Contact Lens Spectrum


February 2016

Document #243

(p. 14) Refractive Focus – Keratoconus: Many Clinical Perspectives, One Goal
By Jason Marsack, PhD

    1. Feder RS, Gan TJ. Noninflammatory Ectatic Disorders. In: Krachmer JH, Mannis MJ, Holland EJ, eds. Cornea fundamentals, diagnosis and management. Vol 1, 3rd Ed. Elsevier; 2011:865-878.

    2. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Available at: Accessed December 18, 2015.

    3. Figure 1: Association of Vision Science Librarians (AVSL) members participating in the generation of this Wordle: Louise Collins, Sara Cressman, Patricia Duffel, Suzanne Fermier, Pamela Forbes, Reva Hurtes and Pam Sieving. The Wordle presented here was created at

(p. 16) Prescribing for Presbyopia – An Overview of Correction Optiosn for Presbyopia
By Douglas P. Benoit, OD, FAAO

    1. Weiss J, Kreuger R, Tullo W. Layers, Lenses, and Lasers. Section on Cornea, Contact Lenses, and Refractive Technologies Symposium Presentation, American Academy of Optometry annual meeting, New Orleans. October 2015.

(p. 22) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Ocular Surface Disease Is Still Underdiagnosed
By Scott Schacter, OD, & Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD, FAAO

    1. Kwan J, Harthan J, Opitz D, Kuntjoro N, Hom MM. Prevalence of stand-alone ocular surface disease and their mixed counterparts. Paper presented at American Academy of Optometry 2015, New Orleans. Optom Vis Sci. 2015;92:E-abstract 155044.

    2. Harthan J, Kwan J, Opitz DL, Hom MM. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in pre- and post-menopausal women. Paper presented at American Academy of Optometry 2015, New Orleans. Optom Vis Sci. 2015;92:E-abstract 155058.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Climate Changes, Pollen Production, and Contact Lenses
By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO


    2. Bangor University. New Research Aims to Revolutionise Pollen Forecasting. 2015 Oct 20. Available at

    3. Albertine JM, Manning WJ, DaCosta M, Stinson KA, Muilenberg ML, Rogers CA. Projected Carbon Dioxide to Increase Grass Pollen and Allergen Exposure Despite Higher Ozone Levels. PLoS One. 2014 Nov;9:e111712.

    4. American College of Allergy, Ashtma & Immunology. Pollen Allergy. Available at

    5. Ward, MA Helping Lens Wearers Cope With Seasonal Allergies. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Apr;28:21.

    6. Ward, MA Advice for Symptomatic Lens Wearers During Allergy Season. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2011 May:26:??.

    7. LaRosa M, Lionetti E, Reibaldi M, Russo A, Longo A, Leonardi S, Tomarchio S, Avitabile T, Reibaldi A. Ital J Pediatr. 2013 Mar:39-18. Available at

(p. 26) A Look at Daily Disposables
By Maria Markoulli, PhD, MOptom, GrandCertOcTher, FBCLA, FAAO

    1. Collins MJ, Carney LG. Patient compliance and its influence on contact lens wearing problems. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1986 Dec;63:952-956.

    2. Boswall GJ, Ehlers WH, Luistro A, Worrall M, Donshik PC. A comparison of conventional and disposable extended wear contact lenses. CLAO J. 1993 Jul;19:158-165.

    3. Carnt N, Jalbert I, Stretton S, Naduvilath T, Papas E. Solution toxicity in soft contact lens daily wear is associated with corneal inflammation. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:309-315.

    4. Chan WK, Weissman BA. Corneal pannus associated with contact lens wear. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996 May;121(5):540-546.

    5. Donshik PC, Porazinski AD. Giant papillary conjunctivitis in frequent-replacement contact lens wearers: a retrospective study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 May;129:703.

    6. Holden BA, Reddy MK, Sankaridurg PR, Buddi R, Sharma S, Willcox MD, Sweeney DF, Rao GN. Contact lens-induced peripheral ulcers with extended wear of disposable hydrogel lenses: histopathologic observations on the nature and type of corneal infiltrate. Cornea. 1999 Sep;18:538-543.

    7. Dumbleton KA, Spafford MM, Sivak A, Jones LW. Exploring compliance: a mixed-methods study of contact lens wearer perspectives. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Aug;90:898-908.

    8. Collier R. Calculating risk in use of disposable contact lenses. CMAJ. 2012 Apr;184:E297-E298.

    9. Holden BA, Mertz GW. Critical oxygen levels to avoid corneal edema for daily and extended wear contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1984 Oct;25:1161-1167.

    10. Covey M, Sweeney DF, Terry R, Sankaridurg PR, Holden BA. Hypoxic effects on the anterior eye of high-Dk soft contact lens wearers are negligible. Optom Vis Sci. 2001 Feb;78:95-99.

    11. Dumbleton K. Adverse events with silicone hydrogel continuous wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2002 Sep;25:137-146.

    12. Dumbleton K. Noninflammatory silicone hydrogel contact lens complications. Eye Contact Lens. 2003 Jan;29(1 Suppl):S186-S189.

    13. Szczotka-Flynn L, Diaz M. Risk of corneal inflammatory events with silicone hydrogel and low dk hydrogel extended contact lens wear: a meta-analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:247-256.

    14. Efron N, Nichols JJ, Woods CA, Morgan PB. (2015). Trends in US Contact Lens Prescribing 2002 to 2014. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Jul;92:758-767.

    15. Meyler J, Ruston D. The world’s first daily disposables. Optician. 2006 Dec;231:12.

    16. Morgan PB, Chamberlain P, Moody K, Maldonado-Codina C. Ocular physiology and comfort in neophyte subjects fitted with daily disposable silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Jun;36:118-125.

    17. Efron SE, Efron N, Morgan PB, Morgan SL. A theoretical model for comparing UK costs of contact lens replacement modalities. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2012 Feb;35:28-34.

    18. Stapleton F, Keay L, Jalbert I, Cole N. The epidemiology of contact lens related infiltrates. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:257-272.

    19. Wiley L, Bridge DR, Wiley LA, Odom JV, Elliott T, Olson JC. Bacterial biofilm diversity in contact lens-related disease: emerging role of Achromobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and Delftia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jun;53:3896-3905.

    20. Tilia D, Lazon de la Jara P, Zhu H, Naduvilath TJ; Holden BA. The effect of compliance on contact lens case contamination. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Mar;91:262-271.

    21. Wu YT, Willcox M, Zhu H, Stapleton F. Contact lens hygiene compliance and lens case contamination: A review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015 Oct;38:307-316.

    22. Lakkis C, Anastasopoulos F, Terry C, Borazjani R. Time Course of the Development of Contact Lens Case and Contact Lens Contamination. Invest Ophthalmolo Vis Sci. 2009 Apr;50:6352-6352.

    23. Suchecki JK, Ehlers WH, Donshik PC. A comparison of contact lens-related complications in various daily wear modalities. CLAO J. 2000 Oct;26:204-213.

    24. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden BA. The incidence of contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct;115:1655-1662.

    25. Stapleton F, Naduvilath T, Keay LJ, Radford CF, Dart JK, Edwards K, Carnt N, Minassian D, Holden B. Risk Factors for Microbial Keratitis in Daily Disposable Contact Lens Wear. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Apr;51:1305.

    26. Dart JKG, Radford CF, Minassian D, Verma S, Stapleton F. Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses: a case-control study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct;115:1647-1654.

    27. Chalmers RL, Gleason W. Overview of contact lens postmarket surveillance in the United States: system and recent study results. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:109-114.

    28. Sankaridurg PR, Sweeney DF, Holden BA, Naduvilath T, Velala I, Gora R, Krishnamachary M, Rao GN. Comparison of adverse events with daily disposable hydrogels and spectacle wear: results from a 12-month prospective clinical trial. Ophthalmology. 2003 Dec;110:2327-2334.

    29. Willcox MD, Naduvilath TJ, Vaddavalli PK, Holden BA, Ozkan J, Zhu H. Corneal erosions, bacterial contamination of contact lenses, and microbial keratitis. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Nov;36:340-345.

    30. Ilhan B, Irkec M, Orhan M, Celik H. Surface deposits on frequent replacement and conventional daily wear soft contact lenses: a scanning electron microscopic study. CLAO J. 1998 Oct;24:232-235.

    31. Skotnitsky. PHD thesis. Vision CRC, The University of New South Wales, 2007.

    32. Gellatly KW, Brennan NA, Efron N. Visual decrement with deposit accumulation of HEMA contact lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1988 Dec;65:937-941.

    33. Walther H, Subbaraman L, Jones LW. In Vitro Cholesterol Deposition on Daily Disposable Contact Lens Materials. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print]

    34. Nichols JJ, Jones L, Nelson JD, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA, Willcox MD; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: introduction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;54:TFOS1-TFOS6.

    35. Hickson-Curran S, Spyridon M, Hunt C, Young G. The use of daily disposable lenses in problematic reusable contact lens wearers. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2014 Aug;37:285-291.

    36. Young G, Veys J, Pritchard N, Coleman S. A multi-centre study of lapsed contact lens wearers. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2002 Nov;22:516-527.

    37. Diec J, Lazon de la Jara P, Willcox M, Holden BA. The clinical performance of lenses disposed of daily can vary considerably. Eye Contact Lens. 2012 Sep;38:313-318.

    38. Pruitt J, Bauman E. The development of dailies Total 1 water gradient contact lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Jun Special Edition;28:40-44.

    39. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E 3rd, Naduvilath T, Chen X, de la Jara PL, Martinez A, Kwan J, Ho A, Frick K, Ge J. Decrease in Rate of Myopia Progression with a Contact Lens Designed to Reduce Relative Peripheral Hyperopia: One-Year Results. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Dec;52:9362-9367.

(p. 30) Beyond the Limbus: Scleral Peripheral Curves and Their Modifications
By Stephanie L. Woo, OD, FAAO, FSLS, & Brooke M. Messer, OD, FSLS

    1. Severinsky B, Behrman S, Frucht-Pery J, Solomon A. Scleral contact lenses for visual rehabilitation after penetrating keratoplasty: Long term outcomes. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2014 Jun;37:196-202.

    2. Kojima R, Caroline P, Graff T, Kinoshita B, Copilevitz L, Achong-Coan R, van der Worp E, Lampa M, So K, André, M. Eye Shape and scleral lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 April;28:38-43.

    3. DeNaeyer, G. Today’s scleral lens. Review of Cornea & Contact Lenses, supplement to Rev Optom. 2012 June:18-22.

    4. Visser E, Visser R, Van Lier HJ. Advantages of toric scleral lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;83:233-236.

(p. 34) Tear Film & Lens Wear
By John Buch, OD, MS; Kristy Canavan, OD; Zohra Fadli, PhD; & Charles Scales, PhD

    1. Wang J, Fonn D, Simpson TL, Jones L. Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Jun;44:2524-2528.

    2. Mantelli F, Argüeso P. Functions of ocular surface mucins in health and disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Oct;8:477-483.

    3. de Souza GA, Godoy LM, Mann M. Identification of 491 proteins in the tear fluid proteome reveals a large number of proteases and protease inhibitors. Genome Biol. 2006;7(8):R72.

    4. Rantamäki AH, Seppänen-Laakso T, Oresic M, Juahiainen M, Holopainen JM. Human tear fluid lipidome: from composition to function. PLoS One. 2011 May 5;6:e19553.

    5. Abelson MB, Dartt D, McLaughlin J. Mucins: Foundation of A Good Tear Film. Review of Ophthalmology. 2011 Nov 7. Accessed Sept. 2, 2015. Available at

    6. Green-Church KB, Butovich I, Willcox M, Brochman D, Paulsen F, Barabino S, Glasgow BJ. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Subcommittee on Tear Film Lipids and Lipid–Protein Interactions in Health and Disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 30;52:1979-1993.

    7. Rohit A, Willcox M, Stapleton F. Tear lipid layer and contact lens comfort: a review. EyeContact Lens. 2013 May;39:247-253.

    8. Nichols JJ, Willcox MDP, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Jones L, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Executive Summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    9. Nichols JJ, Sinnott LT. Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;47:1319-1328.

    10. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    11. Rumpakis J. New Data on Contact Lens Dropouts: An International Perspective. Review of Optometry. January 15, 2010. Accessed November 23, 2015. Available at

(p. 38) GSLS Posters: A First Look
By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO, & Carl Kramer, OD

    1. Visser ES, Soeters N, Tahzig NG. Scleral Lens Tolerance After Cornea Crosslinking. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas. 2016.

    2. Nau A, Nau C, Shorter E, Harthan J, Barr J, Schornack M. SCOPE Study: Indications for Scleral Lens Wear. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas. 2016.

    3. Nau C, Harthan J, Shorter E, Barr J, Nau A, Schornack M. SCOPE Study: Demographics of Scleral Lens Fitters. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas. 2016.

    4. Lampa M, Davis R, Becherer PD, McCorkle L, Hayes J. Pupil Diameter and Variable Multifocal Zone Sizes Relate to Success. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas. 2016.

    5. Spors F, Tsang D, Hsieh E, Ardakani D, Barbosa YM, Egan DJ, Shen J, McNaughton LE. Comparing Corneal Shape Measurements of Four Topographers. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas. 2016.

(p. 46) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Orthokeratology Possibilities for Children
By Melanie Frogozo, OD, FAAO

    1. Rhinehart J. Orthokeratology in Manual of Contact Lens Prescribing and Fitting, Third Edition. Hom MM, Bruce AS, eds. St. Louis, Elsevier Health Sciences. 2006:637-686.

    2. Walline J. Myopia Control: A Review. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print].

    3. Charm J, Cho P. High myopia-partial retardation ortho-k: a 2-year randomized study. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Jun;90:530-539.

    4. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) study: a 2-Year randomized clinical trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Oct;53:7077-7085.

(p. 47) Prescribing for Astigmatism – Taming Those Torics
By Brooke Messer, OD, FAAO, FSLS

    1. Young G, Hunt C, Covey M. Clinical evaluation of factors influencing toric soft contact lens fit. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Jan;79:11-19.

    2. Gundel R. Effect of cylinder axis on rotation for a double this zone design toric hydrogel. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 1989 May;16:141-145.

    3. Young G, McIlraith R, Hunt C. Clinical evaluation of factors affecting soft toric lens orientation. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Nov;86:E1249-E1266.

    4. Hanks AJ. The watermelon seed principle. CL Forum. 1983;8(9):31-35.

    5. Castellano CF, Myers RI, Becherer PD, Walter DE. Rotational characteristics and stability of soft toric lenses. J Am Optom Assoc. 1990 Mar;61:167-170.

    6. Edrington TB. A literature review: The impact of rotational stabilization methods on toric soft contact lens performance. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Jun;34:104-110.

(p. 49) Reader and Industry Forum – Bacterial Environment and the Eye
By Augustin L. Gonzalez, OD, FAAO, ABCMO, & Justin Holt, OD

    1. Levinson WE, Jawetz E. Medical Microbiology and Immunology: A Review Examination. USA: Practice Hall International. 1989; 20-21.

    2. Rajvanshi VS. Bacterial flora of the conjunctiva. J All India Ophthalmol Soc. 1968; 16: 24-28.

    3. Khorazo D, Thompson R. The bacterial flora of the normal conjunctiva. Am J Opthalmol. 1935;18:1114-1116.

    4. Fernández-Rubio E, Urcelay JL, Cuesta-Rodriguez T. The antibiotic resistance pattern of conjunctival bacteria: a key for designing a cataract surgery prophylaxis. Eye (Lond). 2009 Jun; 23:1321-1328.

    5. Ansari MR, Madani H, Ghaderi E. Conjunctival bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance pattern in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Pak J Med Sci. 2008;24:581-585.

    6. Chang HL. Bacterial flora of the normal conjunctiva. Chin Med J. 1957; 75: 233-235.

    7. Matsuura H. Anaerobes in the bacterial flora of the conjunctival sac. Jpn J Opthalmol. 1971;15:116-124.

    8. Locatcher-Khoranzo D, Seegal BC. Microbiology of the eye. St. Louis: Mosby. 1972:13-18.

    9. Weiss A, Brinser JH, Nazar-Stewart. Acute conjunctivitis in childhood. J Pediatr. 1993 Jan;122:10-14.

    10. Groden LR, Murphy B, Rodnite J, Genvert GI. Lid flora in blepharitis. Cornea. 1991 Jan;10:50-53.

    11. Au YK, Jensen HG, Rowsey J, Reynolds M: Coagulase-negative staphylococci in conjunctivitis and blepharitis. Yan Ke Xue Bao. 1993 Sep;9:129-135.

    12. Taylor PB, Tabbara KF, Burd EM. Effect of preoperative fusidic acid on the normal eyelid and conjunctival bacterial flora. Br J Ophthalmol. 1998 Mar;72:2061209.

    13. Doyle A, Beigi B, Early A, Blake A, Eustace P, Hone R. Adherence of bacteria to intraocular lenses: a prospective study. Br J Ophthalmol. 1995 Apr;79:347-349.

    14. Peter JB: Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS). GBMC Healthcare. Accessible at

    15. Linoli O, Marconi S. [Quanitative study and typization of aerobic bacteria in the conjunctival sacs of healthy eyes]. Ann Sclavo. 1976 Sep-Oct;18:733-742.

    16. Groden LR, Murphy B, Rodnite J, Genvert GI. Lid flora in blepharitis. Cornea. 1991 Jan;10:50-53.

    17. Ramesh S, Ramakrishna R, Bharanthi MJ, Amuthan M, Viswanathan S. Prevalence of bacterial pathogens causing ocular infections in South India. 2010 Apr-Jun;53:281-286.

    18. Alvarez H, Tabbara KF. Infections of the eyelid. 2nd ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1996. p. 559-570.

    19. Galin MA. Bacteriological aspects of blepharitis. Arch Ophthalmol 1962;67:746-749.

    20. McCulley P, Dougherty JM, Deneau DG. Classification of chronic blepharitis. Ophthalmology. 1982 Oct;89:1173-1180.

    21. Khan JA, Hoover D, Ide CH. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis blepharitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984 Nov;98:562-565.

    22. Benjamin W. Bacterial eye pathogens. Presented at the UAB School of Optometry at MIC 200: Microbiology and Immunology, Oct 30-Nov 3, 2008.

    23. Fleiszig SM, Efron N. Microbial Flora in eyes of current and former contact lens wearers. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 May;30:1156-1161.

    24. Press Trust India. Wearing contact lenses may change eye bacteria. 2015 Jun 1. The Free Press Journal. Accessible at

    25. Emina MO, Idu FK. Bacteria and parasites in contact lenses of asymptomatic wearers in Nigeria. J Optom. 2011 Apr;4:69-74.

    26. McBride ME. Evaluation of microbial flora of the eye during wear of soft contact lenses. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1979 Feb;37:233-236.

    27. Szczotka-Flynn LB, Pearlman E, Ghannoum M. Microbial contamination of contact lenses, lens care solutions, and their accessories: a literature review. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Mar;36:116-129.