Contact Lens Spectrum


November 2016

Document #252

(p. 14) Refractive Focus – The Choroid and Refractive Error Development
By David A. Bentsen, OD, PhD

    1. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M, Everett D, Norton TT, Kurtz D, Leske MC, Manny R, Marsh-Tootle W, Scheiman M. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Apr;44:1492-1500.

    2. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) study: a 2-year randomized clinical trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Oct 11;53:7077-7085.

    3. Lam CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, Tang YY, To CH. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;98:40-45.

    4. Smith EL, 3rd. (2011) Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A case for peripheral optical treatment strategies for myopia. Optom Vis Sci 88(9): 1029-1044.

    5. Wallman J, Wildsoet C, Xu A, Gottlieb MD, Nickla DL, Marran L, Krebs W, Christensen AM. Moving the retina: choroidal modulation of refractive state. Vision Res. 1995 Jan;35:37-50.

    6. Hung LF, Wallman J, Smith EL, 3rd. Vision-dependent changes in the choroidal thickness of macaque monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 May;41:1259-1269.

    7. Read SA, Collins MJ, Sander BP. Human optical axial length and defocus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec;51:6262-6269.

    8. Chiang ST, Phillips JR, Backhouse S. Effect of retinal image defocus on the thickness of the human choroid. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2015 Jul;35:405-413.

    9. Read SA, Collins MJ, Vincent SJ, Alonso-Caneiro D. Choroidal thickness in myopic and nonmyopic children assessed with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Nov 15;54:7578-7586.

    10. Jones LA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. Parental history of myopia, sports and outdoor activities, and future myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug;48:3524-3532.

    11. Rose KA, Morgan IG, Ip J, Kifley A, Huynh S, Smith W, Mitchell P. Outdoor activity reduces the prevalence of myopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2008 Aug;115:1279-1285.

    12. Jones-Jordan LA, Sinnott LT, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Mutti DO, Twelker JD, Zadnik K, CLEERE Study Group.Time outdoors, visual activity, and myopia progression in juvenile-onset myopes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Oct 1;53:7169-7175.

    13. Read SA. Ocular and Environmental Factors Associated with Eye Growth in Childhood. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Sep;93:1031-1041.

    14. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res. 2005 Jan;30:71-80.

    15. Kakita T, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr 6;52:2170-2174.

    16. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep;93:1181-1185.

    17. Kang P, Swarbrick H. Peripheral refraction in myopic children wearing orthokeratology and gas-permeable lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Apr;88:476-482.

    18. Charm J, Cho P. High myopia-partial reduction ortho-k: a 2-year randomized study. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Jun;90:530-539.

    19. Zhong Y, Chen Z, Xue F, Zhou J, Niu L, Zhou X. Corneal power change is predictive of myopia progression in orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Apr;91:404-411.

    20. Chen Z, Xue F, Zhou J, Qu X, Zhou X. Effects of Orthokeratology on Choroidal Thickness and Axial Length. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Sep;93:1064-1071.

    21. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90(11):1207-1214.

(p. 16) Prescribing for Presbyopia – Using Pupil Size in Multifocal Contact Lens Prescribing
By Brooke Messer, OD

    1. Cardona G, López S. Pupil diameter, working distance and illumination during habitual tasks. Implications for simultaneous vision contact lenses for presbyopia. J Optom. 2016 Apr-Jun;9:78-84.

    2. Guillon M, Dumbleton K, Theodoratos P, Gobbe M, Wooley CB, Moody K. The Effects of Age, Refractive Status, and Luminance on Pupil Size. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Sep;93:1093-1100.

    3. Davis R. Determining multifocal parameters for a better fit. Review of Optometry. 2016 Aug; 50-55.

    4. Davis R, Eiden S. Constructing a contact lens for multifocal success. Rev Cornea Contact Lens. 2010 Oct. Available at

(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Corneal Neuropathic Pain Versus Dry Eye Discomfort
By Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD

    1. Hirata H, Rosenblatt MI. Hyperosmolar tears enhance cooling sensitivity of the corneal nerves in rats: possible neural basis for cold-induced dry eye pain. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Aug;55:5821-5833.

    2. Neumann S, Doubell TP, Leslie T, Woolf CJ. Inflammatory pain hypersensitivity mediated by phenotypic switch in myelinated primary sensory neurons. Nature. 1996 Nov;384:360-364.

    3. Ploghaus A, Narain C, Beckmann CF, Clare S, Bantick S, Wise R, Matthews PM, Rawlins JN, Tracey I. Exacerbation of pain by anxiety is associated with activity in a hippocampal network. J Neurosci. 2001 Dec;21:9896-9903.

    4. Vehof J, Kozareva D, Hysi PG, Harris J, Nessa A, Williams FK, Bennett DL, McMahon SB, Fahy SJ, Direk K, Spector TD, Hammond CJ. Relationship between dry eye symptoms and pain sensitivity. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Oct;131:1304-1308.

    5. Zhang M, Chen K, Luo L, Xiao Q, Sun M, Liu Z. Altered corneal nerves in aqueous tear deficiency viewed by in vivo confocal microscopy. Cornea. 2005 Oct;24:818-824.

    6. Benitez del Castillo JM, Wasfy MA, Fernandez C, Garcia-Sanchez J. An in vivo confocal masked study on corneal epithelium and subbasal nerves in patients with dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Sep;45:3030-3035.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Time Intervals Between Comprehensive Eye Exams
By Andrew D. Pucker, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. American Optometric Association. Recommended Eye Examination Frequency for Pediatric Patients and Adults. Available at: Accessed on Aug. 30, 2016.

    2. Dumbleton K, Richter D, Bergenske P, Jones LW. Compliance with Lens Replacement and the Interval between Eye Examinations. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Apr;90:351-358.

    3. Dumbleton K, Richter D, Woods C, Jones L, Fonn D. Compliance with contact lens replacement in Canada and the United States. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Feb;87:131-139.

    4. Wu Y, Carnt N, Stapleton F. Contact lens user profile, attitudes and level of compliance to lens care. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010 Aug;33:183-188.

    5. Chalmers RL, Wagner H, Kinoshita B, Sorbara L, Mitchell GL, Lam D, Richdale K, Zimmerman A. Is purchasing lenses from the prescriber associated with better habits among soft contact lens wearers? Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2016 Aug 12. [Epub ahead of print]

    6. Dumbleton K, Woods C, Jones L, Richter D, Fonn D. Comfort and vision with silicone hydrogel lenses: effect of compliance. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Jun;87:421-425.

    7. Efron N, Efron SE, Morgan PB, Morgan SL. A ‘cost-per-wear’ model based on contact lens replacement frequency. Clin Exp Optom. 2010 Jul;93:253-260.

(p. 24) Contact Lens Care and Compliance: An Update
By Andrew D. Pucker, OD, PhD

    1. Bui TH, Cavanagh HD, Robertson DM. Patient compliance during contact lens wear: perceptions, awareness, and behavior. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Nov;36:334-349.

    2. Robertson DM, Cavanagh HD. Non-compliance with contact lens wear and care practices: a comparative analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Dec;88:1402-1408.

    3. Ramamoorthy P, Nichols JJ. Compliance factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 Jan;40:17-22.

    4. Sankaridurg P, Lazon de la Jara P, Holden B. The future of silicone hydrogels. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:125-129.

    5. Morgan PB, Bright FV, Burke SE, Chalmers RL, Dobson C, Fleiszig SM, Hutter JC, Papas E, Peterson RC, Stapleton F. 4. Contemporary research in contact lens care. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Jan 15;36 Suppl 1:S22-S27.

    6. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2011. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2012 Jan;27:20-25.

    7. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2012. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Jan;28:24-29.

    8. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2013. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 jan;29:22-28.

    9. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:22-27.

    10. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2015. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Jan;31:18-23, 55.

    11. Dumbleton K, Richter D, Woods C, Jones L, Fonn D. Compliance with contact lens replacement in Canada and the United States. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Feb;87:131-139.

    12. Dumbleton K, Richter D, Bergenske P, Jones LW. Compliance with lens replacement and the interval between eye examinations. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Apr;90:351-358.

    13. Bennett ES. GP Annual Report 2015. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Oct;30:24-7, 29-31.

    14. Butcko V, McMahon TT, Joslin CE, Jones L. Microbial keratitis and the role of rub and rinsing. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 Nov;33:421-425.

    15. Cho P, Cheng SY, Chan WY, Yip WK. Soft contact lens cleaning: rub or no-rub? Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2009 Jan;29:49-57.

    16. Cheung S, Lorentz H, Drolle E, Leonenko Z, Jones LW. Comparative study of lens solutions' ability to remove tear constituents. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Sep;91:1045-1061.

    17. Pucker AD, Thangavelu M, Nichols JJ. In vitro lipid deposition on hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec;51:6334-6340.

    18. Lievens CW, Kannarr S, Zoota L, Lemp J. Lid papillae improvement with hydrogen peroxide lens care solution use. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Aug;93:933-942.

    19. Tam NK, Pitt WG, Perez KX, Hickey JW, Glenn AA, Chinn J, Liu XM, Maziarz EP. Prevention and removal of lipid deposits by lens care solutions and rubbing. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Dec;91:1430-1439.

    20. Food and Drug Administration. Contact lens solutions with hydrogen peroxide: to avoid injury, follow all instructions. 2016: Available online at: Accessed on September 10, 2016.

    21. Wu YT, Zhu H, Harmis NY, Iskandar SY, Willcox M, Stapleton F. Profile and frequency of microbial contamination of contact lens cases. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Mar;87:E152-E158.

    22. Panthi S, Paudel P, Chaudhary M, Sapkota K, Shah DN. Microbial contamination of contact lens care accessories and compliance with care regimens in Nepal. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2014 Feb;37:2-10.

    23. Vijay AK, Willcox M, Zhu H, Stapleton F. Contact lens storage case hygiene practice and storage case contamination. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 Mar;41:91-97.

    24. Wu YT, Willcox MD, Stapleton F. The effect of contact lens hygiene behavior on lens case contamination. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Feb;92:167-174.

    25. Hickson-Curran S, Chalmers RL, Riley C. Patient attitudes and behavior regarding hygiene and replacement of soft contact lenses and storage cases. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Oct;34:207-215.

    26. Stapleton F, Edwards K, Keay L, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden B. Risk factors for moderate and severe microbial keratitis in daily wear contact lens users. Ophthalmology. 2012 Aug;119:1516-1621.

    27. Chun MW, Weissman BA. Compliance in contact lens care. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987 Apr;64:274-276.

    28. Morgan PB, Efron N, Toshida H, Nichols JJ. An international analysis of contact lens compliance. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Oct;34:223-228.

    29. Food and Drug Administration. Decorative, non-corrective contact lenses. 2006: Available online at: Accessed on Sept. 10, 2016.

    30. Trampuz A, Widmer AF. Hand hygiene: a frequently missed lifesaving opportunity during patient care. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Jan;79:109-116.

    31. Walline JJ, Gaume A, Jones LA, Rah MJ, Manny RE, Berntsen DA, Chitkara M, Kim A, Quinn N. Benefits of contact lens wear for children and teens. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 Nov;33:317-21.

    32. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott L, Chitkara M, Coffey B, Jackson JM, Manny RE, Rah MJ, Prinstein MJ, ACHIEVE Study Group. Randomized trial of the effect of contact lens wear on self-perception in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Mar;86:222-232.

    33. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res. 2005 Jan;30:71-80.

    34. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.

    35. Walline JJ, Lorenz KO, Nichols JJ. Long-term contact lens wear of children and teens. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jul;39:283-289.

    36. Turnbull PR, Munro OJ, Phillips JR. Contact lens methods for clinical myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Sep;93:1120-1126.

    37. Collins MJ, Carney LG. Patient compliance and its influence on contact lens wearing problems. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1986 Dec;63:952-956.

    38. Davidson SI, Akingbehin T. Compliance in ophthalmology. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1980 Jul;100:286-290.

    39. Newman-Casey PA, Blachley T, Lee PP, Heisler M, Farris KB, Stein JD. Patterns of glaucoma medication adherence over four years of follow-up. Ophthalmology. 2015 Oct;122:2010-2021.

    40. Ley P. Memory for medical information. Br J Soc Clin Psychol. 1979 Jun;18:245-255.

    41. Wu Y, Carnt N, Willcox M, Stapleton F. Contact lens and lens storage case cleaning instructions: whose advice should we follow? Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Mar;36:68-72.

    42. McMonnies CW. Improving contact lens compliance by explaining the benefits of compliant procedures. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Oct;34:249-252.

    43. McMonnies CW. Improving patient education and attitudes toward compliance with instructions for contact lens use. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Oct;34:241-248.

    44. Food and Drug Administration. Contact lens care. 2015: Available online at: Accessed on Sept. 10, 2016.

    45. Food and Drug Administration. What To Know If Your Child Wants Contact Lenses. 2016: Available online at: Accessed on Sept. 10, 2016.

    46. Center for Disease Control, Food and Drug Administration. Contact Lens Health Week. 2016: Available online at: Accessed on Sept. 10, 2016.

    47. Center for Disease Control, Food and Drug Administration. Wash Your Hands. 2016: Available online at: Accessed on Sept. 10, 2016.

(p. 28) More than Meets the Eye
By Cameron Postnikoff, MASc, & Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD

    1. Zhou L, Zhao SZ, Koh SK, Chen L, Vaz C, Tanavde V, Li XR, Beuerman RW. In-depth analysis of the human tear proteome. J Proteomics. 2012 Jul;75:3877-3885.

    2. Niederkorn JY, Stein-Streilein J. History and physiology of immune privilege. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2010 Jan;18:19-23.

    3. Knop N, Knop E. Regulation of the inflammatory component in chronic dry eye disease by the eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT). Dev Ophthalmol. 2010; 45:23-39).

    4. Hanna C, Bicknell DS, O’Brien JE. Cell turnover in the adult human eye. Arch Ophthalmol. 1961 May;65:695-698.

    5. Nichols JJ, King-Smith PE. Thickness of the pre- and post–contact lens tear film measured in vivo by interferometry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Jan;44:68-77.

    6. Muntz A, Subbaraman L, Sorbara L, Jones L. Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review. J Optom. 2015 Jan-Mar;8:2-11.

    7. Gorbet M, Postnikoff C. The impact of silicone hydrogel-solution combinations on corneal epithelial cells. Eye and Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:42-47.

    8. Deng Z, Wang J, Jiang H, Fadli Z, Liu C, Tan J, Zhou J. Lid wiper microvascular responses as an indicator of contact lens discomfort. Am J Ophthalmol. 2016 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print]

    9. Efron N, Brennan NA, Morgan PB, Wilson T. Lid wiper epitheliopathy. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2016 Jul;53:140-174.

    10. Knop E, Knop N, Zhivov A, Kraak R, Korb DR, Blackie C, Greiner JV, Guthoff R. The lid wiper and muco-cutaneous junction anatomy of the human eyelid margins: an in vivo confocal and histological study. J Anat. 2011 Apr;218:449-461.

    11. Alzahrani Y, Colorado L, Pritchard N, Efron N. (2016). Inflammatory cell upregulation of the lid wiper in contact lens dry eye. Optom Vis Sc. 2016 Aug;93:917-924.

    12. Phan CM, Subbaraman L, Jones LW. The use of contact lenses as biosensors. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Apr;93:419-425.

Sidebar References

    1. Gorbet M, Postnikoff C, Williams S. The Noninflammatory Phenotype of Neutrophils from the Closed-Eye Environment: A Flow Cytometry Analysis of Receptor Expression. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jul;56:4582-4591.

    2. Sack RA, Beaton A, Sathe S, Morris C, Willcox M, Bogart B. Towards a closed eye model of the pre-ocular tear layer. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2000 Nov;19:649-668.

    3. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden BA. The incidence of contact lens–related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct;115:1655-1662.

(p. 32) Troubleshooting Difficult Toric Fits
By Long D. Tran, OD

    1. Efron N, Morgan PG, Helland M, Itoi M, Jones D, Nichols JJ, van der Worp E, Woods C. Soft toric contact lens prescribing in different countries. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Feb;34:36-38.

    2. Morgan P, Woods C, Tranoudis I, Helland M, Efron N, Jones L. Teufl M, Grupcheva CN, Lemos RS, Jones D, Beeler-Kaupke D, Qi P; Tan K-O, Belikova J, Pult H, Ravn O, Santodomingo-Rubido J, Malet F, Plakitsi A, Végh M, Erdinest N, Jafari AR, Montani G, Itoi M, Chu BS, Bendoriene J, van der Worp E, Pintor R, Monroy JL, Chia J, Awasthi S, Lam W, Romualdez-Oo J, Abesamis-Dichoso C, González-Méijome JM, Gierow P, Silih MS, Hsiao J, Nichols JJ. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2015. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Jan;31:24-29.

    3. Young G, Sulley A, Hunt C. Prevalence of astigmatism in relation to soft contact lens fitting. Eye Contact Lens. 2011 Jan;37:20-25.

    4. Becherer PD. Soft torics: a viable modality. Contact Lens Update. 1990 Apr;9:17-21.

    5. Quinn TG. Choosing between soft torics and RGPs. Contact Lens Spectrum. 1995 Mar;10:15.

    6. Epstein A, Remba M. Hydrogel Toric Contact Lens Correction. In ES Bennett, BA Weissman (eds), Clinical Contact Lens Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005(26);515-529.

    7. Young G, Hunt C, Covey M. Clinical evaluation of factors influencing soft toric contact lens fit. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Jan;79:11-19.

    8. Hanks A. The watermelon seed principle. Contact Lens Forum. 1983;8(9):31.

    9. Snyder C. Overcoming soft toric lens challenges. Contact Lens Spectrum. 1998 June;13:2s-4s.

    10. Snyder C. A review and discussion of crossed cylinder effects and over-refractions with soft toric contact lenses. Int cont lens clin. 1989 Apr;16:113-118.

    11. Jackson JM. Toric lenses for today and tomorrow. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 August;31:28-32.

    12. Bennett ES, Layfield KA, Lam D, Henry VA. Correction of Astigmatism. In ES Bennet, VA Henry (eds), Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses(4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014(14);344-394.

    13. Hom MM. Soft Contact Lenses for Astigmatism. In MM Hom (ed), Manual of Contact Lens Prescribing and Fitting. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2000(12);219-233.

(p. 36) Four Strategies for Practice Growth
By David L. Kading, OD, & Mile Brujic, OD

    1. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:22-27.

    2. Goldberg L. Contact Len Prescribing Revisited. Ophthalmology Management. 2006 Apr;10:52, 54.

    3. McLean K. Best of Both Worlds. Eyecare Business. 2006 Apr; :24, 26.

    4. Akerman D. The Economics of Independent & Corporate Optometric Practice. 2010 Mar 17. Available at Accessed Oct. 19, 2016.

    5. Dumbleton K, Caffery B, Dogru M, Hickson-Curran S, Kern J, Kojima T, Morgan PB, Purslow C, Robertson DM, Nelson JD; members of the TFOS International Workship on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the subcommittee on epidemiology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS20-TFOS36.

    6. Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R. Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a). Eye Contact Lens. 2006 Dec;32:281-286.

    7. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    8. Korb DR, Greiner JV, Herman JP, Hebert E, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Glonek T, Olson MC. Lip-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J. 2002 Oct;28:211-216.

    9. Yeniad B, Beginoglu M, Bilgin K. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy in contact lens users and patients with dry eye. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 May;36:140-143.

    10. Lemp MA, Crews LA, Bron AJ, Foulks GN, Sullivan BD. Distribution of aqueous-deficient and evaporative dry eye in a clinic-based patient cohort: a retrospective study. Cornea. 2012 May;31:472-478.

    11. Arita R, Itoh K, Inoue K, Kuchiba A, Yamaguchi T, Amano S. Contact lens wear is associated with decrease of meibomian glands.

    12. Alghamdi WM, Markoulli M, Holden BA, Papas EB. Impact of duration of contact lens wear on the structure and function of the meibomian glands. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2016 Mar; 36:120-131.

    13. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res. 2005 Jan;30:71-80.

(p. 47) Treatment Plan – Managing Complications form Glaucoma Treatments
By Leo Semes, OD

    1. Baudouin C. Allergic Reaction to Topical Eyedrops. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;5(5):459-463. Available at: Accessed Aug. 29, 2016.

    2. Gasset AR. Benzalkonium chloride toxicity to the human cornea. Am J Ophthalmol. 1977;84:169-171.

    3. Gasset AR, Ishii Y, Kaufman HE, Miller T. Cytotoxicity of ophthalmic preservatives. Am J Ophthalmol. 1974 Jul;78:98-105.

(p. 49) Reader and Industry Forum – Fitting Contact Lenses for Pediatric Aphakia
By Caitlin J. Morrison, OD, & David P. Libassi, OD

    1. Russell B, Ward M, Lynn M, DuBois L, Lambert S; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. The infant aphakia treatment study contact lens experience: one-year outcomes. Eye Contact Lens. 2012 Jul;38:234-239.

    2. Sclafani L. Kids and Contacts: Pediatric Aphakia Contact Lens Fitting. Review of Optometry. 2002 April 8.

    3. Friling R, Weinberger D, Kremer I, Avisar R, Sirota L, Snir M. Keratometry measurements in preterm and full term newborn infants. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Jan;88:8-10.

(p. 50) Reader and Industry Forum – The Road to Modern Day Contact Lenses By Agustin Gonzalez, OD

    1. Schifrin LG, Rich WJ, eds. The Development of Contact Lens. Health Technology Case Study 31: Contact Lens Industry: Structure, Competition and Public Policy. 1984 December. Available at

    2. Kemsley J. From Plexiglas to silicone hydrogels—the materials that let you see through to the other side. Chemical & Engineering News. 2008 March 17; 86:47. Available at

    3. Rinehart JM. The PMMA Dilemma. Rev Cornea Contact Lens. 2010 May 17. Available at:

    4. Maldonado-Codina C, Efron N. Hydrogel Lenses—Materials and Manufacture: A Review. Optometry in Practice. 2003;4:101-115. Available at:

    5. Lai YC, Friends GD. Surface wettability enhancement of silicone hydrogel lenses by processing with polar plastic molds. J Biomed Mater Res. 1997 June 5;35:249-356.

    6. Gonzalez-Meijome JM, Lopez-Alemany A, Almeida JB, Parafita MA, Refojo MF. Microscopic observation of unworn siloxane-hydrogel soft contact lenses by atomic force microscopy. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2006 Feb;2:412-418.

    7. Szczotka-Flynn L. Looking at Silicone hydrogels Across Highlights from the Optometric Mangement Symposium on Contemporary Eye Care, a supplement to Optometric Management. 2008 May;43. Available at: Accessed Feb. 8, 2016.