    13. Sweeney DF, Jalbert I, Covey M, Sankaridurg PR, Vajdic C, Holden BA, Sharma S, Ramachandran L, Willcox MD, Rao GN. Clinical characterization of corneal infiltrative events observed with soft contact lens wear. Cornea. 2003 Jul;22:435-442.

    14. Szczotka-Flynn L, Diaz M. Risk of corneal inflammatory events with silicone hydrogel and low Dk hydrogel extended contact lens wear: A meta-analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:247-256.

    15. Wagner H, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Jansen ME, Kinoshita BT, Lam DY, McMahon TT, Richdale K, Sorbara L; CLAY Study Group. Risk factors for interruption to soft contact lens wear in children and young adults. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Aug;88:973-980.

    16. Radford CF, Minassian D, Dart JK, Stapleton F. Verma S. Risk factors for nonulcerative contact lens complications in an ophthalmic accident and emergency department: a case-control study. Ophthalmology. 2009 Mar;116:385-392.

    17. Subbaraman LN, Borazjani R, Zhu H, Zhao Z, Jones L, Willcox MD. Influence of protein deposition on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Aug;88:959-966.

    18. Chalmers RL, Keay L, McNally J, Kern J. Multicenter case-control study of the role of lens materials and care products on the development of corneal infiltrates. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Mar;89:316-325.

    19. Poggio EC, Glynn RJ, Schein OD, Seddon JM, Shannon MJ, Scardino VA, Kenyon KR. The incidence of ulcerative keratitis among users of daily-wear and extended-wear soft contact lenses. N Engl J Med. 1989 Sep 21;321:779-783.

    20. Schein OD, McNally JJ, Katz J, Chalmers RL, Tielsch JM, Alfonso E, Bullimore M, O’Day D. Shovin. The Incidence of microbial keratitis among wearersof a 30-day silicone hydrogel extended-wear contact lens. Ophthalmology. 2005 Dec;112:2172-2179.

    21. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden, BA. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Opththalmology. 2008 Oct;115:1655-1662.

    22. Szczotka-Flynn LB. New gold standard references for contact lens-related MK. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2009 Jan;24:15-16.

    23. Wu YT, Zhu H, Willcox M, Stapleton F. Removal of biofilm from contact lens storage cases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec;51:6329-6333.

    24. Lakkis C, Anastasopoulos F, Terry C, Borazjani R. Time course of the development of contact lens case and contact lens contamination. Abstract presented at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology meeting, 2009; Ft. Lauderdale, FL.

    25. Musa F, Tailor R, Gao A, Hutley E, Rauz S, Scott RA. Contact lens-related microbial keratitis in deployed British military personnel. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 Aug;94:988-993.

    26. Srinivasan M, Mascarenhas J, Prashanth CN. Distinguishing infective versus noninfective keratitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008 May-Jun;56:203-207.

    27. Ray KJ, Srinivasan M, Mascarenhas J, Rajaraman R, Ravindran M, Glidden DV, Oldenburg CE, Sun CQ, Zegans ME, McLeod SD, Acharya NR, Lietman TM. Early addition of topical corticosteroids in the treatment of bacterial keratitis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Jun;132:737-741.

    28. Grant T, Chong MS, Vajdic C, Swarbrick HA, Gauthier C, Sweeney DF, Holdern BA. Contact lens induced peripheral ulcers during hydrogel contact lens wear. CLAO J. 1998 Jul;24:145-151.

(p. 30) More Than Just Juice: Updates in Lens Care
By Alex Hui, OD, PhD, FAAO

    1. Szczotka-Flynn L, Ahearn DG, Barr J, Benjamin, WJ, Kiang T, Nichols JJ, Schein OD, Stone RP, Winterton L. History, evolution, and evolving standards of contact lens care. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Jan 15;36 Suppl 1:S4-S8.

    2. Jones L, Macdougall B, Sorbara LG. Asymptomatic corneal staining associated with the use of balafilcon silicone-hydrogel contact lenses disinfected with a polyaminopropyl biguanide-preserved care regimen. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Dec;79:753-761.

    3. Lipener C; Contact Lens Advisory in Scientific Studies (CLASS) Group. A randomized clinical comparison of OPTI-FREE EXPRESS and ReNu MultiPLUS multipurpose lens care solutions. Adv Ther. 2009 Apr;26:435-446.

    4. Malet F. An acute clinical comparison of corneal staining and comfort associated with contact lens care solutions. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2014 Oct;37:351-357.

    5. Jones L, Powell CH. Uptake and release phenomena in contact lens care by silicone hydrogel lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:29-36.

    6. Scheuer, Fridman KM, Barniak VL, Burke SE, Venkatesh S. Retention of conditioning agent hyaluronan on hydrogel contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010 Dec;33 Suppl 1:S2-S6.

    7. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Contact Lens Microbiology Workshop. 2014. Retrieved 05/07/2015, from

    8. Chang DC, Grant GB, O'Donnell K, Wannemuehler KA, Noble-Wang J, Rao CY, Jacobson LM, Crowell CS, Sneed RS, Lewis FMT, Schaffzin JK, Kainer MA, Genese CA, Alfonso EC, Jones DB, Srinivasan A, Fridkin SK, Park BJ. Multistate outbreak of Fusarium keratitis associated with use of a contact lens solution. JAMA. 2006 Aug23;296:953-963.

    9. Bullock JD, Warwar RE. Contact lens solution-associated Acanthamoeba and Fusarium keratitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Sep;16:1501-1502.

    10. Bullock JD, Warwar RE, Elder BL, Northern WI. Temperature instability of ReNu with MoistureLoc: A new theory to explain the worldwide Fusarium keratitis epidemic of 2004-2006. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov;126:1493-1498.

    11. Verani JR, Lorick SA, Yoder JS, Beach MJ, Braden CR, Roberts JM, Conover CS, Chen S, McConnell KA, Chang DC, Park BJ, Jones DB, Visvesvara GS, Roy SL. National outbreak of Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with use of a contact lens solution, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Aug;15:1236-1242.

    12. McGrath D, Costanzo SP, Manchester RJ, Kaiser JJ, Norton SE, McCormick PJ. Comparative antimicrobial activity of no-rub multipurpose lens care solutions in the presence of organic soil. Eye Contact Lens. 2003 Oct;29:245-249.

    13. Zhang S, Borazjani RN, Salamone JC, Ahearn DG, Crow SA Jr, and Pierce GE. In vitro deposition of lysozyme on etafilcon A and balafilcon A hydrogel contact lenses: Effects on adhesion and survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2005 Sep;28:113-119.

    14. Hildebrandt C, Wagner D, Kohlmann T, Kramer A. In-vitro analysis of the microbicidal activity of 6 contact lens care solutions. BMC Infect Dis. 2012 Oct3;12:241.

    15. Green JA, Phillips KS, Hitchins VM, Lucas AD, Shoff ME, Hutter JC, Rorer EM, Eydelman MB. Material properties that predict preservative uptake for silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2012 Nov;38:350-357.

    16. Hutter JC, Green JA, Eydelman MB. Proposed silicone hydrogel contact lens grouping system for lens care product compatibility testing. Eye Contact Lens. 2012 Nov;38:358-362.

    17. Lorentz H, Jones L. Lipid deposition on hydrogel contact lenses: How history can help us today. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:286-295.

    18. Amos C. Clinical testing of the MicroBlock antimicrobial lens case. Optician. 2005 Jul 1;229:16-20.

    19. Amos CF, George MD. Clinical and laboratory testing of a silver-impregnated lens case. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2006 Dec;29:247-255.

    20. Dantam J, Zhu H, Willcox M, Ozkan J, Naduvilath T, Thomas V, Stapleton F. In vivo assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of silver-impregnated contact lens storage cases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Mar 16;53:1641-1648.

    21. Dutta D, Willcox MD. Antimicrobial contact lenses and lens cases: a review. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 Sep;40:312-324.

    22. Dutta D, Cole N, Kumar N, Willcox MD. Broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of melimine covalently bound to contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jan 7;54:175-182.

    23. Dutta D, Ozkan J, Willcox MD. Biocompatibility of antimicrobial melimine lenses: Rabbit and human studies. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 May;91:570-581.

    24. Dumbleton K, Caffery B, Dogru M, Hickson-Curran S, Kern J, Kojima T, Morgan PB, Purslow C, Robertson DM, Nelson JD. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the subcommittee on epidemiology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS20-TFOS36.

    25. Nichols JJ, Willcox MD, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Jones L, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    26. Subbaraman L, Omali NB, Heynen M, Lada M, Canavan K, Jones L. Could lipid deposition on contact lenses be beneficial? Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015 Feb;38:Suppl 1 e10.

(p. 34) Conjunctival Responses to Contact Lens Wear
By Jill Woods, BSc (Hons), MCOptom, FAAO, FBCLA

    1. Maldonado-Codina C, Morgan PB, Schnider CM, Efron N. Short-term physiologic response in neophyte subjects fitted with hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2004 Dec;81:911-921.

    2. Papas E. On the relationship between soft contact lens oxygen transmissibility and induced limbal hyperaemia. Exp Eye Res. 1998 Aug;67:125-131.

    3. Michaud L, Giasson CJ. Overwear of contact lenses: increased severity of clinical signs as a function of protein adsorption. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Mar;79:184-192.

    4. Young G, Coleman S. Poorly fitting soft lenses affect ocular integrity. CLAO J. 2001 Apr;27:68-74.

    5. Holden BA, La Hood D, Grant T, Newton-Howes J, Baleriola-Lucas C, Willcox MD, Sweeney DF. Gram-negative bacteria can induce contact lens related acute red eye (CLARE) responses. CLAO J. 1996 Jan;22:47-52.

    6. Foulks G, Chalmers R, Keir N, Woods CA, Simpson T, Lippman R, Gleason W, Schaumberg DA, Willcox MD, Jalbert I, members of the TIWoCLD. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the subcommittee on clinical trial design and outcomes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS157-TFOS183.

    7. Morgan PB, Maldonado-Codina C. Corneal staining: do we really understand what we are seeing? Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2009 Apr;32:48-54.

    8. Papas E. Lissamine green versus rose bengal. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Jul;29:16-17.

    9. Maissa C, Guillon M, Garofalo RJ. Contact lens-induced circumlimbal staining in silicone hydrogel contact lenses worn on a daily wear basis. Eye Contact Lens. 2012 Jan;38:16-26.

    10. Lakkis C, Brennan NA. Bulbar conjunctival fluorescein staining in hydrogel contact lens wearers. CLAO J. 1996 Jul;22:189-194.

    11. Guillon M, Maissa C. Bulbar conjunctival staining in contact lens wearers and non lens wearers and its association with symptomatology. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2005 Jun;28:67-73.

    12. Pult H, Murphy PJ, Purslow C. A novel method to predict the dry eye symptoms in new contact lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Sep;86:E1042-E1050.

    13. Keir N, Woods J, Sickenberger W. The conjunctival response to soft contact lens wear: A practical guide. Optometry in Practice (UK). 2010 Aug;11:123-134.

    14. Løfstrøm T, Kruse A. A conjunctival response to silicone hydrogel lens wear. Contact lens Spectrum. 2005 Sep;20:42-44.

    15. Markoulli M, Carnt N, Jalbert I, Keay L, Naduvilath T, Papas E. Resolution and clinical characteristics of conjunctival flaps. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 May;48:E-abstract 5391.

    16. Markoulli M, Francis IC, Yong J, Jalbert I, Carnt N, Cole N, Papas E. A histopathological study of bulbar conjunctival flaps occurring in 2 contact lens wearers. Cornea. 2011 Sep;30:1037-1041.

    17. Santodomingo-Rubido J, Wolffsohn J, Gilmartin B. Conjunctival epithelial flaps with 18 months of silicone hydrogel contact lens wear. Eye Contact Lens. 2008 Jan;34:35-38.

    18. Graham AD, Truong TN, Lin MC. Conjunctival epithelial flap in continuous contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Apr;86:e324-e331.

    19. Lin MC, Truong TN, Thota S, Perregin J. Conjunctival epithelial flaps with silicone hydrogel lenses worn for daily wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Dec;82:E-abstract 050078.

    20. Hoh H. Lid-Parallel Conjunctival Fold (LIPCOF) and Dry Eye: A Diagnostic Tool for the Contactologist. CLOA Journal 1995;22:152.

    21. Veres A, Tapasztó B, Kosina-Hagyó K, Somfai GM, Németh J. Imaging lid-parallel conjunctival folds with OCT and comparing its grading with the slit lamp classification in dry eye patients and normal subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 May 5;52:2945-2951.

    22. Chalmers R. The current state of soft contact lens comfort. Optician. 2014 Feb;247:6-16.

    23. Berry M, Pult H, Purslow C, Murphy PJ. Mucins and ocular signs in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Oct;85:E930-E938.

    24. Németh J, Fodor E, Lang Z, Kosina-Hagyó K, Berta A, Komár T, Petricek I, Higazy M, Prost M, Grupcheva C, Kemer OE, Schollmayer P, Samaha A, Hlavackova K. Lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF) and dry eye: a multicentre study. Br J Ophthalmol 2012 Nov;96:1380-1385.

    25. Pult H, Riede-Pult BH, Murphy PJ. The relation between blinking and conjunctival folds and dry eye symptoms. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;90:1034-1039.

    26. Hall PA, Watt FM. Stem cells: the generation and maintenance of cellular diversity. Development. 1989 Aug;106:619-633.

    27. Wiley L, SundarRaj N, Sun TT, Thoft RA. Regional heterogeneity in human corneal and limbal epithelia: an immunohistochemical evaluation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991 Mar;32:594-602.

    28. Jeng BH, Halfpenny CP, Meisler DM, Stock EL. Management of focal limbal stem cell deficiency associated with soft contact lens wear. Cornea. 2011 Jan;30:18-23.

    29. Chan CC, Holland EJ. Severe limbal stem cell deficiency from contact lens wear: patient clinical features. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Mar;155:544-549 e2.

(p. 42) The Business of Contact Lenses – Myopia Is a Disease, People!
By Clarke D. Newman, OD, FAAO

    1. Morgan IG, Ohno-Matsui K, Saw SM. Myopia. Lancet. 2012 May 5;379:1739-1748.

    2. Drobe B. Wenzhou Medical University-Essilor International Research Center (WEIRC). 2013.

    3. Flitcroft DI. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012 Nov;31:622-660.

    4. Smith, Earl L III. Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A Case for Peripheral Optical Treatment Strategies for Myopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Sept;88:1029-1044.

    5. Gwiazda, J, Hyman L, Norton TT, Hussein ME, Marsh-Tootle W, Manny R, Wang Y, Everett D; COMET Group. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 July;45: 2143-2151.

    6. Rose KA, Morgan IG, Ip J, Kifley A, Huynh S, Smith W, Mitchell P. Ophthalmology. 2008 Aug;115:1279-1285.

(p. 44) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Refractive Error Considerations
By Melanie Frogozo, OD, FAAO

    1. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott L, Chitkara M, Coffey B, Jackson JM, Manny RE, Rah MJ, Prinstein MJ, ACHIEVE Study Group. Randomized trial of the effect of contact lens wear on self-perception in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Mar; 86:222-232.

    2. Augsburger AR. Hyperopia. In: Amos JF, ed. Diagnosis and management in vision care. Boston: Butterworths, 1987:101-119.

    3. Moore BD. Contact lens problems and management in infants, toddlers, and preschool children. Probl Optom. 1990;2:365-393.

    4. Moore BD, Augsburger AR, Ciner EB, Cockrell DA, Fern KD, Harb E. Care of Patient with Hyperopia Reference Guide for Clinicians. American Optometric Association Clinical Practice Guideline 2008:1-51.

    5. Goss DA, Grosvenor TP, Keller JT, Marsh-Tootle W, Norton TT, Zadnik K. Care of Patient with Myopia Reference Guide for Clinicians. American Optometric Association Clinical Practice Guideline 2006:1-70.

    6. Rouse MW., et al. Care of Patient with Amblyopia Reference Guide for Clinicians. American Optometric Association Clinical Practice Guideline 2004: 1-54.

    7. Sindt CW. “Pediatric Contact Lenses” Manuel of Contact Lens Prescribing and Fitting Third Edition. MM Hom, AS Bruce. St. Louis, Elsevier Inc. 2006: 599-636.

(p. 45) Treatment Plan – Samples, Branded Products, Generic Formulations, Oh My
By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

    1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Forms & Submission Requirements. Available at Accessed May 31, 2015.

    2. Barlas S. Generic Prices Take Flight. P T. 2014 Dec;39:833, 843-845. Available at Accessed May 31, 2015.

    3. Fuquay J. Some generic durgs have had eye-popping price spikes. Star-Telegram (Fort Worth, TX). April 19, 2014. Available at Accessed May 31, 2015.

    4. Zore M, Harris A, Tobe LA, Siesky B, Januleviciene I, Behzadi J, Amireskandari A, Egan P, Garff K, Wirostko B. Generic medications in ophthalmology. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Mar;97:253-257.

    5. Fingertip Formulary. Available at Accessed May 31, 2015.

    6. Stein JD, Shekhawat N, Talwar N, Balkrishnan R. Impact of the introduction of generic latanoprost on glaucoma medication adherence. Ophthalmology. 2015 Apr;122:738–747.

(p. 48) Reader and Industry Forum – Managing Lens Wear During Targeted Cancer Treatments
By Kara Pasner, MS, OD

    1. Chen CJ, McCoy AN, Brahmer J, Handa JT. Emerging treatments for choroidal metastases. Surv Ophthalmol. 2011 Nov-Dec;56:511-521.

    2. Ho WL, Wong H, Yau T. The ophthalmological complications of targeted agents in cancer therapy: What do we need to know as ophthalmologists? ACTA Ophthalmol. 2013 Nov;91:604-609.

    3. Hudis CA. Trastruzumab – mechanism of action and use in clinical practice. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jul;357:39-51.

    4. Burris HA 3rd, Rugo HS, Vukelja SJ, et al. Phase II study of the antibody drug conjugate trastuzumab-DM1 for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer after prior HER2-directed therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Feb;29:398-405.