Contact Lens Spectrum


December 2016

Document #253

(p. 17) Contact Lens Design & Materials – Which Multifocal Design Is Best for Your Patients?
By Gregory J. Nixon, OD

    1. Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low-astigmatic presbyopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 May;83:266-273.

    2. Woods J, Woods CA, Foon D. Early symptomatic presbyopes--what correction modality works best? Eye Contact Lens. 2009 Sep;35:221-226.

(p. 18) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Seeing and Treating the Dry Eye
By Katherine M. Mastrota, MS, OD

    1. Baudouin C, Messmer EM, Aragona P, Geerling G, Akova YA, Benítez-del-Castillo J, Boboridis KG, Merayo-Lloves J, Rolando M, Labetoulle M. Revisiting the vicious circle of dry eye disease: a focus on the pathophysiology of meibomian gland dysfunction. Br J Ophthalmol. 2016 Mar;100:300-306.

(p. 20) Specialty and Custom Soft Contact Lenses
By John M. Laurent, OD, PhD, & Daniel Deligio, OD

    1. Tyler’s Quarterly Soft Contact Lens Parameter Guide. 2016:33(4).

    2. Harvitt DM, Bonanno JA. Re-Evaluation of the Oxygen Diffusion Model for Predicting Minimum Contact Lens Dk/t Values Needed to Avoid Corneal Anoxia. Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Oct:76:712-719.

(p. 26) Keratoconus: Current Concepts and Management Options
By Jan P.G. Bergmanson, OD, PhD, PhD HC, DSc, & Jesus Martinez, OD

    1. Nottingham J. Practical Observations on Conical Cornea, and on the Short Sight, and Other Defects of Vision Connected with it. London, Churchill, 1854.

    2. Bergmanson JPG: Clinical Ocular Anatomy and Physiology, Edition 23. Texas Eye Research and Technology Center, University of Houston College of Optometry, Houston. 1992-2016. ISBN # 13: 978-1-4951-8843-5.

    3. Bergmanson JPG, Horne J, Doughty MJ, Garcia M, Gondo M. Assessment of the number of lamellae in the central region of the normal human corneal stroma by transmission electron microscopy. Eye Contact Lens. 2005 Nov;31;281-287.

    4. Mathew JH, Goosey JD, Söderberg P, Bergmanson JPG. Lamellar Changes in the Keratoconic Cornea. Acta Ophthalmol. 2015 Dec;93:767-773.

    5. Dawson DG, Randleman JB, Grossniklaus HE, O’Brien TP, Dubovy SR, Schmack I, Stulting D, Edelhauser HF. Corneal Ectasia After Excimer Laser Keratorefractive Surgery: Histopathology, Ultrastructure, and Pathophysiology. Ophthalmology. 2008 Dec;115:2181-2191.

    6. Teng, CC. Electron microscope study of the pathology of keratoconus Am J Ophthalmol. 1963 Jan;55:18-47.

    7. Mathew JH, Goosey JD, Bergmanson JPG. Quantified Histopathology of the Keratoconic Cornea. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Aug;88:988-997.

    8. Brautaset RL, Nilsson M, Miller WL, Leach NE, Tukler JH, Bergmanson JPG. Central and Peripheral Corneal Thinning in Keratoconus. Cornea. 2013;32:257-261.

    9. Rabinowitz Y. Ectatic Disorders of the Cornea. In The Cornea: Scientific Founations & Clinical Practice, 4th ed. CS Foster, DT Azar, CH Dohlman, eds. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005:889-911.

    10. Bergmanson JPG, Patel CK, Goosey JD, Mathew JH. Recurrence or Re-Emergence of Keratoconus – What is the Evidence Telling Us? Literature review with two case reports. Ocul Surf. 2014 Oct;12:267-272.

    11. Wollensak G, Spoerl E, Seiler T. Riboflavin/Ultraviolet-A-induced collagen crosslinking for the treatment of keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 May;135:620-627.

    12. Walsh J, Bergmanson JPG. Ocular Visible Light and Ultraviolet Radiation Transmittance. In Clinical Ocular Anatomy and Physiology, Edition 23. Texas Eye Research and Technology Center, University of Houston College of Optometry, Houston. 1992-2016. ISBN # 13: 978-1-4951-8843-5.

    13. Meek KM, Hayes S. Corneal cross-linking – A Review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013 Mar;33:78-93.

    14. Raiskup F, Spoerl E. Corneal Crosslinking with Riboflavin and Ultraviolet A. Part II. Clinical Indications and Results. Ocul Surf. 2013 Apr;11:93-108.

    15. O’Brart DP, Kwong TQ, Patel P, McDonald RJ, O’Brart NA. Long-term follow-up of riboflavin/ultraviolet A (370 nm) corneal collagen cross-linking to halt the progression of keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr;97:433-437.

(p. 30) New Designs in GP Translating Bifocals and Multifocals
By Roxanna T. Potter, OD

    1. Benoit D. Prescribing for Presbyopia: Simultaneous Versus Alternating Image CL Designs. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Apr;31:16.

    2. Bennett E. GP Insights: When to Fit GPs Empirically. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 May;30:16.

    3. Tuong C, Jackson JM. GP Insights: Tips for Translating GP Bifocals. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Apr;30:16.

(p. 36) Addressing MGD in Contact Lens Wearers
By Melanie Frogozo, OD

    1. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    2. Schaumberg DA, Nichols JJ, Papas EB, Tong L, Uchino M, Nichols KK. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the subcommittee on the epidemiology of, and associated risk factors for MGD. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar;52:1994-2005.

    3. Knop E, Knop N, Millar T, Obata H, Sullivan DA. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: report of the Subcommittee on Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathophysiology of the Meibomian Gland. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar;52:1938-1978.

    4. Greiner JV, Glonek T, Korb DR, Whalen AC, Hebert E, Hearn SL, Esway JE, Leahy CD. Volume of the human and rabbit meibomian gland system. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;438:339-343.

    5. Nichols KK. The international workshop of meibomian gland dysfunction: introduction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 30;52:1917-1921.

    6. Lorentz H, Jones L. Lipid Deposition on Hydrogel Contact Lenses: How History Can Help Us Today. Optom and Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:286-295.

    7. Baudouin C, Messmer EM, Aragona P, Geerling G, Akova YA, Benítez-del-Castillo J, Boboridis KG, Merayo-Lioves J, Rolando M, Labetulle M. Revisiting the vicious circle of dry eye disease: a focus on the pathophysiology of meibomian gland dysfunction. Br J Ophthalmol. 2016 Mar;100:300-306.

    8. Nelson JD, Shimazaki J, Benítez-del-Castillo JM, Craig JP, McCulley JP, Den S, Foulks GN. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar;52:1930-1937.

    9. Yamaguchi M, Kutsuna M, Uno T, Zheng X, Kodama T, Ohashi Y. Marx line: fluorescein staining line on the inner lid as indicator of meibomian gland function. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Apr;141:669-675.

    10. Jester JV, Parfitt GJ, Brown DJ. Meibomian gland dysfunction: hyperkeratinization or atrophy? BMC Ophthalmology. 2015 Dec 17;15(Suppl 1):156.

    11. Qazi Y, Kheirkhah A, Blackie C, Cruzat A, Trinidad M, Williams C, Korb DR, Hamrah P. In vivo detection of clinically non-apparent ocular surface inflammation in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction-associated refractory dry eye symptoms: a pilot study. Eye (Lond). 2015 Aug;29:1099-1110.

    12. Tomlinson A, Bron AJ, Korb DR, Amano S, Paugh EI, Yee R, Yokoi N, Arita R, Dogru M. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the diagnosis subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 30;52:2006-2049.

    13. Pult H, Riede-Pult BH. Non-contact meibography: keep it simple but effective. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2012 Apr;35:77-80

    14. Henriquez AS, Korb DR. Meibomian glands and contact lens wear. Br J Ophthalmol. 1981 Feb;65:108-111.

    15. Arita R, Itoh K, Inoue K, Kuchiba A, Yamaguchi T, Amano S. Contact Lens Wear Is Associated with Decrease of Meibomian Glands. Ophthalmology. 2009 Mar;116:379-384.

    16. Hom MM, Martinson JR, Knap LL, Paugh JR. Prevalence of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Optom Vis Sci. 1990 Sep;67:710-712.

    17. Nichols JJ, Sinnott LT. Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens related dry eye. Invest Opthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;47:1319-1328.

    18. Alghamedi WM, Markoulli M, Holden B, Papas EB. Impact of contact lens wear on the structure and function of the meibomian glands. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2016 Mar;36:120-131.

    19. Geerling G, Tauber J, Baudouin C, Goto E, Matsumoto Y, O’Brien T, Rolando M, Tsubota K, Nichols KK. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Subcommittee on Management and Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar;52:2050-2064.

    20. Goto E, Monden Y, Takano Y, Mori A, Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K. Treatment of non-inflamed obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction by an infrared warm compression device. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 Dec;86:1403-1407.

    21. Mori A, Shimazaki J, Shimmura S, Fujishima H, Oguchi Y, Tsubota K. Disposable eyelid-warming device for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2003Nov-Dec;47:578-586.

    22. Machalińska A, Zakrzewska A, Markowska A, Safranow K, Wiszniewska B, Parafiniuk M, Machalińska B. Morphological and Functional Evaluation of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Rosacea Patients. Curr Eye Res. 2016 Aug;41:1029-1034.

    23. Arita R, Itoh K, Maeda S, Maeda K, Amano S. A Newly Developed Noninvasive and Mobile Pen-shaped Meibography System. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Mar;53:1283.

    24. Rohit A, Wilcox M, Stapleton F. Tear Lipid Layer and Contact Lens Comfort. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 May;39:247-253.

    25. Yamada M, Mochizuki H, Kawashima M, Hata S. Phospholipids and their degrading enzyme in the tears of soft contact lens wearers. Cornea. 2006 Dec;25(Suppl):S68-S72.

    26. Foulks GN, Borchman D, Yappert M, Kim SH, McKay JW. Topical azithromycin therapy for meibomian gland dysfunction: clinical response and lipid alterations. Cornea. 2010 Jul;29: 781-788.

    27. Schechter BA, Katz RS, Friedman LS. Efficacy of topical cyclosporine or the treatment of ocular rosacea. Adv Ther. 2009 Jun;26:651-659.

    28. Perry HD, Doshi-Carnevale S, Donnenfeld ED, Solomon R, Biser SA, Bloom AH. Efficacy of commercially available topical cyclosporine A 0.05% in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Cornea. 2006 Feb;25:171-175.

    29. Jackson WB. Management of dysfunctional tear syndrome: a Canadian consensus. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug;44:385-394.

(p. 42) Is This the New Norm? – Is Proactive Prescribing for Discomfort the New Normal?
By Mile Brujic, OD, & David L. Kading, OD

    1. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    2. Nichols KK, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. The repeatability of clinical measurements of dry eye. Cornea. 2004 Apr;23:272-285.

    3. Nichols KK, Nichols JJ, Mitchell GL. The lack of association between signs and symptoms in patients with dry eye disease. Cornea. 2004 Nov;23:762-770.

(p. 44) The Business of Contact Lenses – My Contact Lens Holiday Wish List
By Clarke D. Newman, OD

    1. Schnider, C, Wales M. Monthly wearers can thrive, not just survive. Optometry Times. 2016 June 13. Available at,0.

(p. 45) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Pediatric Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking
By Melanie Frogozo, OD, FAAO

    1. Rabinowitz YS. Keratoconus. Surv Ophthalmol. 1998 Jan-Feb;42:297-319.

    2. Tuft SJ, Moodaley LC, Gregory WM, Davidson CR, Buckley RJ. Prognostic factors for the progression of keratoconus. Ophthalmology. 1994 Mar;101: 439-447.

    3. Chatzis N, Hafezi F. Progression of keratoconus and efficacy of pediatric (corrected) corneal collagen cross-linking in children and adolescents. J Refract Surg. 2012;28:753-758.

    4. Wollensak G, Spoerl E, Seiler T. Stress-strain measurements of human and porcine corneas after riboflavin-ultraviolet-A-induced cross-linking. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003 Sep;29:1780-1785.

    5. Vinciguerra P, Albé E, Trazza S, Rosetta P, Vinciguerra R, Seiler T, Epstein D. Refractive, topographic, tomographic and abberometric analysis of keratoconic eyes undergoing collagen cross-linking. Ophthalmology. 2009 Mar;116:369-378.

    6. Wittig-Silva C, Whiting M, Lamoureux E, Lindsay RG, Sullivan LJ, Snibson GR. A randomized controlled trial of corneal collagen cross-linking in progressive keratoconus; preliminary results. J Refract Surg. 2008 Sep; 24:S720-S725.

    7. Godefrooij DA, Soeters N, Imhof SM, Wisse RP. Corneal Cross-linking for Pediatric Keratoconus: Long-Term Results. Cornea. 2016 Jul;35:954-958.

    8. Spörl E, Huhle M, Kasper M, Seiler T. Increased rigidity of the cornea caused by intrastromal cross-linking. Ophthalmologe. 1997 Dec;94:902-906.

    9. Ziaei M, Barsam A, Shamie N, Vroman D, Kim T, Donnenfeld ED, Holland EJ, Kanellopoulos J, Mah FS, Randleman JB, Daya S, Güell J; ASCRS Cornea Clinical Committee. Reshaping procedures for the surgical management of corneal ectasia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Apr;41:842-872.

    10. Spoerl E, Huhle M, Seiler T. Induction of cross-links in corneal tissue. Exp Eye Res. 1998 Jan;66:97-103.

    11. Buzzonetti L, Petrocelli G., Valente P, Iarossi G, Ardia R, Petroni S. Iontophoretic transepithelial corneal cross-linking to halt keratoconus in pediatric cases: 15 month follow-up. Cornea. 2015 May; 34:512-515.

(p. 46) Prescribing for Astigmatism – Is It Time to Sink the Boat Anchor?
By Grace Liao, OD; Britney Kitamata-Wong, OD; & Timothy B. Edrington, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Mehravaran S, Asgari S, Bigdeli S, Shahnazi A, Hashemi H. Keratometry with five different techniques: a study of device repeatability and inter-device agreement. Int Ophthalmol. 2014 Aug;34:869-875.

    2. Dehnavi Z, Khabazkhoob M, Mirzajani A, Jabbarvand M, Yekta A, Jafarzadehpur E. Comparison of the Corneal Power Measurements with the TMS4-Topographer, Pentacam HR, IOL Master, and Javal Keratometer. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2015 Apr-Jun;22:233-237.

    3. Kumbar T, Shyam Sunder T, Swati J, Fathima A, Addepally UK, Rao HL, Rathi VM. Correlation of Back Optic Zone Radius measurement of rigid contact lenses with radiuscope and keratometer. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2012 Dec;35:282-284.

    4. Hashemi H, Yekta A, Khabazkhoob M. Effect of keratoconus grades on repeatability of keratometry readings: Comparison of 5 devices. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 May;41:1065-1072.

    5. Mastrota K. Why keratometry is important. Optometry Times. 2014 May 31.

(p. 48) Reader and Industry Forum – Is Ortho-k Possible with Corneo-Scleral Lenses?
By Daddi Fadel, DOptom, & Cary M. Herzberg, OD

    1. Herzberg C. Corneo-scleral lenses: Are they safe and efficacious in orthokeratology? Presented at the Global Orthokeratology Symposium, Toronto, July 23-25, 2004.

    2. Herzberg C. Corneal-Scleral orthokeratology contact lens. United States patent Application Publication, 2006.

    3. Herzberg C. An update on orthokeratology. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2010 Mar;25:22-24, 26-31..

    4. Yin Li. Off-label use of scleral contact lens for orthokeratology following an unsuccessful corneal gas permeable fit. Poster presented at Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas. January 23-26, 2014.

    5. Fadel D. What about sclerals ortho-k? Presented at International Congress of Scleral Contacts, Miami. July 29, 2016.

    6. Mountford J. Design variables and fitting philosophies of reverse geometry lenses. In: Mountford J, Ruston D, Dave T, eds. Orthokeratology: Principles and Practice. Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann, 2004, pp. 69–107.

    7. Schein OD, Rosenthal P, Ducharme C. A gas permeable scleral contact lens for visual rehabilitation. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990 Mar;109:319-322.

    8. Pullum KW, Buckley RJ. A study of 530 patients referred for rigid gas permeable scleral contact lens assessment. Cornea. 1997 Nov;16:612-622.

    9. Romero-Rangel T, Stavrou P, Cotter J, Rosenthal P, Baltatzis S, Foster CS. Gas permeable scleral contact lens therapy in ocular surface disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Jul;103:25-32.

    10. Rosenthal P, Cotter JM, Baum JL. Treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defect with extended wear of fluid-ventilated gas-permeable scleral contact lens. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Jul;130:33-41.

    11. Tappin MJ, Pullum KW, Buckley RJ. Scleral contact lenses for overnight wear in the management of ocular surface disorders. Eye (Lond). 2001 Apr;15:168-172.

    12. Smith GT, Mireskandari K, Pullum KW. Corneal swelling with overnight wear of scleral contact lenses. Cornea, 2004 Jan;23:29-34.

    13. Zimmerman AB, Marks A. Microbial keratitis secondary to unintended poor compliance with scleral gas-permeable contact lenses. Eye Cont Lens. 2014 Jan;40:1-4.