Contact Lens Spectrum


March 2016

Document #244

(p. 14) Research Review – Contact Lens Interactions with the Ocular Surface and CLD
By Maria Markoulli, PhD, MOptom, GrandCertOcTher, FBCLA, FAAO

    1. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Contact Lens Clin. 1999 Nov;26:157-162.

    2. Riley C, Young G, Chalmers R. Prevalence of ocular surface symptoms, signs, and uncomfortable hours of wear in contact lens wearers: the effect of refitting with daily-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon a). Eye Contact Lens. 2006 Dec;32:281-286.

    3. Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK, Caffery B, Simpson T, DuToit R, Portello J, Davis L. Characterization of ocular surface symptoms from optometric practices in North America. Cornea. 2001 Aug;20:610-618.

    4. Nichols KK, Redfern RL, Jacob JT, Nelson JD, Fonn D, Forstot SL, Huang JF, Holden BA, Nichols JJ; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the definition and classification subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS14-TFOS19.

    5. Craig JP, Willcox MD, Argüeso P, Maissa C, Stahl U, Tomlinson A, Wang J, Yokoi N, Stapleton F; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens interactions with the tear film subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct. 18;54:TFOS123-TFOS156.

    6. Jones L, Brennan NA, González-Méijome J, Lally J, Maldonado-Codina C, Schmidt TA, Subbaraman L, Young G, Nichols JJ; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens materials, design, and care subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS37-TFOS70.

    7. Doughty MJ. Contact lens wear and the goblet cells of the human conjunctiva—A review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Aug;34:157-163.

    8. Efron N, Jones L, Bron AJ, Knop E, Arita R, Barabino S, McDermott AM, Villani E, Willcox MD, Markoulli M; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens interactions with the ocular surface and adnexa subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS98-TFOS122.

    9. Knop E, Brewitt H. Induction of conjunctival epithelial alterations by contact lens wearing. A prospective study. Ger J Ophthalmol. 1992;1(3-4):125-134.

    10. Tapasztó B, Veres A, Kosina-Hagyó K, Somfai GM, Németh J. OCT Imaging of lid-parallel conjunctival folds in soft contact lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Oct;88:1206-1213.

    11. Németh J, Fodor E, Lang Z, Kosina-Hagyó K, Berta A, Komár T, Petricek I, Higazy M, Prost M, Grupcheva C, Kemer OE, Schollmayer P, Samaha A, Hlavackova K. Lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF) and dry eye: a multicentre study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012 Nov;96:1380-1385.

    12. Meller D, Tseng SC. Conjunctivochalasis: literature review and possible pathophysiology. Surv Ophthalmol. 1998 Nov-Dec;43:225-232.

    13. Watanabe A, Yokoi N, Kinoshita S, Hino Y, Tsuchihashi Y. Clinicopathologic study of conjunctivochalasis. Cornea. 2004 Apr;23:294-298.

    14. Murube J. Characteristics and etiology of conjunctivochalasis: historical perspective. Ocul Surf. 2005 Jan;3:7-14.

    15. Pult H, Riede-Pult BH. Impact of conjunctival folds on central tear meniscus height. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Feb 3;56:1459-1466.

    16. Korb DR, Herman JP, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Blackie, CA. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Fluorescein, Rose Bengal, Lissamine Green, and a New Dye Mixture for Ocular Surface Staining. Eye Contact Lens. 2008 Jan;34:61-64.

    17. Korb DR, Greiner JV, Herman JP, Hebert E, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Glonek T, Olson MC. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J. 2002 Oct;28:211-216.

    18. Knop N, Korb DR, Blackie CA, Knop E. The lid wiper contains goblet cells and goblet cell crypts for ocular surface lubrication during the blink. Cornea. 2012 Jun;31:668-679.

    19. Navascues-Cornago M, Maldonado-Codina C, Gupta R, Morgan PB. Characterization of Upper Eyelid Tarsus and Lid Wiper Dimensions. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 Dec 24. [Epub ahead of print]

    20. Yamamoto Y, Shiraishi A, Sakane Y, Ohta K, Yamaguchi M, Ohashi Y. Involvement of Eyelid Pressure in Lid-Wiper Epitheliopathy. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Aug 19:1-9.

    21. Guthrie SE, Jones L, Blackie CA, Korb DR. A Comparative Study Between an Oil-in-Water Emulsion and Nonlipid Eye Drops Used for Rewetting Contact Lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 Nov;41:373-377.

    22. Schmidt TA, Sullivan DA, Knop E, Richards SM, Knop N, Liu S, Sahin A, Darabad RR, Morrison S, Kam WR, Sullivan BD. Transcription, translation, and function of lubricin, a boundary lubricant, at the ocular surface. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Jun;131:766-776.

    23. Papas EB, Ciolino JB, Jacobs D, Miller WL, Pult H, Sahin A, Srinivasan S, Tauber J, Wolffsohn JS, Nelson JD; Members of the International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the management and therapy subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS183-TFOS203.

(p. 16) Prescribing for Presbyopia – Scleral Multifocal Power Profiles
By Craig W. Norman, FCLSA

    1. Norman CW. Comparing Aspheric GP Multifocals. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Mar;29:17.

    2. Kargenian A, Kindt BS, Rosen CM, Pole J. Power Profiles: A Scleral Multifocal Analysis. Poster presented at 2016 Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas. Jan 21-24, 2016. Available at

(p. 19) Contact Lens Design & Materials – Multifocal Design Matters for Myopia Control
By Gregory J. Nixon, OD, FAAO

    1. Walline, JJ. Current and Future Developments in Myopia Control. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2012 Oct;27:34-38.

    2. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M, Everett D, Norton TT, Kurtz D, Leske MC, Manny R, Marsh-Tootle W, Scheiman M. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Apr;44:1492-1500.

    3. Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial 2 Study Group for the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Progressive-addition lenses versus single-vision lenses for slowing progression of myopia in children with high accommodative lag and near esophoria. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr 25;52:2749-2757.

    4. Kakita T, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr 6;52:2170-2174.

    5. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep;93:1181-1185.

    6. Charm J, Cho P. High myopia-partial reduction ortho-k: a 2-year randomized study. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Jun;90:530-539.

    7. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children. Ophthalmology. 2011 June;118:1152-1161.

    8. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.

(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Mites: Live and Let Live
By Katherine M. Mastrota, MS, OD, FAAO

    1. Halliday RB, OConnor BM, Baker AS. Global Diversity of Mites. In Raven PH, Williams T, eds. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Proceedings of the 1997 Forum on Biodiversity. National Academy of Sciences and Research Council. National Academies Press. 2000 Mar:192-212.

    2. Lacey N, Russell-Hallinan A, Powell FC. Study of Demodex mites: Challenges and Solutions. Study of Demodex mites: Challenges and Solutions. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Dec 23. [Epub ahead of print]

    3. Miller A. Intricate Relationship Allows the Other to Flourish: the Sea Anemone and the Clownfish". AskNature. The Biomimicry Institute. Accessed Jan. 14, 2016. Available at

    4. Gerritsen J, Smidt H, Rijkers GT, de Vos WM. Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease: the impact of probiotics. Genes Nutr. 2011 Aug;6:209-240.

    5. Lacey N, Raghallaigh SN, Powell, F. Demodex mites - Commensals, Parasites or Mutualistic Organisms? Dermatology. 2011;222(2):128-130.

    6. Cogen AL, Nizet V, Gallo RL. Skin microbiota: a source of disease or defence? Br J Dermatol. 2008 Mar;158:442-455.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Using Enzymatic Cleaners
By Andrew D. Pucker, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Rosenthal RA, Henry CL, Stone RP, Schlech BA. Anatomy of a regimen: consideration of multipurpose solutions during non-compliant use. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2003 Mar;26:17-26.

    2. Korb DR, Greiner JV, Finnemore VM, Allansmith MR. Treatment of contact lenses with papain. Increase in wearing time in keratoconic patients with papillary conjunctivitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1983 Jan;101:48-50.

    3. Nilsson SE, Lindh H. Hydrogel contact lens cleaning with or without multi-enzymes. A prospective study. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1988 Feb;66:15-18.

    4. Begley CG, Paragina S, Sporn A. An analysis of contact lens enzyme cleaners. J Am Optom Assoc. 1990 Mar;61:190-194.

    5. Lowther GE. Effectiveness of an enzyme in removing deposits from hydrophilic lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1977 Feb;54:76-84.

    6. Stern GA, Zam ZS. The effect of enzymatic contact lens cleaning on adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to soft contact lenses. Ophthalmology. 1987 Feb;94:115-119.

    7. Barton BE, James LC, Spencer J, Malley A, Huth S. Relative allergenic potential of four proteases used as contact lens cleaners. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1988 Feb;65:70-75.

    8. Bernstein DI, Gallagher JS, Grad M, Bernstein IL. Local ocular anaphylaxis to papain enzyme contained in a contact lens cleansing solution. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984 Sep;74:258-260.

    9. Bennett E. GP Annual Report 2015. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Oct;30:24-27, 29-31.

(p. 26) The Role of Amniotic Membrane Transplantation
By Paul D. Luog; Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO; Stephanie L. Woo, OD, FAAO; & Raymond J. Brill, OD, MBA, FAAO

    1. Riau A, Beuerman R, Lim L, Mehta J. Preservation, sterilization and de-epithelialization of human amniotic membrane for use in ocular surface reconstruction. Biomaterials. 2010 Jan;31:216-225.

    2. Koob TJ, Lim JJ, Zabek N, Massee M. Cytokines in single layer amnion allografts compared to multilayer amnion/chorion allografts for wound healing. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2015 Jul:103:1133-1140.

    3. de Rötth A. Plastic Repair of Conjunctival Defects with Fetal Membranes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1940;23(3):522-525. Accessed April 23, 2015. Available at

    4. Kim JC, Tseng SC. Transplantation of preserved human amniotic membrane for surface reconstruction in severely damaged rabbit corneas. Cornea. 1995 Sep;14:473-484.

    5. MiMedx Group Inc. PURION® Processed dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allografts. 2012 May. Accessed July 18, 2015. Available at

    6. Sheha H, Liang L, Li J, Tseng S. Sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation for severe bacterial keratitis. Cornea. 2009 Dec;28:1118-1123.

    7. Kabat, A., Sowka, J. A natural alternative to drugs. Rev Optom. 2014 Aug 15. Accessed April 21, 2015. Available at

    8. IOP Ophthalmics. AmbioDisk brochure. 2012. Accessed July 19, 2015. Available at

    9. BioD, LLC. BioDOptix: Clearly Focused on Improving Vision. 2015. Accessed July 18, 2015. Available at

    10. Mastrota K. Amniotic membrane in ocular surface disease. 2013 Dec 20. Accessed April 21, 2015. Available at

    11. He H, L, W, Tseng DY, Zhang S, Chen SY, Day AJ, Tseng SC. Biochemical characterization and function of complexes formed by hyaluronan and the heavy chains of inter-alpha-inhibitor (HC-HA) purified from extracts of human amniotic membrane. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 24;284:20136-20146.

    12. Bio-Tissue. Tissue Safety and Quality Assurance. 2014a. Accessed April 22, 2015. Available at

    13. Marangon FB, Alfonso EC, Miller D, Remonda NM, Muallem MS, Tseng SCG. Incidence of Microbial Infection After Amniotic Membrane Transplantation. Cornea. 2004 April;23:264-269.

    14. Tseng, SCG. Sutureless Cryopreserved Amnion Grafts: ProKera. Ocular Surface and Research Foundation. 2009;1(2):1-4. Accessed April 22, 2015. Available at

    15. Park JH, Jeoung JW, Wee WR, Lee JH, Kim MK, Lee JL. Clinical efficacy of amniotic membrane transplantation in treatment of various ocular surface disease. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2008 Apr;31;73-80.

    16. Nguyen P, Rue K, Heur M, Yiu S. Ocular surface rehabilitation: Application of human amniotic membrane in high-risk penetrating keratoplasties. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jul;28:198-202.

    17. Koob TJ, Lim JJ, Massee M, Zabek N, Denozière G. Properties of dehydrated human amnion/chorion composite grafts: Implications for wound repair and soft tissue regeneration. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2014 Aug;102:1353-1362.

    18. MiMedx Group Inc. Patent US8709494: Placental tissue grafts. 2014 Apr 29. Accessed July 19, 2015. Available at

    19. Omni Eye Services. Managing the injured cornea: Amniotic membranes. 2014 Spring: 3. Accessed July 18, 2015. Available at

    20. Sowka JW, Gurwood AS, Kabat AG. Therapeutic Uses of Amniotic Membranes. In The Handbook of Ocular Disease Management. Rev Optom. 2015 April 15;17(Supp):40A-41A.

    21. Cooke M, Tan EK, Mandrycky C, He H, O’Connell J, Tseng SC. Comparison of cryopreserved amniotic membrane and umbilical cord tissue with dehydrated amniotic membrane/chorion tissue. J Wound Care. 2014 Oct;23:465-476.

    22. Allen CL, Clare G, Stewart EA, Branch MJ, McIntosh OD, Dadhwal M, Dua HS, Hopkinson A. Augmented dried versus cryopreserved amniotic membrane as an ocular surface dressing. PLoS One. 2013 Oct;8:e78441.

    23. Kheirkhah A, Casas V, Raju VK, Tseng SC. Sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation for partial limbal stem cell deficiency. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 May;145:787-794.

    24. Kheirkhah A, Johnson DA, Paranjpe DR, Raju VK, Casas V, Tseng SC. Temporary sutureless amniotic membrane patch for acute alkaline burns. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Aug;126:1059-1066.

    25. Kheirkhah A, Tabatabaei A, Zavareh MK, Khodabandeh A, Mohammadpour M, Raju VK. A controlled study of amniotic membrane transplantation for acute Pseudomonas keratitis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2012 Jun;47:305-311.

    26. Heiligenhaus A, Li HF, Yang Y, Wasmuth S. Steuhl KP, Bauer D. Transplantation of amniotic membrane in murine herpes stromal keratitis modulates matrix metalloproteinases in the cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov;46:4079-4085.

    27. Kenyon KR, Lam H. (2013, June 1). Amniotic Membrane: Themes and Variations. In Cornea Report 2013. Ophthalmology Management. 2013 June;17(Supp):10-13.

    28. Baradaran-Rafii A, Aghayan H, Arjmand B, Javadi M. Amniotic Membrane Transplantation. Iran J Ophthalmic Res. 2007;2:58-75.

    29. Young RL, Cota J, Zund G, Mason BA, Wheeler JM. The use of amniotic membrane graft to prevent postoperative adhesions. Fertil Steril. 1991 Mar;55:624-628.

    30. Kanski J, Bowling B. Chapter 5: Conjunctiva. In Clinical ophthalmology: A Systematic Approach, 7th edition. Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier/Saunders, 2001:157-159.

    31. Russell GE. Using amniotic membrane in the primary care office. Optometry Times. 2014 Aug 19. Accessed on April 21, 2015. Available at

    32. Kolomeyer AM, Do BK, Tu Y, Chu DS. Placement of ProKera in the management of ocular manifestations of acute Stevens-Johnson Syndrome in an outpatient. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 May;39:e7-e11.

    33. Giannikas C, Udell IJ, Steiner A, Shih C. Sutureless Amniotic Membrane Transplantation for Ocular Surface Disorders: A Comparison of ProKera to AmbioDisc. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Apr;55:4707.

    34. Bio-Tissue. Prokera®. 2014b. Accessed Apr 23, 2015. Available at

    35. Thimons, J. Managing the Non-healing Cornea. Rev Cornea Contact Lens. 2014 Mar 15. Accessed April 21, 2015. Available at

    36. Groves, N. Next generation of PROKERA biologic corneal bandage devices. Ophthalmology Times. 2014 Apr 15. Accessed Apr 21, 2015. Available at

    37. Mangan, R. Stopping Corneal Erosion with Amniotic Membranes. Rev Cornea Contact Lens. 2014 Oct 1. Accessed Apr 21, 2015. Available at

    38. IOP Ophthalmics. AmbioDisk Product Insert/Instructions for Use. 2012 May. Accessed July 20, 2015. Available at

    39. Rumpakis, J. Coding Connection: Coding for Prokera. In Ryff K, Ryff B, Lighthizer N. Insert and Remove an Amniotic Membrane Graft. Rev Optom. 2015 Feb 15. Accessed July 20, 2015. Available at

    40. Corcoran Consulting Group. Reimbursement for Prokera (Bio-Tissue) - FAQ. 2013 Mar 20. Accessed July 31, 2015. Available at

(p. 36) Defining a Strategy for Myopia Control
By Langis Michaud, OD, MSC, FAAO (Dipl), FSLS, FBCLA; Patrick Simard, OD, MBA, MSC, FAAO; & Remy Marcotte-Collard, OD

    1. Lam CS, Lam CH, Cheng SC, Chan LY. Prevalence of myopia among Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: changes over two decades. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012 Jan;32:17-24.

    2. Guo YH, Lin HY, Lin LL, Cheng CY. Self-reported myopia in Taiwan: 2005 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Eye (Lond). 2012 May;26:684-689.

    3. Pan CW, Dirani M, Cheng CY, Wong TY, Saw SM. The age-specific prevalence of myopia in Asia: a meta-analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Mar;92:258-266.

    4. Williams KM, Bertelsen G, Cumberland P, Wolfram C, Verhoeven VJ, Anastasopoulos E, Buitendijk GH, Cougnard-Grégoire A, Creuzot-Garcher C, Erke MG, Hogg R, Höhn R, Hysi P, Khawaja AP, Korobelnik JF, Ried J, Vingerling JR, Bron A, Dartigues JF, Fletcher A, Hofman A, Kuijpers RW, Luben RN, Oxele K, Topouzis F, von Hanno T, Mirshahi A, Foster PJ, van Duijn CM, Pfeiffer N, Delcourt C, Klaver CC, Rahi J, Hammond CJ; European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium. Increasing Prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the Impact of Education. Ophthalmology. 2015 Jul;122:1489-1497.

    5. Vitale S, Sperduto RD, Ferris FL 3rd. Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Dec;127:1632-1639.

    6. Tano Y. Pathologic myopia: where are we now? Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:645-660.

    7. Saw SM. How blinding is pathological myopia? Br J Ophthalmol. 2006 May; 90:525-526.

    8. Wong TY, Ferreira A, Hughes R, Carter G, Mitchell P. Epidemiology and disease burden of pathologic myopia and myopic choroidal neovascularization: an evidence-based systematic review. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;157:9-25.e12.

    9. Holden B, Sankaridurg P, Smith E, Aller T, Jong M, He M. Myopia, an underrated global challenge to vision: where the current data takes us on myopia control. Eye (Lond). 2014 Feb;28:142-146.

    10. Morgan I, Rose K. How genetic is school myopia? Prog Retin Eye Res. 2005 Jan;24:1-38.

    11. Wu MM, Edwards MH. The effect of having myopic parents: an analysis of myopia in three generations. Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Jun;76:387-392.

    12. Feldkämper M, Schaeffel S. Interactions of genes and environment in myopia. Dev. Ophthalmol. 2003;37:34-49.

    13. Wildsoet CF. Active emmetropization—evidence for its existence and ramifications for clinical practice. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1997 Jul;17:279-290.

    14. Schaeffel F, Howland HC. Properties of the feedback loops controlling eye growth and refractive state in the chicken. Vision Res. 1991;31(4):717-734.

    15. Wojciechowski R. Nature and Nurture: the complex genetics of myopia and refractive error. Clin Genet. 2011 Apr;79:301-320.

    16. Pan CW, Chen Q, Sheng X, Li J, Niu Z, Zhou H, Wei T, Yuan Y, Zhong H. Ethnic variations in myopia and ocular biometry among adults in a rural community in China: the Yunnan minority eye studies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 May;56:3235-3241.

    17. Mutti DO, Hayes JR, Mitchell GL, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Tweiker JD, Zadnik K; CLEERE Study Group. Refractive error, axial length, and relative peripheral refractive error before and after the onset of myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jun;48:2510-2519.

    18. He X, Zou H, Lu L, Zhao R, Zhao H, Li Q, Zhu J. Axial length/corneal radius ratio: association with refractive state and role on myopia detection combined with visual acuity in Chinese schoolchildren. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 18;10:e0111766.

    19. Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Sinnott LT, Jones-Jordan LA, Moeschberger ML, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Tweiker JD, Zadnik K; CLEERE Study Group. Corneal and crystalline lens dimensions before and after myopia onset. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Mar;89:251-262.

    20. Xiang F, He M, Morgan IG. Annual changes in Refractive Errors and Ocular Components before and after the onset of myopia in Chinese Children. Ophthalmology. 2012 Jul;119:1478-1484.

    21. Zadnik K, Sinnott LT, Cotter SA, Jones-Jordan LA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Tweiker JD, Mutti DO; CLEERE Study Group. Prediction of Juvenile-Onset Myopia. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Jun;133:683-689.

    22. Zhao J, Mao J, Luo R, Li F, Munoz SR, Ellwein LB. The progression of refractive error in School-Age Children: Shunyi District, China. Am J. Ophthalmol. 2002 Nov;134:735-743.

    23. Jin JX, Hua WJ, Jiang X, Wu XY, Yang JW, Gao GP, Fang Y, Pei CL, Wang S, Zhang JZ, Tao LM, Tao FB. Effect of outdoor activity on myopia onset and progression in school-aged children in northeast China: the Sujiatun Eye Care Study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2015 Jul 9;15:73.

    24. Li SM, Li SY, Kang MT, Zhou Y, Liu LR, Li H, Wang YP, Zhan SY, Gopinath B, Mitchell P, Wang N; Anyang Childhood Eye Study Group. Near Work Related Parameters and Myopia in Chinese Children: the Anyang Childhood Eye Study. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 5;10:e0134514.

    25. Bayramlar H, Cekiç O, Hepşen IF. Does convergence, not accommodation, cause axial length elongation at near? A biometric study in teens. Ophthalmic Res. 1999;31(4):304-308.

    26. Schmid KL, Strang NC. Differences in the accommodation stimulus response curves of adult myopes and emmetropes: a summary and update. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2015 Nov;35:613-621.

    27. Chen Z, Niu L, Xue F, Qu X, Zhou Z, Zhou X, Chu R. Impact of pupil diameter on axial growth in orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Nov;89:1636-1640.

    28. Smith EL 3rd. Optical treatment strategies to slow myopia progression: effects of the visual extent of the optical treatment zone. Exp Eye Res. 2013 Sep;114:77-88.

    29. Orr JB, Seidel D, Day M, Gray LS. Is Pupil Diameter Influenced by Refractive Error? Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Jul;92:834-840.

    30. Zhong Y, Chen Z, Xue F, Zhou J, Niu L, Zhou X. Corneal power change is predictive of myopia progression in orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Apr;91:404-411.

    31. Charm J, Cho P. High myopia-partial reduction orthokeratology (HM-PRO): study design. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Aug;36:164-170.

    32. Berntsen DA, Kramer CE. Peripheral defocus with spherical and multifocal soft contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1215-1224.

    33. Lopes-Ferreira D, Ribeiro C, Maia R, Garcia-Porta N, Queiros A, Villa-Collar C, González-Méijome JM. Peripheral myopization using a dominant design multifocal contact lens. J Optom. 2011 Jan;4:14-21.

    34. Sanders E, Wagner H, Reich LN. Visual acuity and "balanced progressive" simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2008 Sep;34:293-296.

    35. Smith MJ, Walline JJ. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents. Adolesc Health Med Ther. 2015 Aug;13;6:133-140.

    36. Sun Y, Xu F, Zhang T, Liu M, Wang D, Chen Y, Liu Q. Orthokeratology to control myopia progression: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 9;10:e0124535.

    37. Walline JJ. Myopia Control: A Review. Eye Contact Lens. 2016 Jan;42:3-8.

    38. Aller TA, Liu M, Wildsoet CF. Myopia Control with Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Jan 18. [Epub ahead of print]

    39. Chia A, Lu QS, Tan D. Five-Year Clinical Trial on Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2: Myopia Control with Atropine 0.01% Eyedrops. Ophthalmology. 2016 Feb;123:391-399.

(p. 45) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – Become a Good Historian
By Jason R. Miller, OD, MBA, FAAO

    1. Bowerman Mary. Study: Bad hygiene a problem for nearly all contact lens users. USA Today. 2015 Aug 20. Available at: Accessed January 3, 2016.

(p. 48) The Scleral Lens Vault – Troubleshooting Reduced Vision
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. Sabesan R, Johns L, Tomashevskaya O, Jacobs DS, Rosenthal P, Yoon G. Wavefront-guided scleral lens prosthetic device for keratoconus. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Apr;90:314-323.

    2. Chen M, Yoon G. Posterior corneal aberrations and their compensation effects on anterior corneal aberrations in keratoconic eyes. Inves Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Dec;49:5645-5652.

    3. Marsack JD, Parker KE, Pesudovs K, Donnelly WJ 3rd, Applegate RA. Uncorrected wavefront error and visual performance during performance during RGP wear in keratoconus. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Jun;84:463-470.

    4. Sindt C. Basic Scleral Lens Fitting and Design. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2008 Oct;23:32, 34-36.

(p. 49) Treatment Plan – Future Technologies to Resolve Medication Noncompliance
By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

    1. Liu MM, Tso J, Chan CC. Gene therapy for ocular diseases. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011 May;95:604-612.

    2. Novack GD. Eyes on new product development. J Oc Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Jan-Feb;32:1-2.

    3. Maulvi FA, Soni TG, Shah DO. A review on therapeutic contact lenses for ocular drug delivery. Drug Deliv. 2016 Jan 29:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

    4. Hui A, Willcox M. In Vivo Studies Evaluating the Use of Contact Lenses for Drug Delivery. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Jan 18. [Epub ahead of print]

    5. Yellepeddi VK, Palakurthi S. Recent advances in topical ocular drug delivery. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Dec 14. [Epub ahead of print]

(p. 50) Reader and Industry Forum – What the Future Holds for Presbyopic Contact Lenses
By Keith Parker, NCLEC

    1. Berntsen DA, Kramer CE. Peripheral defocus with spherical and multifocal soft contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1215-1224.

    2. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.