Contact Lens Spectrum


June 2016

Document #247

(p. 15) GP Insights – OCT Versus Fluorescein Pattern for Evaluating GP Lens Fit
By Stephanie L. Woo, OD, FAAO, FSLS

    1. Piotrowiak I, Kaluzny BJ, Danek B, Chwiędacz A, Sikorski BL, Malukiewicz G. Spectral optical coherence tomography vs. fluorescein pattern for rigid gas-permeable lens fit. Med Sci Monit. 2014 Jul 4;20:1137-1141.

(p. 17) Contact Lens Design & Materials – Select Materials to Meet Your Patients’ Needs
By Gregory J. Nixon, OD, FAAO

    1. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2015. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Jan;31:18-23,55.

    2. Snyder C. A Primer on Contact Lens Materials. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Feb;19:34-39.

    3. Snyder C. Modulus and its Effect on Contact Lens Fit. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2007 Feb; 36,38-40.

    4. Jones L, Epstein AB, Holden BA, Szczotka-Flynn LB. The Genesis of Silicone Hydrogels. Supplement to Contact Lens Spectrum. 2010 Oct.

    5. Tyler’s Quarterly Inc. Tyler’s Quarterly Soft Contact Lens Parameter Guide. March 2016.

(p. 18) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Questioning Questionnaires
By Katherine M. Mastrota, MS, OD, FAAO

    1. 2007 Report of the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS). The Ocular Surface. 2007 April;5:69-204.

    2. Schiffman RM, Christianson MD, Jacobsen G, Hirsch JD, Reis BL.Reliability and validity of the Ocular Surface Disease Index. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000 May;118:615-621.

    3. Ngo W, Situ P, Keir N, Korb D, Blackie C, Simpson T. Psychometric properties and validation of the Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness questionnaire. Cornea. 2013 Sep;32:1204-1210.

    4. Grubbs J Jr, Huynh K, Tolleson-Rinehart S, Weaver MA, Williamson J, Lefebvre C, Davis RM. Instrument development of the UNC Dry Eye Management Scale. Cornea. 2014 Nov;33:1186-1192.

(p. 19) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – GPs and Acanthamoeba
By Michael A. Ward, MMSc, FAAO

    1. Cope JR, Collier SA, Schein OD, Brown AC, Verani JR, Gallen R, Beach MJ, Yoder JS. Acanthamoeba Keratitis among Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lens Wearers in the United States, 2005 through 2011. Ophthalmology. 2016 Apr 22. [Epub ahead of print]

    2. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with contact lenses--United States. MMRW MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1986 June;35;405-408.

    3. Stehr-Green JK, Bailey TM, Visvesvara GS. The epidemiology of Acanthamoeba keratitis in the United States. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989 Apr;107:331-336.

    4. Dart JK, Stapleton F, Minassian D. Contact lenses and other risk factors in microbial keratitis. Lancet. 1991 Sep;338:650-653.

    5. Ward, MA. Should Tap Water Be Used to Rinse GP Contact Lenses? Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 Aug;29:19.

    6. Ward, MA. Can Media Sensationalism Help Reinforce Compliance? Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Apr;31:21.

    7. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Acanthamoeba Keratitis among Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lens Wearers – Talking Points April 20, 2016.

    8. Sauer A, Meyer N, Bourcier T; French Study Group for Contact Lens–Related Microbial Keratitis. Risk Factors for Contact Lens-Related Microbial Keratitis: A Case–Control Multicenter Study. Eye Contact Lens. 2016 May;42:158-162.

(p. 20) Preparing Your Practice for the Myopia Control Stampede
By Kate Gifford, BAppSc(Optom)Hons, GCOT, FBCLA, FIACLE, FCCLSA, FAAO

    1. French AN, Morgan IG, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, Rose KA. Prevalence and 5- to 6-year incidence and progression of myopia and hyperopia in Australian schoolchildren. Ophthalmology. 2013 July;120:1482-1491.

    2. Logan NS, Shah P, Rudnicka AR, Gilmartin B, Owen CG. Childhood ethnic differences in ametropia and ocular biometry: the Aston Eye Study. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2011 Sep;31:550-558.

    3. Vitale S, Sperduto RD, Ferris FL 3rd. Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Dec;127:1632-1639.

    4. Lin LL, Shih YF, Hsiao CK, Chen CJ. Prevalence of myopia in Taiwanese schoolchildren: 1983 to 2000. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2004 Jan;33:27-33.

    5. Jung SK, Lee JH, Kakizaki H, Jee D. Prevalence of myopia and its association with body stature and educational level in 19-year-old male conscripts in seoul, South Korea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Aug 15;53:5579-5583.

    6. Holden BA, Jong M, Davis S, Wilson D, Fricke T, Resnikoff S. Nearly 1 billion myopes at risk of myopia-related sight-threatening conditions by 2050 - time to act now. Clin Exp Optom. 2015 Nov;98:491-493.

    7. Flitcroft DI. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012 Nov;31:622-660.

    8. Iwase A, Araie M, Tomidokoro A, Yamamoto T, Shimizu H, Kitazawa Y; Tajimi Study Group. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a Japanese adult population: the Tajimi Study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1354-1362.

    9. Wu L, Sun X, Zhou X, Weng C. Causes and 3-year-incidence of blindness in Jing-An District, Shanghai, China 2001-2009. BMC Ophthalmol. 2011 May 5;11:10.

    10. Ubel PA, Loewenstein G, Schwarz N, Smith D. Misimagining the unimaginable: The disability paradox and health care decision making. Health Psychol. 2005 Jul;24:S57-S62.

    11. Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, Lustig RH. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57873.

    12. Donovan L, Sankaridurg P, Ho A, Naduvilath T, Smith EL 3rd, Holden BA. Myopia progression rates in urban children wearing single-vision spectacles. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Jan;89:27-32.

    13. Zadnik K, Sinnott LT, Cotter SA, Jones-Jordan LA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Twelker JD, Mutti DO; Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study Group. Prediction of Juvenile-Onset Myopia. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Jun;133:683-689.

    14. Mutti DO, Hayes JR, Mitchell GL, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Twelker JD, Zadnik K; CLEERE Study Group. Refractive error, axial length, and relative peripheral refractive error before and after the onset of myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jun;48:2510-2519.

    15. Jones LA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. Parental History of Myopia, Sports and Outdoor Activities, and Future Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug;48:3524-3532.

    16. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Dong LM, Everett D, Norton T, Kurtz D, Manny R, Marsh-Tootle W, Scheiman M; Comet Group. Factors associated with high myopia after 7 years of follow-up in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) Cohort. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2007 Jul-Aug;14:230-237.

    17. Kurtz D, Hyman L, Gwiazda JE, Manny R, Dong LM, Wang Y, Scheiman M; COMET Group. Role of parental myopia in the progression of myopia and its interaction with treatment in COMET children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Feb;48:562-570.

    18. Loh KL, Lu Q, Tan D, Chia A. Risk factors for progressive myopia in the atropine therapy for myopia study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2015 May;159:945-949.

    19. Sankaridurg P, Donovan L, Varnas S, Ho A, Chen X, Martinez A, Fisher S, Lin Z, Smith EL 3rd, Ge J, Holden B. Spectacle lenses designed to reduce progression of myopia: 12-month results. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Sep;87:631-641.

    20. Hyman L, Gwiazda J, Hussein M, Norton TT, Wang Y, Marsh-Tootle W, Everett D. Relationship of age, sex, and ethnicity with myopia progression and axial elongation in the correction of myopia evaluation trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Jul;123(7):977-987.

    21. Rose KA, Morgan IG, Ip J, Kifley A, Huynh S, Smith W, Mitchell P. Outdoor Activity Reduces the Prevalence of Myopia in Children. Ophthalmology. 2008 Aug;115:1279-1285.

    22. Dirani M, Tong L, Gazzard G, Zhang X, Chia A, Young TL, Rose KA, Mitchell P, Saw SM. Outdoor activity and myopia in Singapore teenage children. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug;93:997-1000.

    23. Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Hayes JR, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Manny RE, Twelker JD, Zadnik K; CLEERE Study Group. Accommodative Lag before and after the Onset of Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Mar;47:837-846.

    24. Mutti DO, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. AC/A Ratio, Age, and Refractive Error in Children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Aug;41:2469-2478.

    25. Yang Z, Lan W, Ge J, Liu W, Chen X, Chen L, Yu M. The effectiveness of progressive addition lenses on the progression of myopia in Chinese children. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2009 Jan;29:41-48.

    26. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M, Everett D, Norton TT, Kurtz D, Leske MC, Manny R, Marsh-Tootle W, Scheiman M. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Apr;44:1492-1500.

    27. Aller TA, Liu M, Wildsoet CF. Myopia Control with Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Apr;93:344-352.

    28. Zhu M, Feng H, Zhu J, Qu X. The impact of amplitude of accommodation on controlling the development of myopia in orthokeratology. Chinese J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;50:14-19.

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    33. Scheiman M, Wick B. Clinical Management of Binocular Vision: heterophoric, accommodative and eye movement disorders. 1994 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadephia, USA.

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    35. Katz J, Schein OD, Levy B, Cruiscullo T, Saw SM, Rajan U, Chan TK, Yew Khoo C, Chew SJ. A randomized trial of rigid gas permeable contact lenses to reduce progression of children's myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:82-90.

    36. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Mutti DO, Zadnik KA. Randomized Trial of the Effects of Rigid Contact Lenses on Myopia Progression. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Dec;122:1760-1766.

    37. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott L, Manny RE, Gaume A, Rah MJ, Chitkara M, Lyons S; ACHIEVE Study Group.nA Randomized Trial of the Effect of Soft Contact Lenses on Myopia Progression in Children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Nov;49:4702-4706.

    38. Wolffsohn JS, Calossi A, Cho P, Gifford K, Jones L, Li M, Lipener C, Logan NS, Malet F, Matos S, Meijome JM, Nichols JJ, Orr JB, Santodomingo-Rubido J, Schaefer T, Thite N, van der Worp E, Zvirgzdina M. Global trends in myopia management attitudes and strategies in clinical practice. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2016 Apr;39:106-116.

    39. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Rah MJ, Manny RE, Berntsen DA, Chitkara M, Gaume A, Kim A, Quinn N; CLIP STUDY GROUP. Contact Lenses in Pediatrics (CLIP) Study: chair time and ocular health. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Sep;84:896-902.

    40. Zheng YF, Pan CW, Chay J, Wong TY, Finkelstein E, Saw SM. The economic cost of myopia in adults aged over 40 years in Singapore. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;54:7532-7537.

    41. Köberlein J, Beifus K, Schaffert C, Finger RP. The economic burden of visual impairment and blindness: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2013 Nov 7;3(11): e003471.

    42. Johnson KL. Are we myopic about myopia control?" Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2014 Aug;37:237-239.

    43. Rothman AJ, Salovey P. Shaping perceptions to motivate healthy behavior: the role of message framing. Psychol Bull. 1997 Jan;121:3-19.

    44. Briggs AD, Mytton OT, Kehlbacher A, Tiffin R, Rayner M, Scarborough P. Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. BMJ. 2013 Oct 31;347:f6189.

    45. Briggs AD, Mytton OT, Madden D, O'Shea D, Rayner M, Scarborough P. The potential impact on obesity of a 10% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Ireland, an effect assessment modelling study. BMC Public Health. 2013 Sep 17;13:860.

    46. Basu S, Vellakkal S, Agrawal S, Stuckler D, Popkin B, Ebrahim S. Averting obesity and type 2 diabetes in India through sugar-sweetened beverage taxation: an economic-epidemiologic modeling study. PLoS Med. 2014 Jan;11:e1001582.

    47. BBCNews (2016). Sugar tax surprise in Budget - but growth forecasts cut.

    48. Philips, T. (2015). Taiwan orders parents to limit children's time with electronic games. The Telegraph:

    49. Dolgin E. The myopia boom. Nature. 2015 Mar 19;519:276-278.

    50. Brennan NA. Predicted reduction in high myopia for various degrees of myopia control. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2012 Dec 1;35(S1):e14-e15.

    51. Gifford P, Gifford KL. The Future of Myopia Control Contact Lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Apr;93:336-343.

    52. Chua WH, Balakrishnan V, Chan YH, Tong L, Ling Y, Quah BL, Tan D. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia. Ophthalmology. 2006 Dec;113:2285-2291.

    53. Tong L, Huang XL, Koh AL, Zhang X, Tan DT, Chua WH. Atropine for the Treatment of Childhood Myopia: Effect on Myopia Progression after Cessation of Atropine. Ophthalmology. 2009 Mar;116:572-579.

    54. Chia A, Chua WH, Cheung YB, Wong WL, Lingham A, Fong A, Tan D.Atropine for the Treatment of Childhood Myopia: Safety and Efficacy of 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01% Doses (Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2). Ophthalmology. 2012 Feb;119:347-354.

    55. Chia A, Lu QS, Tan D. Five-Year Clinical Trial on Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2: Myopia Control with Atropine 0.01% Eyedrops. Ophthalmology. 2016 Feb;123:391-399.

    56. Edwards MH, Li RW, Lam CS, Lew JK, Yu BS. The Hong Kong progressive lens myopia control study: study design and main findings. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Sep;43:2852-2858.

    57. Cheng D, Schmid KL, Woo GC, Drobe B. Randomized Trial of Effect of Bifocal and Prismatic Bifocal Spectacles on Myopic Progression: Two-Year Results. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 Jan;128:12-19.

    58. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of Dual-Focus Soft Contact Lens Wear on Axial Myopia Progression in Children. Ophthalmology. 2011 Jun;118:1152-1161.

    59. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E 3rd, Naduvilath T, Chen X, de la Jara PL, Martinez A, Kwan J, Ho A, Frick K, Ge J.Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Dec 9;52:9362-9367.

    60. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.

    61. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The Longitudinal Orthokeratology Research in Children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: A Pilot Study on Refractive Changes and Myopic Control. Current Eye Res. 2005 Jan;30:71-80.

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(p. 26) Keratoconus: When to Fit Contact Lenses Versus Refer for Surgery
By Melissa Barnett, OD, FAAO, FSLS

    1. Krachmer JH, Feder RS, Belin MW. Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders. Surv Ophthalmol. 1984 Jan-Feb;28:293-322.

    2. Rabinowitz YS. Keratoconus. Surv Ophthalmol. 1998 Jan-Feb;42:297-319.

    3. Gokhale NS. Epidemiology of keratoconus. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2013 Aug;61:382-383.

    4. Gorskova EN, Sevost’ianov EN. Epidemiology of keratoconus in the Urals. Vestn Oftalmol. 1998 Jul-Aug;114:38-40.

    5. Jonas JB, Nangia V, Matin A, Kulkarni M, Bhojwani K. Prevalence and associations of keratoconus in rural Maharashtra in central India: The central India Eye Medical Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Nov;148:760-765.

    6. Kennedy RH, Bourne WM, Dyer JA. A 48-year clinical and epidemiological study of keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol. 1986 Mar 15;101:267-273.

    7. Belin MW, Villavicencio OF, Ambrósio RR Jr. Tomographic parameters for the detection of keratoconus: suggestions for screening and treatment parameters. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 Nov;40:326-330.

    8. Vazirani J, Basu S. Keratoconus: current perspectives. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013;7:2019-2030.

    9. Barnett M, Mannis MJ. Contact Lenses in the Management of Keratoconus. Cornea. 2011 Dec;30:1510-1516.

    10. Szczotka-Flynn L, Slaughter M, McMahon T, Barr J, Edrington T, Fink B, Lass J, Belin M, Iyengar SK; CLEK Study Group. Disease severity and family history in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008 Aug;92:1108-1111.

    11. Wang Y, Rabinowitz YS, Rotter JI, Yang H. Genetic epidemiological study of keratoconus: evidence for major gene determination. Am J Med Genet. 2000 Aug 28;93:403-409.

    12. Jun AS, Cope L, Speck C, Feng X, Lee S, Meng H, Hamad A, Chakravarti S. Subnormal cytokine profile in the tear fluid of keratoconus patients. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 27;6:e16437.

    13. Lema I, Sobrino T, Durán JA, Brea D, Díez-Feijoo E. Subclinical keratoconus and inflammatory molecules from tears. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Jun;93:820-824.

    14. Behndig A, Karlsson K, Johansson BO, Brännström T, Marklund SL. Superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in the normal and diseased human cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Sep;42:2293-2296.

    15. Wagner H, Barr JT, Zadnik K. Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study: methods and findings to date. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2007 Sep;30:223-232.

    16. Kymes SM, Walline JJ, Zadnik K, Gordon MO; Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus study group. Quality of Life in Keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Oct; 138:527-535.

    17. Gomes JA, Tan D, Rapuano CJ, Belin MW, Ambrósio R Jr, Guell JL, Malecaze F, Nishida K, Sangwan VS; Group of Panelists for the Global Delphi Panel of Keratoconus and Ectatic Diseases. Global Consensus on Keratoconus and Ectatic Diseases. Cornea. 2015 Apr;34:359-369.

    18. McGhee CN. 2008 Sir Norman McAlister Gregg Lecture: 150 years of practical observations on the conical cornea – what have we learned? Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2009 Mar;37:160-176.

    19. Rabbanikhah Z, Javadi MA, Rostami P, Aghdaie A, Yaseri M, Yahyapour F, Katibeh M. Association between acute corneal hydrops in patients with keratoconus and mitral valve prolapse. Cornea. 2011 Feb;30:154-157.

    20. Naderan M, Rezagholizadeh F, Zolfaghari M, Naderan M, Rajabi MT, Kamaleddin MA. Association between the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea and the severity of keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol. 2015 Dec;99:1675-1679.

    21. Wollensak G, Spoerl E, Seiler T. Riboflavin/ultraviolet-A-induced collagen crosslinking for the treatment of keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 May;135:620-627.

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    23. Wittig-Silva C, Whiting M, Lamoureux E, Lindsay RG, Sullivan LJ, Snibson GR. A randomized controlled trial of corneal collagen cross-linking in progressive keratoconus: preliminary results. J Refract Surg. 2008 Sep;24:S720-S725.

    24. Barr, JT. Contact lenses for keratoconus: narrowing the Information gap. Contact Lens Spectrum. 1998 Aug;13:10.

    25. Zadnik K, Barr JT, Steger-May K, Edrington TB, McMahon TT, Gordon MO; Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study Group. Comparison of flat and steep rigid contact lens fitting methods in keratoconus. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Dec;82:1014-1021.

    26. Aydin Kurna S, Altun A, Gencaga T, Akkaya S, Sengor T. Vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus. J Ophthalmol. 2014:694542.

    27. Hashemi E, Shaygan N, Asqari S, Rezvan F, Asgari S. ClearKone-SynergEyes or rigid gas permeable contact lenses in keratoconic patients: A clinical decision. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 Mar;40:95-98.

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(p. 34) Irregular Astigmatism, Part 3
By Susan Kovacich, OD

    1. Polse KA, Graham AD, Fusaro RE, Gan CM, Rivera RK, Chan JS, McNamara NA, Sanders TS. Predicting RGP daily wear success. CLAO J. 1999 Jul;25:152-158.

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    4. Bennett ES, Barr JT, Szczotka-Flynn L. Keratoconus. In: Bennett ES, Henry VA, eds. Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses, 4th ed. Philadelphia. LWW; 2013:518-577.

    5. Szczotka-Flynn L, Benjamin WJ, Lowther GE. Patients with keratoconus and irregular astigmatism. In Borish’s Clinical Refraction, 2nd ed. St. Louis. Elsevier Medical; 2006: 1523-1569.

    6. Nichols JJ. 2015 Annual Report: Contact Lenses 2015.Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Jan; 31:18-23, 55.

(p. 40) The Importance of Scleral Shape
By Sheila D. Morrison, OD, MS

    1. Wollensak G. Otto Himmler: first manufacturer of the lathe cut corneo-scleral lenses. Surv Ophthalmol. 2004 May-June;49:374-375.

    2. Pearson RM. Karl Otto Himmler, manufacturer of the first corneal contact lens. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2007 Mar;30:11-16.

    3. Kojima R, Caroline, Graff T, Kinoshita B, Capilevitz L, Achong-Coan R, van der Worp E, Lampa M, So K, André M. Eye shape and scleral lenses. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2013 Apr;28:38-43.

    4. DeNaeyer GW, Eiden SB. How technology can help the irregular cornea. Rev Cornea Contact Lens. 2012 Apr 18. Available at

    5. Shibayama VP. Putting it on the map: Fitting Rigid Lenses Using Corneal Topography. Rev Cornea Contact Lens. 2016 Feb 15. Available at

    6. Van der Worp E, Graf T, Caroline P. Exploring beyond the corneal borders. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2010;25:26-32.

    7. Belin MW, Ambrosio R. Scheimpflug imaging for keratoconus and ectatic disease. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2013 Aug;61:401-406.

    8. Kinoshita B, Morrison S, Caroline P, Kojima R, Lampa M. Corneal Toricity and Scleral Asymmetry.... Are They Related? Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas. January 2016.

    9. Morrison S, Caroline P, Kojima P, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, Citek K. Empirically Determining the Physical Fit and Optimal Power of Scleral Contact Lenses. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas. January 2016.

    10. Bogan SJ, Waring GO 3rd, Ibrahim O, Drews C, Curtis L. Classification of normal corneal topography based on computer-assisted videokeratography. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990 Jul;108:945-949.

    11. Riley AF, Grupecheva CN, Malik TY, Craig JP, McGhee CN. The Auckland cataract study: demographic, corneal topographic and ocular biometric parameters. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2001 Dec;29:381-386.

    12. Goto T, Klyce SD, Zheng X, Maeda N, Kuroda T, Ide C. Gender and age-related differences in corneal topography. Cornea. 2001 Apr;20:270-276.

    13. Rabinowitz YS, Yang H, Brickman Y, Akkina J, Riley C, Rotter JI, Elashoff J. Videokeratography database of normal human corneas. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996 Jul;80:610-616.

    14. Visser ES, Visser R, Van Lier HJ. Advantages of toric scleral lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;83:233-236.

    15. Woo SL, Messer B. Beyond the Limbus: Scleral Peripheral Curves and Their Modifications. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Feb;31:30-33.

    16. Morrison S, Caroline P, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, André M. Using the Toric Sclera to Successfully Fit a Specialty Contact Lens on a Patient with Advanced Keratoconus and Raised Pinguecula. Poster presented at American Academy of Optometry, 2015.

    17. Zheng F, Caroline P, Lampa M, Kojima R, Kinoshita B, André M, Morrison S. Visual Effects of Centered and Decentered Multifocal Optics. Poster presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas. January 2016.

(p. 46) Is This the New Norm – Is Selling Contact Lenses the New Norm?
By Mile Brujic, OD, FAAO, & David L. Kading, OD, FAAO

    1. Dumbleton K, Woods CA, Jones LW, Fonn D. The impact of contemporary contact lenses on contact lens discontinuation. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:93-99.

(p. 47) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – Summer Break = Explode Your New Contact Lens Fits
By Jason R. Miller, OD, MBA, FAAO

    1. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Rah MJ, Manny RE, Berntsen DA, Chitkara M, Gaume A, Kim A, Quinn N; CLIP Study Group. Contact Lenses in Pediatrics (CLIP) Study: Chair Time and Ocular Health. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Sep;84:896-902.

(p. 50) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Vitamin A Deficiency: A Cause for Dry Eye in Children
By Melanie Frogozo, OD, FAAO

    2. Stephens D, Jackson PL, Gutierrez Y. Subclinical vitamin A deficiency: a potentially unrecognized problem in the United States. Pediatr Nurs. 1996 Sep-Oct;22:377-389,456.

    3. McAllister DG, Patel S, Fatter H, Chambers M. A 3-Year-Old Girl with Eye Pain. Pediatr Ann. 2013 Sept;42:359-362.

    4. Faustino JF, Ribeiro-Silva A. Dalto RF, Souza MM, Furtado JM, Rocha Gde M, Alves M, Rocha EM. Viamin A and the eye: an old tale for modern times. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2016 Feb;79:56-61.

    5. Cella W, Urbano AP, Vinhadelli WS, Donatti M, Rocha EM. Xerophthalmia secondary to short bowel syndrome. J Pedatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2002 Mar-Apr;39:125-127.

    6. Hos D, Cursiefen C. Severe vitamin A deficiency presenting as xerophthalmia. J Pediatr. 2014 Oct;165:875.

    7. Sommer A. Xerophthalmia and Vitamin A status. Prog Retin Eye Res. 1998 Jan; 17:9-31.

(p. 56) Contact Lens Case Reports – Comparing Ways to Measure Sagittal Height
By Patrick J. Caroline, FAAO, & Mark P. André, FAAO

    1. Harkness B, Caroline P, Ritzmann M, Kojima R, Hayes JR. Comparison of Sagittal Height Measurement Methods and Predicting Central Clearance of Scleral Contact Lenses. Poster presented at the American Academy of Optometry, New Orleans, Oct. 9, 2015.