Contact Lens Spectrum


May 2016

Document #246

(p. 14) Research Review – Higher-Order Aberrations and Contact Lenses
By S. Barry Eiden, OD, FAAO, & Paul Velting, OD

    1. Schwiegerling J. Theoretical limits to visual performance. Surv Ophthalmol. 2000 Sep-Oct;45:139-146.

    2. Resan M, Vukosavljević M, Milivojević M. Wavefront Aberrations. In Advances in Ophthalmology, Rumelt S, Ed. InTech, 2012. Available at:

    3. Levy Y, Segal O, Avni I, Zadok D. Ocular higher-order aberrations in eyes with supernormal vision. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Feb;139:225-228.

    4. Zhang N, Yang XB, Zhang WQ, Liu LQ, Dong GJ, Chen TW, Liao M, Liao X. Relationship between higher-order aberrations and myopia progression in schoolchildren: a retrospective study. Int J Ophthalmol. 2013 Jun 18;6:295-299.

    5. Montes-Mico R, Belda-Salmeron L, Ferrer-Blasco T, Albarrán-Diego C, Garcia-Lázaro S. On-eye optical quality of daily disposable contact lenses for different wearing times. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2013 Sep;33:581-591.

    6. Sivardeen A, Laughton D, Wolffsohn JS. Randomized Crossover Trial of Silicone Hydrogel Presbyopic Contact Lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Feb;93:141-149.

(p. 17) GP Insights – A Review of GP Lenticulation and Carriers
By Brayden Lundquist, OD, & John Mark Jackson, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Stein H, Slatt, B. Fitting Guide for Rigid and Soft Contact Lenses: A Practical Approach, 2nd Edition. Mosby. St. Louis,1983.

    2. Bennett E, Henry V. Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses, 4th Edition. Wolters Kluwer and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, 2014.

    3. Mandell R. Contact Lens Practice, 4th Edition. Charles C. Thomas Pub Ltd. Springfield, IL, 1988.

    4. Bob Martin, Blanchard Contact Lens, personal communication, 2016.

(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Going the Surgical Route to Treat Severe Dry Eye
By Waziha Samin, BS, & Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD, FAAO

    1. Qin J, Zhang L, Cai ZG, Mao C, Liu XJ, Lv L, Zou LH, Peng X, Su JZ, Wu J, Yu GY. Microvascular autologous transplantation of partial submandibular gland for severe Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Sep;97:1123-1128.

    2. Zhang L, Yu GY. Autotransplantation of Submandibular Gland for Severe Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca. In Controversies in the Management of Salivary Gland Disease. McGurk M, Combes JG, eds. Oxford University Press. Oxford, 2012. pp. 332-33.

    3. Geerling G, Honnicke K, Schroeder C, Framme C, Sieg P, Lauer I, Pagel H, Kirschstein M, Seyfarth M, Marx AM, Laqua H. Quality of Salivary Tears following Autologous Submandibular Gland Transplantation for Severe Dry Eye. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2000 Jan;238:45-52.

    4. Jacobsen HC, Hakim SG, Lauer I, Dendorfer A, Wedel T, Sieg P. Long-term results of autologous submandibular gland transfer for the surgical treatment of severe keratoconjunctivitis Sicca. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2008 Jun;36:227-233.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Care and Compliance’s Relationship with Len Comfort
By Andrew D. Pucker, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Nichols JJ, Willcox MD, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Jones L, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    2. Fonn D. Targeting contact lens induced dryness and discomfort: what properties will make lenses more comfortable. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:279-285.

    3. Chalmers RL, Begley CG. Dryness symptoms among an unselected clinical population with and without contact lens wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2006 Mar;29:25-30.

    4. Papas EB, Ciolino JB, Jacobs D, Miller WL, Pult H, Sahin A, Srinivasan S, Tauber J, Wolffsohn JS, Nelson JD; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the management and therapy subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS183-TFOS203.

    5. Papas EB, Tilia D, Tomlinson D, Williams J, Chan E Chan J, Golebiowski B. Consequences of wear interruption for discomfort with contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Jan;91:24-31.

    6. Dumbleton K, Woods C, Jones L, Richter D, Fonn D. Comfort and vision with silicone hydrogel lenses: effect of compliance. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Jun;87:421-425.

(p. 24) Nexus of Misery: Ocular Allergy Meets Dry Eye
By Arthur B. Epstein, OD, FAAO

    1. Korb DR, Blackie CA. “Dry Eye” Is the Wrong Diagnosis for Millions. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Sep;92:e350-e354.

(p. 27) The Here, Now, and to Be of Contact Lenses
By Cecilia Chao, MOptom, PhD, & Kathryn Richdale, OD, PhD

    1. Cope JR, Collier SA, Rao MM, Chalmers R, Mitchell GL, Richdale K, Wagner H, Kinoshita BT, Lam DY, Sorbara L, Zimmerman A, Yoder JS, Beach MJ. Contact Lens Wearer Demographics and Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections--United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Aug;64:865-870.

    2. Wagner H, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Jansen ME, Kinoshita BT, Lam DY, McMahon TT, Richdale K, Sorbara L; CLAY Study Group. Risk factors for interruption to soft contact lens wear in children and young adults. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Aug;88:973-980.

    3. Ghate D, Edelhauser HF. Barriers to glaucoma drug delivery. J Glaucoma. 2008 Mar;17:147-156.

    4. Hsu KH, Gause S, Chauhan A. Review of ophthalmic drug delivery by contact lenses. J Drug Del Sci Tech. 2014;24:123-135.

    5. Phan CM, Subbaraman L, Jones LW. The Use of Contact Lenses as Biosensors. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Apr;93:419-425.

    6. Sedlavek J. Possibilities of application of ophthalmic drugs with the aid of gel contact lens. Cesk Oftalmol. 1965;21: 509-514.

    7. Li CC, Chauhan A. Modeling ophthalmic drug delivery by soaked contact lenses. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2006;45:3718-3734.

    8. Bobba S, Di Girolamo N. Contact Lenses: A Delivery Device for Stem Cells to Treat Corneal Blindness. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Apr;93:412-418.

    9. Jain MR. Drug delivery through soft contact lenses. Br J Ophthalmol. 1988 Feb;72:150-154.

    10. Jain MR, Batra V. Steroid penetration in human aqueous with 'Sauflon 70' lenses. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1979 Jul;27:26-31.

    11. Hrazdirová V, Navrátilová B, Ventrubová R. Use of contact lenses during general anesthesia. Cesk Oftalmol. 1990 May;46:223-229.

    12. North DP. Treatment of acute glaucoma. Can Med Assoc J. 1971 Sep;105:561.

    13. Hui A, Willcox M. In Vivo Studies Evaluating the Use of Contact Lenses for Drug Delivery. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Apr;93:367-376.

    14. Carvalho IM, Marques CS, Oliveira RS, Coelho PB, Costa PC, Ferreira DC. Sustained drug release by contact lenses for glaucoma treatment-a review. J Control Release. 2015 Mar;202:76-82.

    15. Alvarez-Lorenzo C, Yanez F, Barreiro-Iglesias R, Concheiro A. (2006). Imprinted soft contact lenses as norfloxacin delivery systems. J Control Release. 2006 Jul;113:236-244.

    16. Hiratani H, Fujiwara A, Tamiya Y, Mizutani Y, Alvarez-Lorenzo C. Ocular release of timolol from molecularly imprinted soft contact lenses. Biomaterials. 2005 Apr;26:1293-1298.

    17. Tieppo A, White CJ, Paine AC, Voyles ML, McBride MK, Byrne ME. Sustained in vivo release from imprinted therapeutic contact lenses. J Control Release. 2012 Feb;157:391-397.

    18. Venkatesh S, Sizemore SP, Byrne ME. Biomimetic hydrogels for enhanced loading and extended release of ocular therapeutics. Biomaterials. 2007 Feb;28:717-724.

    19. Lasowski F, Sheardown H. Atropine and Roscovitine Release From Model Silicone Hydrogels. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Apr;93:404-411.

    20. Ali M, Horikawa S, Venkatesh S, Saha J, Hong JW, Byrne ME. Zero-order therapeutic release from imprinted hydrogel contact lenses within in vitro physiological ocular tear flow. J Control Release. 2007 Dec;124:154-162.

    21. Hiratani H, Alvarez-Lorenzo C. Timolol uptake and release by imprinted soft contact lenses made of N,N-diethylacrylamide and methacrylic acid. J Control Release. 2002 Oct;83:223-230.

    22. Malaekeh-Nikouei B, Ghaeni FA, Motamedshariaty VS, Mohajeri SA. Controlled release of prednisolone acetate from molecularly imprinted hydrogel contact lenses. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012 Apr;26:387-394.

    23. Kapoor Y, Chauhan A. Drug and surfactant transport in Cyclosporine A and Brij 98 laden p-HEMA hydrogels. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2008 Jun;322:624-633.

    24. Gulsen D, Chauhan A. Dispersion of microemulsion drops in HEMA hydrogel: a potential ophthalmic drug delivery vehicle. Int J Pharm. 2005 Mar;292:95-117.

    25. Jung HJ, Chauhan A. Temperature sensitive contact lenses for triggered ophthalmic drug delivery. Biomaterials. 2012 Mar;33:2289-2300.

    26. Kim J, Peng CC, Chauhan A. Extended release of dexamethasone from silicone-hydrogel contact lenses containing vitamin E. J Control Release. 2010 Nov;148:110-116.

    27. Peng CC, Chauhan A. Extended cyclosporine delivery by silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. J Control Release. 2011 Sep;154:267-274.

    28. Danion A, Brochu H, Martin Y, Vermette P. Fabrication and characterization of contact lenses bearing surface-immobilized layers of intact liposomes. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007 Jul;82:41-51.

    29. Xu J, Li X, Sun F. Preparation and evaluation of a contact lens vehicle for puerarin delivery. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2010;21:271-288.

    30. Jung HJ, Abou-Jaoude M, Carbia BE, Plummer C, Chauhan A. Glaucoma therapy by extended release of timolol from nanoparticle loaded silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. J Control Release. 2013 Jan;165:82-89.

    31. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K, Holden B. The epidemiology of microbial keratitis with silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:79-85.

    32. Dutta D, Willcox MD. Antimicrobial contact lenses and lens cases: a review. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 Sep;40:312-324.

    33. Green M, Apel A, Stapleton F. Risk factors and causative organisms in microbial keratitis. Cornea. 2008 Jan;27:22-27.

    34. Larkin DF, Kilvington S, Easty DL. Contamination of contact lens storage cases by Acanthamoeba and bacteria. Br J Ophthalmol. 1990 Mar;74:133-135.

    35. Lansdown AB. Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2006;33:17-34.

    36. Dallas P, Sharma VK, Zboril R. Silver polymeric nanocomposites as advanced antimicrobial agents: classification, synthetic paths, applications, and perspectives. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2011 Aug;166:119-135.

    37. Dias HV, Batdorf KH, Fianchini M, Diyabalanage HV, Carnahan S, Mulcahy R, Rabiee A, Nelson K, van Waasbergen LG. Antimicrobial properties of highly fluorinated silver(I) tris(pyrazolyl)borates. J Inorg Biochem. 2006 Jan;100:158-160.

    38. Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A. Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol Adv. 2009 Jan-Feb;27:76-83.

    39. Kakisu K, Matsunaga T, Kobayakawa S, Sato T, Tochikubo T. Development and efficacy of a drug-releasing soft contact lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Apr;54:2551-2561.

    40. Palace VP, Spallholz JE, Holm J, Wautier K, Evans RE, Baron CL. Metabolism of selenomethionine by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos can generate oxidative stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2004 May;58:17-21.

    41. Tran PL, Hammond AA, Mosley T, Cortez J, Gray T, Colmer-Hamood JA, Shashtri M, Spallholz JE, Hamood AN, Reid TW. Organoselenium coating on cellulose inhibits the formation of biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Jun;75:3586-3592.

    42. Mathews SM, Spallholz JE, Grimson MJ, Dubielzig RR, Gray T, Reid TW. Prevention of bacterial colonization of contact lenses with covalently attached selenium and effects on the rabbit cornea. Cornea. 2006 Aug;25:806-814.

    43. Baveja JK, Willcox MD, Hume EB, Kumar N, Odell R, Poole-Warren LA. Furanones as potential anti-bacterial coatings on biomaterials. Biomaterials. 2004 Sep;25:5003-5012.

    44. Zhu H, Kumar A, Ozkan J, Bandara R, Ding A, Perera I, Steinberg P, Kumar N. Lao W, Griesser SS, Britcher L, Griesser HJ, Willcox MD. Fimbrolide-coated antimicrobial lenses: their in vitro and in vivo effects. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 May;85:292-300.

    45. Salwiczek M, Qu Y, Gardiner J, Strugnell RA, Lithgow T, McLean KM, Thissen H. Emerging rules for effective antimicrobial coatings. Trends Biotechnol. 2014 Feb;32:82-90.

    46. Dutta D, Cole N, Kumar N, Willcox MD. Broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of melimine covalently bound to contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jan;54:175-182.

    47. Willcox MD, Hume EB, Aliwarga Y, Kumar N, Cole N. A novel cationic-peptide coating for the prevention of microbial colonization on contact lenses. J Appl Microbiol. 2008 Dec;105:1817-1825.

    48. Cole N, Hume EB, Vijay AK, Sankaridurg P, Kumar N, Willcox MD. In vivo performance of melimine as an antimicrobial coating for contact lenses in models of CLARE and CLPU. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jan;51:390-395.

    49. Dutta D, Ozkan J, Willcox MD. Biocompatibility of antimicrobial melimine lenses: rabbit and human studies. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 May;91:570-581.

    50. Lin LL, Shih YF, Lee YC, Hung PT, Hou PK. Changes in ocular refraction and its components among medical students--a 5-year longitudinal study. Optom Vis Sci. 1996 Jul;73:495-498.

    51. Vitale S, Ellwein L, Cotch MF, Ferris FL 3rd, Sperduto R. Prevalence of refractive error in the United States, 1999-2004. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Aug;126:1111-1119.

    52. Wang TJ, Chiang TH, Wang TH, Lin LL, Shih YF. Changes of the ocular refraction among freshmen in National Taiwan University between 1988 and 2005. Eye (Lond). 2009 May;23:1168-1169.

    53. Flitcroft DI. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012 Nov;31:622-60.

    54. Cheng X, Xu J, Chehab K, Exford J, Brennan N. Soft Contact Lenses with Positive Spherical Aberration for Myopia Control. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Apr;93:353-366.

    55. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E 3rd, Naduvilath T, ChenX, de la Jara PL, Martinez A, Kwan J, Ho A, Frick K, Ge J. Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Dec;52:9362-9367.

    56. Lam CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, Tang YY, To CH. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;98:40-45.

    57. Chia A, Chua WH, Wen L, Fong A, Goon YY, Tan D. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia: changes after stopping atropine 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.5%. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb;157:451-457.

    58. Charm J, Cho P. High myopia-partial reduction ortho-k: a 2-year randomized study. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Jun;90:530-539.

    59. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) study: a 2-year randomized clinical trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Oct;53:7077-7085.

    60. Hiraoka T, Kakita T, Okamoto F, Takahashi H, Oshika T. Long-term effect of overnight orthokeratology on axial length elongation in childhood myopia: a 5-year follow-up study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jun;53:3913-3919.

    61. Bullimore MA, Sinnott LT, Jones-Jordan LA. The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Sep;90:937-944.

    62. Eydelman MB, Tarver ME, Kiang T, Alexander KY, Hutter JC. The Food and Drug Administration's role in establishing and maintaining safeguards for contact lenses and contact lens care products. Eye Contact Lens. 2012 Nov;38:346-349.

    63. Swarbrick HA, Alharbi A, Watt K, Kum E, Kang P. Myopia control during orthokeratology lens wear in children using a novel study design. Ophthalmology. 2015 Mar;122:620-630.

    64. Phan CM, Hui A, Subbaraman L, Jones L. Insights to using contact lenses for drug delivery. Clin Exp Pharmacol. 2014 Jan;4:145-148.

    65. Hervas Ontiveros A, Hernandez Martinez P, García-Diepech S, Udaondo P, Salom D, Díaz-Liopis M . [Sensimed Triggerfish(®) as a new system for continuous recording of 24-hour intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2013 Oct;88:410-411.

    66. Mansouri K, Weinreb RN, Liu JH. Efficacy of a contact lens sensor for monitoring 24-h intraocular pressure related patterns. PLoS One. 2015 May;10:e0125530.

    67. Tan S, Yu M, Baig N, Chan PP, Tang FY, Tham CC. Circadian intraocular pressure fluctuation and disease progression in primary angle closure glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jul;56:4994-5005.

    68. Tojo N, Hayashi A, Otsuka M, Miyakoshi A. Fluctuations of the Intraocular Pressure in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Normal Eyes Measured by a Contact Lens Sensor. J Glaucoma. 2015 Jun 5 [Epub ahead of print]

    69. Mansouri K, Medeiros FA, Tafreshi A, Weinreb RN. Continuous 24-hour monitoring of intraocular pressure patterns with a contact lens sensor: safety, tolerability, and reproducibility in patients with glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Dec;130:1534-1539.

    70. Ascaso FJ, Huerva V. Noninvasive continuous monitoring of tear glucose using glucose-sensing contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Apr;93:426-434.

    71. Sen DK, Sarin GS. Tear glucose levels in normal people and in diabetic patients. Br J Ophthalmol. 1980 Sep;64:693-695.

    72. Patel JN, Gray BL, Kaminska B, Gates BD. Flexible three-dimensional electrochemical glucose sensor with improved sensitivity realized in hybrid polymer microelectromechanical systems technique. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011 Sep;5:1036-1043.

    73. Teutsch T, Mesch M, Giessen H, Tarin C. Dynamic modeling of the hydrogel molecular filter in a metamaterial biosensing system for glucose concentration estimation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:2081-2084.

    74. King L. Google Smart Contact Lens Focuses On Healthcare Billions. Accessed on June 6, 2015. Available at

    75. Jiang H. ACCOMMODATIVE CONTACT LENs FOR PRESBYOPIC CORRECTION. National Institutes of Health Grantome. 2011. Accessed on January 10, 2016. Available at

    76. Jiang H. An accommodative contact lens for presbyopic correction. Accessed on January 6, 2016. Available at

(p. 34) Irregular Astigmatism, Part 2
By Susan Kovacich, OD

    1. Bennett ES, Barr JT, Szczotka-Flynn L. Keratoconus. In Bennett ES, Henry VA, eds. Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses, 4th ed. Philadelphia. LWW. 2013:518-577.

    2. Louie DJ, Kawulok E, Kauffman M, Epstein A. Postsurgical Contact Lens Fitting. In Bennett ES, Henry VA, eds. Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses, 4th ed. Philadelphia. LWW. 2013:578-608.

    3. Caroline PJ, André MP. Contact lens case reports: Initial selection of corneal versus scleral GP Lens. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 April;30:56.

    4. Nichols JJ. 2015 Annual report: Contact lenses 2015. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 January;31:18-23,55.

    5. van der Worp E. A Guide to Scleral Lens Fitting, Version 2.0 [monograph online]. Forest Grove, OR: Pacific University; 2015. Available from:

    6. DeNaeyer GW, Jedlicka J, Schornack MM. Scleral Lenses. In Bennett ES, Henry VA, eds. Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses, 4th ed. Philadelphia. LWW. 2013:609-647.

(p. 40) Fitting Ortho-K Lenses Post-PRK or Post-LASIK
By Randy Kojima, FAAO, FBCLA, FSLS, FIAO, & Cindy Ho, BSc, OD, PhD

    1. Nichols JJ, Marsich MM, Nguyen M, Barr JT, Bullimore MA. Overnight Orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2000 May;77:252-259.

    2. Tahhan N, Du Toit R, Papas E, Chung H, La Hood D, Holden AB. Comparison of reverse-geometry lens designs for overnight orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2003 Dec;80:796-804.

    3. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep;93:1181-1185.

    4. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res. 2005 Jan;30:71-80.

    5. Kakita T, Hiraoka T, and Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr;52:2170-2174.

    6. Hiraoka T, Kakita T, Okamoto F, Takahashi H, Oshika T. Long-term effect of overnight orthokeratology on axial length elongation in childhood myopia: a 5-year follow-up study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jun;53:3913-3919.

    7. Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, Gutiérrez-Ortega R. Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain: refractive and biometric changes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jul;53:5060-5065.

    8. O’Doherty M, O’Keeffe M, Kelleher C. Five year follow up of laser in situ keratomileusis for all levels of myopia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jan;90:20-23.

    9. Zalentein WN, Tervo TM, Holopainen JM. Seven-year follow-up of LASIK for myopia. J Refract Surg. 2009 Mar;25:312-318.

    10. Alió JL, Soria F, Abbouda A, Peña-García P. Laser in situ keratomileusis for -6.00 to -18.00 diopters of myopia and up to -5.00 diopters of astigmatism: 15-year follow-up. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Jan;41:33-40.

    11. Randleman JB, White AJ Jr, Lynn MJ, Hu MH, Stulting RD. Incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for retreatment after wavefront-optimized ablations with PRK and LASIK. J Refract Surg. 2009 Mar;25:273-276.

    12. Vaddavalli PK, Diakonis VF, Canto AP, Culbertson WW, Wang J, Kankariya VP, Yoo SH. Complications of femtosecond laser-assisted re-treatment for residual refractive errors after LASIK. J Refract Surg. 2013 Aug;29:577-580.

    13. Yu Jessica. Fitting contact lenses post-LASIK. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2009 Nov;24:38-43.

    14. DeNaeyer G. Surgical comanagement and contact lens fitting. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2011 Sept;26:26-30.

    15. Yan Li MS, Netto MV, Shekhar R, Krueger RR, Huang D. A longitudinal study of LASIK flap and stromal thickness with high-speed Optical Coherence Tomography. Ophthalmology. 2007 Jun;114:1124-1132.

    16. Alharbi A, Swarbrick HA. The effects of Overnight Orthokeratology lens wear on corneal thickness. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Jun;44:2518-2523.

    17. Astin CL, Gartry DS, McG-Steele AD. Contact lens fitting after photorefractive keratectomy. Br J Opthalmol. 1996 Jul;80:597-603.

    18. Horn MM. Rigid Gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses. In Textbook of Ophthalmology, Volume I (1st ed), Agarwarl S, Agarwal A, Apple DJ, Buratto L, Alio JL, Pandey SK, Agarwal A, eds. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishing Ltd. New Dehli. 2002:219-225.

    19. Wiliams, BT. Fitting Post-LASIK progressive myopes with Accelerated Ortho-k. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2006 Feb;21:49-50,52.

(p. 47) The Scleral Lens Vault – Utilizing Reverse Geometry to Improve Prolate and Oblate Fits
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. Ibrahim O, Bogan S, Waring GO. Patterns of Corneal Topography after Penetrating Keratoplasty. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1996 Jan-Mar;6:1-5.

(p. 48) Treatment Plan – Zeroing in on the Zika Virus
By William L. Miller, OD, PhD, FAAO

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Zika virus. Available at

    2. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Clinical Statement: Zika Virus Infection and Potential Ophthalmic Manifestations – 2016. Available at

    3. Jampol LM, Goldstein DA. Zika Virus Infection and the Eye. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Feb 9. [Epub ahead of print]

    4. de Paula Freitas B, de Oliveira Dias JR, Prazeres J, Sacramento GA, Ko AI, Maia M, Belfort R Jr. Ocular findings in Infants with Microcephaly Associated with Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Feb 9. [Epub ahead of print]

    5. Boze B. Zika virus: an Emerging Mosquito-Borne Infection in the Americas. Vector Disease Control International. Available at

    6. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Zika: A clinical guide. Available at

    7. Fleming-Dutra, KE, Nelson JM, Fischer M, Staples JE, Karwowski, MP, Mead P, Villanueva J, Renquist CM, Minta AA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Moore CA, Rasmussen SA. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection — United States, February 2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Weekly. February 26, 2016;65(7): 182-187.

(p. 50) Reader and Industry Forum – Options When Treating Bacterial Conjuctivitis and Keratitis
By Naba Khan, OD, & Augustin Gonzalez, OD, FAAO

    1. Al-Mujaini A, Al-Kharusi N, Thakral A, Wali UK. Bacterial Keratitis: Perspective on Epidemiology, Clinico-Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2009 Aug;9:184-195.

    2. Hoffman JJ, Pelosini L. What happens when one leaves soft contact lenses in for three weeks? A case of bilateral, severe pseudomonas keratitis from contact lenses purchased over the internet. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2016 Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print]

    3. Accorinti M, Colao L, Gilardi M, Cecere M, Salotti A, Pesci FR. Levofloxacin and Tobramycin for Severe Bacterial Keratouveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2015 Aug;19:1-7.

    4. Silverstein BE, Morris TW, Gearinger LS, Decory HH, Comstock TL. Besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Clin Ophthalmol. 2012;6:1987-1996.

    5. Sanders ME, Moore QC 3rd, Norcross EW, Sanfilippo CM, Hesje CK, Shafiee A, Marquart ME. Comparison of besifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin against strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa with different quinolone susceptibility patterns in a rabbit model of keratitis. Cornea. 2011 Jan;30:83-90.

    6. Mah FS. A Potent Broad-spectrum Fluoroquinolone for the Treatment of Bacterial Conjunctivitis. Ophthalmology Web. 2013 April 11. Available at

    7. Wu YT, Willcox M, Zhu H, Stapleton F. Contact lens hygiene compliance and lens case contamination: A review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015 Oct;38:307-316.

(p. 48) Contact Lens Case Reports – The Toric Sclera
By Patrick J. Caroline, FAAO, & Mark P. André, FAAO

    1. Kinoshita B, Morrison S, Caroline P, Lampa M, Kojima R, André. What Makes a Successful Scleral Lens Wearer. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium. 2016. Las Vegas.