Contact Lens Spectrum


April 2016

Document #245

(p. 14) Refractive Focus – Two Hours Outdoors a Day Helps Keep Myopia Away
By David A. Berntsen, OD, PhD, FAAO

    1. Smith EL 3rd. Optical treatment strategies to slow myopia progression: Effects of the visual extent of the optical treatment zone. Exp Eye Res. 2013 Sep;114:77-88.

    2. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) study: a 2-year randomized clinical trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Oct;53:7077-7085.

    3. Hiraoka T, Kakita T, Okamoto F, Takahashi H, Oshika T. Long-term effect of overnight orthokeratology on axial length elongation in childhood myopia: a 5-year follow-up study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jun;53:3913-3919.

    4. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.

    5. Lam CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, Tang YY, To CH. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;98:40-45.

    6. Chia A, Lu QS, Tan D. Five-Year Clinical Trial on Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2: Myopia Control with Atropine 0.01% Eyedrops. Ophthalmology. 2016 Feb;123:391-399.

    7. Pärssinen O, Lyyra AL. Myopia and myopic progression among schoolchildren: a three-year follow-up study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1993 Aug;34:2794-2802.

    8. Jones LA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. Parental history of myopia, sports and outdoor activities, and future myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug;48:3524-3532.

    9. Rose KA, Morgan IG, Ip J, Kifley A, Huynh S, Smith W, Mitchell P. Outdoor activity reduces the prevalence of myopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2008 Aug;115:1279-1285.

    10. Dirani M, Tong L, Gazzard G, Zhang X, Chia A, Young TL, Rose KA, Mitchell P, Saw SM. Outdoor activity and myopia in Singapore teenage children. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug;93:997-1000.

    11. Guggenheim JA, Northstone K, McMahon G, Ness AR, Deere K, Mattocks C, Pourcain BS, Williams C. Time outdoors and physical activity as predictors of incident myopia in childhood: a prospective cohort study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 May;53:2856-2865.

    12. French AN, Morgan IG, Mitchell P, Rose KA. Risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren: the Sydney adolescent vascular and eye study. Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct;120:2100-2108.

    13. Wu PC, Tsai CL, Wu HL, Yang YH, Kuo HK. Outdoor activity during class recess reduces myopia onset and progression in school children. Ophthalmology. 2013 May;120:1080-1085.

    14. He M, Xiang F, Zeng Y, Mai J, Chen Q, Zhang J, Smith W, Rose K, Morgan IG. Effect of Time Spent Outdoors at School on the Development of Myopia Among Children in China: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2015 Sep;314:1142-1148.

    15. Gwiazda J, Deng L, Manny R, Norton TT; COMET Study Group. Seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the correction of myopia evaluation trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Feb;55:752-758.

    16. Jones-Jordan LA, Sinnott LT, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Mutti DO, Twelker JD, Zadnik K; CLEERE Study Group. Time outdoors, visual activity, and myopia progression in juvenile-onset myopes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Oct;53:7169-7175.

    17. French AN, Ashby RS, Morgan IG, Rose KA. Time outdoors and the prevention of myopia. Exp Eye Res. 2013 Sep;114:58-68.

    18. Flitcroft DI. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012 Nov;31:622-660.

    19. Norton TT, Siegwart JT Jr. Light levels, refractive development, and myopia--a speculative review. Exp Eye Res 2013 Sep;114:48-57.

    20. Read SA, Collins MJ, Vincent SJ. Light exposure and physical activity in myopic and emmetropic children. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Mar;91:330-341.

(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – The Impact of Environment on Dry Eye Disease
By William Townsend, OD, FAAO

    1. Shekelle PG, Morton SC, Keeler EB. Costs and benefits of health information technology. Evid Rep Technol Assess. 2006 Apr;(132):1-71.

    2. Dungey S, Glew S, Heyes B, Macleod J, Tate AR. Exploring practical approaches to maximising data quality in electronic healthcare records in the primary care setting and associated benefits. Report of panel-led discussion held at SAPC in July 2014. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2016 Jan;18:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]

    3. Paulsen AJ, Cruickshanks KJ, Fischer ME, Huang GH, Klein BE, Klein R, Dalton DS. Dry Eye in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Health-Related Quality of Life. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;157:799-806.

    4. Gaylor A, Kumar N, Feuer W, Lee D. Environmental Factors Affect the Risk of Dry Eye Syndrome in a United States Veteran Population. Ophthalmology. 2014 Apr;121:972-973.

    5. Wolkoff P. Ocular discomfort by environmental and personal risk factors altering the precorneal tear film. Toxicol Lett. 2010 Dec 15;199:203-212.

    6. U.S. Department of Veteran’s Affairs, National Center for Veterans Analysis and Statistics. Projected Veteran Population 2013-2043. October 13, 2014. Accessed March 16, 2016. Available at

    7. Brandt JE, Priori R, Valesini G, Fairweather D. Sex differences in Sjögren’s syndrome: a comprehensive review of immune mechanisms. Biol Sex Differ. 2015 Nov 3;6:19.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Can Media Sensationalism Help Reinforce Compliance?
By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO

    1. Cope JR, Collier SA, Rao MM, Chalmers R, Mitchell GL, Richdale K, Wagner H, Kinoshita BT, Lam DY, Sorbara L, Zimmerman A, Yoder JS, Beach MJ. Contact Lens Wearer Demographics and Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections — United States, 2014. MMWR. 2015 Aug 21;64:865-870.

    2. Ward, MA. Contact Lens Risk Survey Results. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Oct;30:23.

    3. Wagner H, Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Lam DY, Jansen ME, Kinoshita BT, Sorbara L, Chalmers RL; CLAY Study Group. Age, behavior, environment, and health factors in the soft contact lens risk survey. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Mar;91:252-261.

    4. Franks WA, Adams GG, Dart JK, Minassian D. Relative risks of different types of contact lenses. BMJ. 1988 Aug 20-27;297:524-525.

    5. Stehr-Green JK, Bailey TM, Visvesvara GS. The epidemiology of Acanthamoeba keratitis in the United States. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989 Apr 15;107:331-336.

    6. Dart JK, Stapleton F, Minassian D. Contact lenses and other risk factors in microbial keratitis. Lancet. 1991 Sep 14;338:650-653.

(p. 22) Highlights from the 2016 Global Specialty Lens Symposium
By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd, FAAO; Lisa Starcher; & Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO

    1. Visser ES, Visser R, van Lier HJ, Otten HM. Modern scleral lenses part II: patient satisfaction. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 Jan;33:21-25.

    2. Kinoshita B, Morrison S, Caroline P, Kojima R, Lampa M. Corneal toricity and scleral asymmetry ... are they related? Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, January 2016, Las Vegas.

    3. Visser ES, Visser R, van Lier HJ. Advantages of toric scleral lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;83:233-236.

    4. Morrison S, Ritzmann M, Caroline P, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, Kojima R. Sagittal height and scleral toricity in 30 normal eyes measured by three techniques. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, January 2016, Las Vegas.

    5. Ritzmann M, Morrison S, Caroline P, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, Kojima R. Scleral shape and asymmetry as measured by OCT in 78 normal eyes. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, January 2016, Las Vegas.

    6. Bennett ES, Kramer C. GSLS posters: a first look. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Feb;31:38-40.

    7. Berntsen DA, Kramer CE. Peripheral defocus with spherical and multifocal soft contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1215-1224.

    8. Bullimore MA, Sinnott LT, Jones-Jordan LA. The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Sep;90:937-944.

    9. Holden BA. The future of myopia management with contact lenses: Where to from here? Possibilities and probabilities. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, January 2015, Las Vegas.

    10. Chua WH, Balakrishnan V, Chan YH, Tong L, Ling Y, Quah BL, Tan D.. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia. Ophthalmology. 2006 Dec;113:2285-2291.

    11. Kennedy RH. Progression of myopia. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1995;93:755-800.

    12. Chia A, Chua WH, Cheung YB, Wong WL, Lingham A, Fong A, Tan D. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia: safety and efficacy of 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01% doses (Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2). Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Feb;119:347-354.

    13. Jones-Jordan LA, Sinnott LT, Graham ND, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Mutti DO, Twelker JD, Zadnik K; CLEERE Study Group. The contributions of near work and outdoor activity to the correlation between siblings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Sep 9;55:6333-6339.

    14. Jones LA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. Parental history of myopia, sports and outdoor activities, and future myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug;48:3524-3532.

    15. Woods J, Woods C, Fonn D. Visual performance of a multifocal contact lens versus monovision in established presbyopes. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Feb;92:175-182.

    16. Woods J, Woods CA, Fonn D. Early symptomatic presbyopes – what correction modality works best? Eye Contact Lens. 2009 Sep;35:221-226.

    17. Saettone MF. Progress and problems in ophthalmic drug delivery. Pharmatech 2002:167-172.

    18. Tieppo A, White CJ, Paine AC, Voyles ML, McBride MK, Byrne ME. J Control Release. 2012 Feb 10;157:391-397.

    19. Russell B, Ward MA, Lynn M, Dubois L, Lambert SR; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. The infant aphakia treatment study contact lens experience: one-year outcomes. Eye Contact Lens. 2012 Jul;38:234-239.

    20. Lambert SR, Lynn MJ, Hartmann EE, DuBois L, Drews-Botsch C, Freedman SF, Plager DA, Buckley EG, Wilson ME; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Comparison of contact lens and intraocular lens correction of monocular aphakia during infancy: a randomized clinical trial of HOTV optotype acuity at age 4.5 years and clinical findings at age 5 years. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Jun;132:676-682.

    21. Hartmann EE, Lynn MJ, Lambert SR; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Baseline characteristics of the infant treatment study population: predicting recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Dec 11;56:388-395.

(p. 36) Irregular Astigmatism, Part 1
By Susan Kovacich, OD

    1. Polse KA, Graham AD, Fusaro RE, Gan CM, Rivera RK, Chan JS, McNamara NA, Sanders TS. Predicting RGP daily wear success. CLAO J. 1999 Jul; 25:152-158.

    2. Olivares Jiménez JL, Guerrero Jurado JC, Bermudez Rodriguez FJ, Serrano Laborda D. Keratoconus; age of onset and natural history. Optom Vis Sci. 1997 Mar;74:149-151.

    3. Marcos S, Barbero S, Llorente L, Merayo-Lloves J. Optical Response to LASIK surgery for myopia from total and corneal aberration measurements. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Dec;42:3349-3356.

    4. Van der Worp E, De Brabander J, Jongsma F. Corneal Topography. In: Bennett ES, Henry VA. Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses. 4th ed. Philadelphia. LWW; 2013: 55.

(p. 40) Is There a Relationship Between Care System and Compliance?
By Sarah Guthrie, PhD, Kathy Dumbleton, PhD, MCOptom, FAAO; & Lyndon Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO

    1. Dumbleton K, Jones L, Fonn D, Richter D. Eye Examination Frequency and Contact Lens Purchasing Patterns. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:E-abstract 135126.

    2. Guthrie S, Dumbleton K, Jones L. Financial Implications of Patient Compliance. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Dec;29:42-45.

    3. Dumbleton K, D. Richter, P. Bergenske and L. W. Jones. Compliance with Lens Replacement and the Interval between Eye Examinations. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Apr;90:351-358.

    4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Nearly one million doctor visits for eye infections annually in US [Press release]. Retrieved from

    5. Cope JR, Collier SA, Rao MM, Chalmers R, Mitchell GL, Richdale K, Wagner H, Kinoshita BT, Lam DY, Sorbara L, Zimmerman A, Yoder JS, Beach MJ. Contact Lens Wearer Demographics and Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections - United States, 2014. MMWR. 2015 Aug 21;64:865-870.

    6. Stapleton F, Edwards K, Keay L, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden B. Risk Factors for Moderate and Severe Microbial Keratitis in Daily Wear Contact Lens Users. Ophthalmology. 2012 Aug;119:1516-1521.

    7. Chang DC, Grant GB, O'Donnell K, Wannemuehler KA, Noble-Wang J, Rao CY, Jacobson LM, Crowell CS, Sneed RS, Lewis FM, Schaffzin JK, Kainer MA, Genese CA, Alfonso EC, Jones DB, Srinivasan A, Fridkin SK, Park BJ; Fusarium Keratitis Investigation Team. Multistate Outbreak of Fusarium Keratitis Associated with use of a Contact Lens Solution. JAMA. 2006 Aug 23;296:953-963.

    8. Verani JR, Lorick SA, Yoder JS, Beach MJ, Braden CR, Roberts JM, Conover CS, Chen S, McConnell KA, Chang DC, Park BJ, Jones DB, Visvesvara GS, Roy SL; Acanthamoeba Keratitis Investigation Team. National Outbreak of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated with Use of a Contact Lens Solution, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Aug;15:1236-1242.

    9. Brimer C. H2O2...What's Behind the Bubbles? Optometry Times. 2013 Sep 9. Available at

    10. Dumbleton K, Woods J, Woods C, Fonn D. Compliance with Current Contact Lens Care Regimens. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:E-abstract 070087.

(p. 46) Is This the New Norm – Is Cyclosporine the New Normal for Treating Dry Eye?
By Mile Brujic, OD, FAAO, & David L. Kading, OD, FAAO

    1. Market Scope. 2011 Comprehensive Report on the Global Dry Eye Products Market. St. Louis, Mo: Market Scope, November 2011.

    2. Karpecki P. Excerpts from the Dry Eye Summit. 2015 Mar 12. Available at

    3. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Contact Lens Clin. 1999 Nov;26:157-162.

    4. Richdale K. Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    5. Schlanger JL. A study of contact lens failures. J Am Optom Assoc. 1993 Mar;64:220-224.

    6. 1.2 Million From IMS TPT, Restasis treated patients are 1mn-1.1mn/year. The patient count is based on unique patients during 12 month time period.

    7. Note: IMS TPT is based on retail chain claims. The retail chain makes up 75-80% of Restasis Rx market. Hence unique patient count could be potential of 1.2mn/year. (Information given through coorespondence with David Gibson at Allergan).

    8. Nichols JJ. Contact lenses 2012. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013;28:24-52.

    9. Barr JT. 2004 annual report. Contact Lens Spectrum 2005;20:26-32.

    10. Guillon M, Maissa C. Contact lens wear affects tear film evaporation. Eye Contact Lens. 2008 Nov;34:326-30.

(p. 50) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Occlusion Contact Lenses for Amblyopia
By Melanie Frogozo, OD, FAAO

    1. Carlton J, Kaltenthaler E. Amblyopia and quality of life: a systematic review. Eye (Lond). 2011 Apr;25:403-413.

    2. Collins RS, McChesney ME, McCluer CA, Schatz MP. Occlusion properties of prosthetic contact lenses for the treatment of amblyopia. J AAPOS. 2008 Dec; 12:565-568.

    3. Saltarelli DP, Motley WV. Optical Penalization With Contact Lenses for Children With Unilateral Aphakia: An Alternative to Patching. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Nov;39:405-409.

(p. 51) Prescribing for Astigmatism – First Half Game Plan: Corneal GP Keratoconus Prescribing
By Elaine Chen, OD; Colton Heinrich, OD; & Timothy B. Edrington, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Edrington TB, Szczotka LB, Barr JT, Achtenberg JF, Burger DS, Janoff AM, Olafsson HE, Chun MW, Boyle JW, Gordon MO, Zadnik K. Rigid contact lens fitting relationships in keratoconus. Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study Group. Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Oct;76:692-699.

(p. 56) Contact Lens Case Reports – Should Most Orthokeratology Lenses Be Toric?
By Patrick J. Caroline, FAAO, & Mark P. André, FAAO

    1. Kojima R, Caroline P, Morrison S, Kinoshita B, André, M, Lampa M. Should All Orthokeratology Lenses Be Toric? Poster presented at the 2016 Global Specialty Lens Symposium, January 2016, Las Vegas.