Contact Lens Spectrum


January 2016

Document #242

(p. 15) Contact Lens Design & Materials – The Technology Behind Daily Disposable Contact Lenses
By Ronald K. Watanabe, OD, FAAO

    1. Nichols KK, Redfern RL, Jacob JT, Nelson JD, Fonn D, Huang JF, Holden BA, Nichols JJ; members of the TFOS International Wrokshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct; 54:TFOS14-TFOS19.

    2. Jones L, Brennan NA, Gonzalez-Meijome J, Lally J, Maldonado-Codina C, Schmidt TA, Subbaraman L, Young G. Nichols JJ; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the Contact Lens Materials, Design, and Care Subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct; 54:TFOS37-TFOS70.

(p. 16) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Additional Implications of the Lacrimal Functional Unit
By William Townsend, OD, FAAO

    1. Stern ME, Beuerman RW, Fox RI, Gao J, Mircheff AK, Pflugfelder SC. The pathology of dry eye: the interaction between the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. Cornea. 1998 Nov;17:584–589.

    2. Bron AJ, Tomlinson A, Foulks GN, Pepose JS, Baudouin C, Geerling G, Nichols KK, Lemp MA. Rethinking dry eye disease: a perspective on clinical implications. Ocul Surf. 2014 Apr;12(2 Suppl):S1-S31.

    3. Versura P, Profazio V, Campos EC. Performance of tear osmolarity compared to previous diagnostic tests for dry eye diseases. Curr Eye Res. 2010 Jul;35:553-564.

    4. Tuazon SA, Cordona R, Tuazon JA. Serum Osmolality. Updated Oct 30, 2015. Available at Accessed Dec. 1, 2015.

    5. Duvall MG, Levy BD. DHA- and EPA-derived resolvins, protectins, and maresins in airway inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Nov 3. [Epub ahead of print]

    6. Truong S, Cole N, Stapleton F, Golebiowski B. Sex hormones and the dry eye. Clin Exp Optom. 2014 Jul;97:324-336.

(p. 17) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Maximizing Multipurpose Solutions
By Andrew D. Pucker, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Butcko V, McMahon TT, Joslin CE, Jones L. Microbial keratitis and the role of rub and rinsing. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 Nov;33:421-425.

    2. Cho P, Cheng SY, Chan WY, Yip WK. Soft contact lens cleaning: rub or no-rub? Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2009 Jan;29:49-57.

    3. Cheung S, Lorentz H, Drolle E, Leonenko Z, Jones LW. Comparative study of lens solutions' ability to remove tear constituents. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Sep;91:1045-1061.

    4. Brennan NA, Coles MLC. Deposits and Symptomatology with Soft Contact Lens Wear. Int Contact Lens Clin. 2000 May-June;27:75-100.

    5. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:22-27.

    6. Rosenthal RA, Henry CL, Stone RP, Schlech BA. Anatomy of a regimen: consideration of multipurpose solutions during non-compliant use. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2003 Mar;26:17-26.

    7. Pucker AD, Nichols JJ. Impact of a rinse step on protein removal from silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Aug;86:943-947.

    8. Tam NK, Pitt WG, Perez KX, Hickey JW, Glenn AA, Chinn J, Liu XM, Maziarz EP. Prevention and removal of lipid deposits by lens care solutions and rubbing. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Dec;91:1430-1439.

    9. Kilvington S, Lonnen J. A comparison of regimen methods for the removal and inactivation of bacteria, fungi and Acanthamoeba from two types of silicone hydrogel lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2009 Apr;32:73-77.

    10. Zhu H, Bandara MB, Vijay AK, Masoudi S, Wu D, Willcox MD. Importance of rub and rinse in use of multipurpose contact lens solution. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Aug;88:967-972.

    11. Zhao Z, Naduvilath T, Flanagan JL, Carnt NA, Wei X, Diec J, Evans V, Willcox MD. Contact lens deposits, adverse responses, and clinical ocular surface parameters. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Sep;87:669-674.

    12. Pucker AD, Thangavelu M, Nichols JJ. In vitro lipid deposition on hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec;51:6334-6340.

(p. 18) Contact Lenses 2015
By Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO

    1. Cope JR, Collier SA, Rao MM, Chalmers R, Mitchell GL, Richdale K, Wagner H, Kinoshita BT, Lam DY, Sorbara L, Zimmerman A, Yoder JS, Beach MJ. Contact Lens Wearer Demographics and Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections – United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 August 21;64:865-870.

(p. 30) Clinical Controversies: The Ocular Surface and Lens Wear
By Jeffrey J. Walline, OD, PhD; Jeffrey Sonsino, OD; Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd; Shalu Pal, OD; Pam Lowe, OD; & Thomas G. Quinn Jr., OD, MS

    1. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Workshop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5:75-92.

    2. The Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society. 2007 Report of the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5:67-204.

    3. Behrens A, Doyle JJ, Stern L, Chuck RS, McDonnell PJ, Azar DT, Dua HS, Hom M, Karpecki PM, Laibson PR, Lemp MA, Meisler DM, Del Castillo JM, O’Brien TP, Pflugfelder SC, Rolando M, Schein OD, Seitz B, Tseng SC, van Setten G, Wilson SE, Yiu SC; Dysfunctional tear syndrome study group. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: a Delphi approach to treatment recommendations. Cornea 2006 Sep;25:900-907.

    4. Stern ME. Pathophysiology and allergy of the lacrimal functional unit: What goes wrong with our tear-secreting apparatus. Asian J Ophthalmol. 2005 Jan;7:5-8.

    5. Nelson JD, Helms H, Fiscella R, Southwell Y, Hirsch JD. A new look at dry eye disease and its treatment. Adv Ther. 2000 Mar/Apr;17:84-93.

    6. Stern ME, Beuerman RW, Fox RI, Gao J, Mircheff AK, Pflugfelder SC. The pathology of dry eye: the interaction between the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. Cornea. 1998 Nov;17:584-589.

    7. Pflugfelder SC, Bauerman RW, Stern ME, eds. Dry Eye and Ocular Surface Disorders. CRC Press. 2004. Chapter 1.

    8. Sambursky R, O’Brien TP. MMP-9 and the perioperative management of LASIK surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2001 Jul;22:294-303.

    9. Chotikavanich S, de Paiva CS, Li de Q, Chen JJ, Bian F, Farley WJ, Pflugfelder SC. Production and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 on the ocular surface increase in dysfunctional tear syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Jul;50:3203-3209.

    10. Sullivan BD, Whitmer D, Nihcols KK, Tomlinson A. Foulks GN, Geerling G, Pepose JS, Kosheleff V, Porreco A, Lemp MA. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Dec;51;6125-6130.

    11. Jackson WB: Management of dysfunctional tear syndrome: a Canadian Consensus. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug;44:385-394.

    12. Bhargava R, Kumar P, Kumar M, Mehra N, Mishra A. A randomized controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids in dry eye syndrome. International Journal of Ophthalmology. 2013 Dec;6:811-816.

    13. Kangari H, Eftekhari MH, Sardari S, Hashemi H, Salamzadeh J, Ghassemi-Broumand M, Khabazkhoob M. Short-term consumption of oral omega-3 and dry eye syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2013 Nov:120;2191-2196.

    14. Kunert S, Tisdale AS, Gipson IK. Goblet cell numbers and epithelial proliferation in the conjunctiva of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with cyclosporine. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002 Mar:120:330-337.

    15. Karpecki P, Shah AS. Welcome allergy patients into your practice. Advanced Ocular Care 2014 May-June:62-64.

    16. Many Contact Lens Wearers Find Their Lenses Uncomfortable, Disruptive When Experiencing Eye-Allergy Symptoms, Survey. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, 2006. Accessed on November 2015. Accessible at:

    17. Hayes VY, Schnider CM, Veys J. An evaluation of 1-day disposable contact lens wear in a population of allergy sufferers. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2003 Jun;26:85-93.

    18. Wolffsohn JS, Hunt OA, Chowdhury A. Objective clinical performance of 'comfort-enhanced' daily disposable soft contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010 Apr;33:88-92.

    19. Wolffsohn JS, Emberlin JC. Role of contact lenses in relieving ocular allergy. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Aug;34:169-172.

    20. Brujic M, Miller J. Ocular allergies: Treat it and fix it! Rev Cornea Cont Lenses. 2012 March 16.

    21. Epstein AB. Ditch the itch: Managing allergy and contact lens wear. Contact Lens Spectrum 2014 Mar;29:24-25,27,33.

    22. Bennett ES, Perrigin JM, Watanabe RK, Begley CG. Preliminary evaluation. In Bennett ES, Henry VA: Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses, 4th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Wolters/Kluwers, 2014:2-29.

    23. Nichols K, Foulks GN, Bron AJ, Glasgow BJ, Dogru M, Tsubota K, Lemp MA, Sullivan DA. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar;52:1922-1929.

    24. Qazi Y, Kheirkhah A, Blackie C, Cruzat A, Trinidad M, Williams C, Korb DR, Hamrah P. In vivo detection of clinically non-apparent ocular surface inflammation in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction-associated refractory dry eye symptoms: a pilot study. Eye (Lond). 2015 Aug;29:1099-110.

    25. Blackie CA and Korb DR. MGD: Getting to the Root Cause of Dry Eye. Rev Optom. 2012 June 21.

    26. Allansmith MR, Korb DR, Greiner JV, Henriquez AS, Simon MA, Finnemore VM. Giant papillary conjunctivitis in contact lens wearers. Am J Ophthalmol. 1977 May;83:697-708.

    27. Tagliaferri A, Love TE, Szczotka-Flynn LB. Risk factors for contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis associated with silicone hydrogel contact lens wear. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 May;40:117-122.

    28. Sorbara L, Jones L, Williams-Lyn D. Contact lens induced papillary conjunctivitis with silicone hydrogel lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2009 Apr;32:93-96.

    29. Diao H, She Z, Cao D, Wang Z, Lin Z. Comparison of tacrolimus, fluorometholone, and saline in mild-to-moderate contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis. Adv Ther. 2012 Jul;29:645-653.

    30. Donshik PC, Porazinski AD. Giant papillary conjunctivitis in frequent-replacement contact lens wearers: a retrospective study. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1999;97:205-216; discussion 216-220.

    31. Inceboz T, Yaman A, Over L, Ozturk AT, Akisu C. Diagnosis and treatment of demodectic blepharitis. Tukiye Parazitol Derg. 2009;33:32-36.

    32. Gao Y-Y, Di Pascuale MA, Li W, Liu DT, Baradaran-Rafii A, Elizondo A, Kawakita T, Raju VK, Tseng SC. High prevalence of ocular demodex in lashes with cylindrical dandruffs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Sep;46:3089-3094.

    33. Lee SH, Chun YS, Kim JH, Kim ES, Kim JC. The relationship between demodex and ocular surface discomfort. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jun;51:2906-2911.

    34. Liu J, Sheha H, Tseng SC. Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Oct;10:505-510.

    35. Liu J, Tseng SCG. Do You Know Demodex? Ophthalmology Management. 2010 Sep;14:61-63.

    36. Dart JK, Stapleton F, Minassian D. Contact lenses and other risk factors in microbial keratitis. Lancet. 1991 Sep;338:650-653.

    37. Green M, Apel A, Stapleton F. Risk factors and causative organisms in microbial keratitis. Cornea. 2008 Jan;27:22-27.

    38. Schein OD, Poggio EC. Ulcerative keratitis in contact lens wearers. Incidence and risk factors. Cornea. 1990;9 Suppl 1:S55-S58; discussion S62-S63.

    39. Matthews TD, Frazer DG, Minassian DC, Radford CF, Dart JK. Risks of keratitis and patterns of use with disposable contact lenses. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992 Nov;110:1559-1562.

    40. Schein OD, Buehler PO, Stamler JF, Verdier DD, Katz J. The impact of overnight wear on the risk of contact lens-associated ulcerative keratitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994 Feb;112:186-190

    41. Radford CF, Bacon AS, Dart JK, Minassian DC. Risk factors for acanthamoeba keratitis in contact lens users: a case-control study. BMJ. 1995 Jun;310:1567-1570.

    42. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden BA. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct;115:1655-1662.

    43. Edwards K, Keay L, Naduvilath T, Snibson G, Taylor H, Stapleton F. Characteristics of and risk factors for contact lens-related microbial keratitis in a tertiary referral hospital. Eye (Lond). 2009 Jan;23:153-160.

    44. Saeed A, D'Arcy F, Stack J, Collum LM, Power W, Beatty S. Risk factors, microbiological findings, and clinical outcomes in cases of microbial keratitis admitted to a tertiary referral center in ireland. Cornea. 2009 Apr;28:285-292.

    45. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, Holden B. The epidemiology of microbial keratitis with silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:79-85.

    46. Robertson DM, Cavanagh HD. Non-compliance with contact lens wear and care practices: a comparative analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Dec;88:1402-1408.

    47. Dart JK, Radford CF, Minassian D, Verma S, Stapleton F. Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses: a case-control study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct;115:1647-1654, 1654.e1-1654.e3.

    48. Wu YT, Zhu H, Willcox M, Stapleton F. Impact of air-drying lens cases in various locations and positions. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Jul;87:465-468.

    49. Wu YT, Zhu H, Willcox M, Stapleton F. The effectiveness of various cleaning regimens and current guidelines in contact lens case biofilm removal. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul;52:5287-5292.

    50. Stapleton F, Edwards K, Keay L, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden B. Risk factors for moderate and severe microbial keratitis in daily wear contact lens users. Ophthalmology. 2012 Aug;119:1516-1521

    51. Sindt CW, Riley CM. Practitioner attitudes on children and contact lenses. Optometry. 2011 Jan;82:44-45.

    52. Wagner H, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Jansen ME, Kinoshita BT, Lam DY, McMahon TT, Richdale K, Sorbara L; CLAY Study Group. Risk factors for interruption to soft contact lens wear in children and young adults. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Aug;88:973-980.

    53. Chalmers RL, Wagner H, Mitchell GL, Lam DY, Kinoshita BT, Jansen ME, Richdale K, Sorbara L, McMahon TT. Age and other risk factors for corneal infiltrative and inflammatory events in young soft contact lens wearers from the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Aug;52:6690-6696.

    54. Efron N, Morgan PB. Can subtypes of contact lens-associated corneal infiltrative events be clinically differentiated? Cornea. 2006 Jun;25:540-544.

(p. 40) Measuring Contact Lens Friction
By Lakshman N. Subbaraman, PhD, BSOptom, MSc, FAAO; John Pruitt, PhD; & Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO

    1. Dumbleton K, Caffery B, Dogru M, Hickson-Curran S, Kern J, Kojima T, Morgan PB, Purslow C, Robertson DM, Nelson JD; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the subcommittee on epidemiology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;54:TFOS20-TFOS36.

    2. Fonn D. Targeting contact lens induced dryness and discomfort: what properties will make lenses more comfortable. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:279-285.

    3. Nichols JJ, Willcox MD, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Jones L, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    4. Brennan NA. Contact lens based correlates of soft lens wearing comfort. Optom Vis Sci. 2009;86:e-abstract 90957.

    5. Coles CML, Brennan NA. Coefficient of friction and soft contact lens comfort. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;88:e-abstract 125603.

    6. Kern J, Rappon J, Bauman E, Vaughn B. Assessment of the relationship between contact lens coefficient of friction and subject lens comfort. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jun;54:ARVO E-Abstract 494.

    7. Jones L, Brennan NA, Gonzalez-Meijome J, Lally J, Maldonado-Codina C, Schmidt TA, Subbaraman L, Young G, Nichols JJ; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens materials, design, and care subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;54:TFOS37-TFOS70.

    8. Rennie AC, Dickrell PL, Sawyer WG. Friction coefficient of soft contact lenses: measurements and modeling. Tribology Letters. 2005 Apr;18:499-504.

    9. Roba M, Duncan EG, Hill GA, Spencer ND, Tosatti SGP. Friction measurements on contact lenses in their operating environment. Tribology Letters. 2011 Sept;44:387-397.

    10. Kim SH, Marmo C, Somorjai GA. Friction studies of hydrogel contact lenses using AFM: non-crosslinked polymers of low friction at the surface. Biomaterials. 2001 Dec;22:3285-3294.

    11. Kim SH, Opdahl A, Marmo C, Somorjai GA. AFM and SFG studies of pHEMA-based hydrogel contact lens surfaces in saline solution: adhesion, friction, and the presence of non-crosslinked polymer chains at the surface. Biomaterials. 2002 Apr;23:1657-1666.

    12. Tucker RC, Quinter B, Patel D, Pruitt J, Nelson J. Qualitative and quantitative lubricity of experimental contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Mar;53:ARVO E-Abstract:6093.

    13. Subbaraman LN, Jones L. Measuring friction and lubricity of soft contact lenses: A review. Contact Lens Spectrum–Special Edition. 2013 Jun;28:28-33.

    14. Sawyer WG, Dunn AC, Uruena JM, Ketelson H. Robust contact lens lubricity using surface gels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Mar;14:ARVO E-abstract:6095.

    15. Zhou B, Li Y, Randall NX, Li L. A study of the frictional properties of senofilcon-A contact lenses. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2011 Oct;4:1336-1342.

    16. Ross G, Nasso M, Franklin V, Lydon F, Tighe B. Silicone hydrogels: trends in products and properties. Poster presented at BCLA 29th Clinical Conference & Exhibition; December 2005, Brighton, UK.

    17. Wilson T, Tosatti S, Toubouti Y, Kakkassery J, Lorenz KO, Aeschlimann R. Coefficient of friction of human corneal tissue. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:E-abstract-130742.

    18. Dunn AC, Sawyer WG, Angelini TE. Gemini interfaces in aqueous lubrication with hydrogels. Tribology Letters. 2014 Mar;54:59-66.

    19. Menzies KL, Rogers R, Jones L. In vitro contact angle analysis and physical properties of blister pack solutions of daily disposable contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Jan;36:10-18.

    20. Ngai V, Medley J, Jones L, Forrest JA, Teichroeb JH. Friction of contact lenses: silicone hydrogel versus conventional hydrogel. Tribol Interface Eng Ser. 2005 Jan;48:371-379.

    21. Nairn JA, Jiang T. Measurement of the friction and lubricity properties of contact lenses. In: Proceedings of ANTEC ’95. May 7-11, 1995, Boston.

(p. 47) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – A Contact Lens Report Card by the Numbers
By David L. Kading, OD, FAAO

    1. Nichols, JJ. Contact Lenses 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:22-27.

(p. 50) The Scleral Lens Vault – Stabilizing Scleral Lens Rotation
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. Ritzmann M, Caroline P, Walker M, Stephens P, Kojima R, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, André M, Zheng F. Understanding scleral shape with the Eaglet Eye Surface Profiler. Scientific Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, January 2015.

    2. Ticak A, Marsack JD, Keonig DE, Ravikumar A, Shi Y, Nguyen LC, Applegate RA. A comparison of three methods to increase scleral contact lens on-eye stability. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 Nov;41:386-390.

(p. 51) Treatment Plan – Managing Scleritis
By William L. Miller, OD, MS, PhD, FAAO

    1. Honik G, Wong IG, Gritz DC. Incidence and Prevalence of episcleritis and scleritis in Northern California. Cornea. 2013 Dec;32:1562-1566.

    2. Akpek EK, Thorne JE, Qazi FA, Do DV, Jabs DA. Evaluation of patients with scleritis for systemic disease. Ophthalmology. 2004 Mar;111:501-506.

    3. Tuft SJ, Watson PG. Progression of scleral disease. Ophthalmology 1991 Apr;98: 467–471.

    4. Sainz de la Maza M, Foster CS, Jabbur NS. Scleritis associated with systemic vasculitic diseases. Ophthalmology. 1995 Apr;102:687-692.

    5. Watson PG. The diagnosis and management of scleritis. Ophthalmology. 1980 Jul;87:716-720.

    6. Lin P, Bhullar SS, Tessler HH, Goldstein DA. Immunologic markers as potential predictors of systemic autoimmune disease in patients with idiopathic scleritis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Mar;145:463-471.

    7. Rosenbaum JT, Robertson JE Jr. Recognition of posterior scleritis and its treatment with indomethacin. Retina. 1993;13:17-21.

    8. Jabs DA, Mudun A, Dunn JP, Marsh MJ. Episcleritis and scleritis: clinical features and treatment results. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130:469-476.

    9. Spiegel BM, Chiou CF, Ofman JJ. Minimizing complications from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: cost effectiveness of competing strategies in varying risk groups. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;53:185–197.

    10. Murphy CC, Ayliffe WH, Booth A, Makanjuola D, Andrews PA, Jayne D. Tumor necrosis factor-α blockade with infliximab for refractory uveitis and scleritis. Ophthalmology. 2004; Feb;111:352-356.

    11. Levy-Clarke G, Jabs DA, Read RW, Rosenbaum JT, Vitale A, Van Gelder RN. Expert panel recommendations for the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologic agents in patients with ocular inflammatory disorders. Ophthalmology 2014 Mar;121:785-796.