Contact Lens Spectrum

References

July 2016

Document #248

(p. 14) Research Review – Does Diabetes Cause Dry Eye?
By Maria Markoulli, PhD, MOptom, GradCertOcther, FBCLA, FAAO

    1. Charnogursky G, Lee H, Lopez N. Diabetic neuropathy. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;120:773-785.

    2. International Diabetest Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 7th Edition. 2015. Accessible at http://www.diabetesatlas.org.

    3. Seidell JC. Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes--a worldwide epidemic. Br J Nutr. 2000 Mar;83 (Suppl 1):S5-S8.

    4. Edwards K, Pritchard N, Vagenas D, Russell A, Malik RA, Efron N. Utility of corneal confocal microscopy for assessing mild diabetic neuropathy: baseline findings of the LANDMark study. Clin Exp Optom. 2012 May;95:348-354.

    5. Misra SL, Craig JP, Patel DV, McGhee CN, Pradhan M, Ellyett K, Kilfoyle D, Braatvedt GD. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Corneal Nerves: An Ocular Biomarker for Peripheral and Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Aug;56:5060-5065.

    6. Pritchard N, Edwards K, Dehghani C, Fadavi H, Jeziorska M, Marshall A, Petropoulos IN, Ponirakis G, Russell AW, Sampson GP, Shahidi AM, Srinivasan S, Tavakoli M, Vagenas D, Malik RA, Efron N. Longitudinal assessment of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes using novel ophthalmic markers (LANDMark): study design and baseline characteristics. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 May;104:248-256.

    7. Jiang MS, Yuan Y, Gu ZX, Zhuang SL. Corneal confocal microscopy for assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a meta-analysis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2016 Jan;100:9-14.

    8. Müller LJ, Marfurt CF, Kruse F, Tervo TM. Corneal nerves: structure, contents and function. Exp Eye Res. 2003 May;76:521-542.

    9. Arentsen JJ, Tasman W. Using a bandage contact lens to prevent recurrent corneal erosion during photocoagulation in patients with diabetes. Am J Ophthalmol. 1981 Nov;92:714-716.

    10. Dogru M, Katakami C, Inoue M. Tear function and ocular surface changes in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmology. 2001 Mar;108:586-592.

    11. Kaiserman I, Kaiserman N, Nakar S, Vinker S. Dry eye in diabetic patients. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Mar;139:498-503.

    12. Lv H, Li A, Zhang X, Xu M, Qiao Y, Zhang J, Yu L. Meta-analysis and review on the changes of tear function and corneal sensitivity in diabetic patients. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar;92:e96-e104.

    13. Alves Mde C, Carvalheira JB, Modulo CM, Rocha EM. Tear film and ocular surface changes in diabetes mellitus. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2008 Nov-Dec;71:96-103.

    14. O’Donnell C, Efron N. Diabetes and contact lens wear. Clin Exp Optom. 2012 May;95:328-337.

    15. Creuzot-Garcher C, Lafontaine PO, Gualino O, D’Athis P, Petit JM, Bron A. [Study of ocular surface involvement in diabetic patients]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2005 Jun;28:583-588.

    16. Goebbels M. Tear secretion and tear film function in insulin dependent diabetics. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000 Jan;84:19-21.

    17. Schultz RO, Van Horn DL, Peters MA, Klewin KM, Schutten WH. Diabetic keratopathy. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1981;79:180-199.

    18. Azar DT, Spurr-Michaud SJ, Tisdale AS, Gipson IK. Decreased penetration of anchoring fibrils into the diabetic stroma - a morphometric analysis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989 Oct;107:1520-1523.

    19. Dursun D, Kim MC, Solomon A, Pflugfelder SC. Treatment of recalcitrant recurrent corneal erosions with inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-9, doxycycline and corticosteroids. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001 July;132:8-13.

    20. Akpek EK, Merchant A, Pinar V, Foster CS. Ocular rosacea: patient characteristics and follow-up. Ophthalmology. 1997 Nov;104:1863-1867.

    21. Kilpatrick ES, Rigby AS, Atkin SL. A1C variability and the risk of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes: data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes Care. 2008 Nov;31:2198-2202.

    22. Stratton IM, Kohner EM, Aldington SJ, Turner RC, Holman RR, Manley SE, Matthews DR. UKPDS 50: risk factors for incidence and progression of retinopathy in Type II diabetes over 6 years from diagnosis. Diabetologia. 2001 Feb;44:156-63.

(p. 16) Prescribing for Presbyopia – Solving the Dry Eye Dilemma for Presbyopes
By Craig W. Norman, FCLSA

    1. Nichols JJ, Willcox MD, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Jones L, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Executive Summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – The Wait Is Almost Over
By William Townsend, OD, FAAO

    1. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2003/21023_Restasis_Approv.PDF

    2. http://www.novaliq.de/en/technology-platform/background

    3. http://ec.europa.eu/health/documents/communityregister/2015/20150319131066

    4. https://theophthalmologist.com/issues/0615/introducing-ikervis

    5. https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2015/03/25/718482/10126275/en/Santen-Announces-Approval-of-Ikervis-for-EU-Marketing-Authorization.html

    6. Sosne G Dunn SP, Kim C. Thymosin β4 significantly improves signs and symptoms of severe dry eye in a phase 2 randomized trial. Cornea. 2015 May;34:491-496.

    7. http://www.regenerx.com/wt/page/diabetic_vitrectomy

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Ocular Comfort’s Relationship with Multipurpose Solutions
By Andrew D. Pucker, OD, MS, FAAO

    1. Rosenthal RA, Henry CL, Stone RP, Schlech BA. Anatomy of a regimen: consideration of multipurpose solutions during non-compliant use. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2003 Mar;26:17-26.

    2. Nichols JJ, Willcox MD, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Jones L, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA Stapleton F, Sullivan DA; members of the TFOS Intational Workshop of Contact Lens Dicomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013 Oct;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    3. Jones L, Brennan NA, González-Méijome J, Lally J, Maldonado-Codina C, Schmidt TA, Subbaraman L, Young G. Nichols JJ; member sof the TFOS International Workshop of Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens materials, design, and care subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;54:TFOS37-TFOS70.

    4. Yang SN, Tai YC, Sheedy JE, Kinoshita B, Lampa M, Kern JR. Comparative effect of lens care solutions on blink rate, ocular discomfort and visual performance. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012 Sep;32:412-420.

    5. Stiegemeier MJ, Friederichs GJ, Hughes JL, Larsen S, Movic W, Potter WB. Clinical evaluation of a new multi-purpose disinfecting solution in symptomatic contact lens wearers. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2006 Jul;29:143-151.

    6. Jones L, Jones D, Houlford M. Clinical comparison of three polyhexanide-preserved multi-purpose contact lens solutions. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 1997;20:23-30.

    7. Stiegemeier MJ, Cedrone R, Evans D, Friederichs G, Holle D, Jenikins W, Lutzi D, Roberson R, Schenker H, White E, Zigler L. Clinical performance of 'no rub' multi-purpose solutions. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2004 Jun;27:65-74.

    8. Tilia D, Lazon de la Jara P, Peng N, Papas EB, Holden BA. Effect of lens and solution choice on the comfort of contact lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 May;90:411-418.

    9. Jones L, MacDougall N, Sorbara LG. Asymptomatic corneal staining associated with the use of balafilcon silicone-hydrogel contact lenses disinfected with a polyaminopropyl biguanide-preserved care regimen. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Dec;79:753-761.

    10. Lin MC, Yuen J, Graham AD. Contact lens care solutions: a pilot study of ethnic differences in clinical signs and symptoms. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 Jul;40:191-199.

    11. Pinto-Fraga J, Abengózar-Vela A, López-Miguel A, Martín-Montañéz V, López de la Rosa A, González-García MJ. Effect of the osmolarity change in multipurpose solutions induced by an improper contact lens case cleaning procedure. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2016 Feb 10. [Epub ahead of print]

(p. 24) 2016 Report on Dry Eye Dieases
By Anna Ablamowicz, OD, FAAO, & Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO

    1. Research in dry eye: report of the Research Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5:179-193.

    2. Lemp MA, Baudouin C, Baum J, Dogru M. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5:75-92.

    3. Gayton JL. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease. Clin Ophthalmol. 2009;3:405-412.

    4. Lemp MA, Crews LA, Bron AJ, Foulks GN, Sullivan BD. Distribution of aqueous-deficient and evaporative dry eye in a clinic-based patient cohort: a retrospective study. Cornea. 2012;31:472-478.

    5. Nichols KK, Foulks GN, Bron AJ, Glasgow BJ, Dogru M, Tsubota K, Lemp MA, Sullivan DA. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Executive Summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 30;52:1922-1929.

    6. Nelson JD, Shimazaki J, Benitez-del-Castillo JM, Craig JP, McCulley JP, Den S, Foulks GN. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 30;52:1930-1937.

    7. Grubbs JR, Tolleson-Rinehart S, Huynh K, Davis RM. A Review of Quality of Life Measures in Dry Eye Questionnaires. Cornea. 2014 Feb;33:215-218.

    8. Craig JP, Willcox MD, Argüeso P, Maissa C, Stahl U, Tomlinson A, Wang J, Yokoi N, Stapleton F; members of TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens interactions with the tear film subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS123-TFOS156.

    9. Guillon M, Maissa C. Contact lens wear affects tear film evaporation. Eye Contact Lens. 2008 Nov;34:326-330.

    10. Nichols JJ, Sinnott LT. Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;47:1319-1328.

    11. Nichols JJ, Willcox MD, Bron AJ, Belmonte C, Ciolino JB, Craig JP, Dogru M, Foulks GN, Jones L, Nelson JD, Nichols KK, Purslow C, Schaumberg DA, Stapleton F, Sullivan DA; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Executive Summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS7-TFOS13.

    12. Bron AJ, Argueso P, Irkec M, Bright FV. Clinical staining of the ocular surface: Mechanisms and interpretations. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2015 Jan;44:36-61.

    13. Jones L, Brennan NA, González-Méijome J, Lally J, Maldonado-Codina C, Schmidt TA, Subbaraman L, Young G, Nichols JJ; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the contact lens materials, design, and care subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS37-TFOS70.

    14. Korb DR, Greiner JV, Herman JP, Hebert E, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Glonek T, Olson MC. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy and dry-eye symptoms in contact lens wearers. CLAO J. 2002 Oct;28:211-216.

    15. Korb DR, Herman JP, Greiner JV, Scaffidi RC, Finnemore VM, Exford JM, Blackie CA, Douglass T. Lid wiper epitheliopathy and dry eye symptoms. Eye Contact Lens. 2005 Jan;31:2-8.

    16. Korb DR, Herman JP, Blackie CA, Scaffidi RC, Greiner JV, Exford JM, Finnemore VM. Prevalence of lid wiper epitheliopathy in subjects with dry eye signs and symptoms. Cornea 2010 Apr;29:377-383.

    17. Yeniad B, Beginoglu M, Bilgin LK. Lid-wiper epitheliopathy in contact lens users and patients with dry eye. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 May;36:140-143.

    18. Pult H, Purslow C, Murphy PJ. The relationship between clinical signs and dry eye symptoms. Eye (Lond). 2011 Apr;25:502-510.

    19. Stevenson W, Chauhan SK, Dana R. Dry eye disease: an immune-mediated ocular surface disorder. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Jan;130:90-100.

    20. Hessen M, Akpek EK. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2014 Apr;9:240-250.

(p. 32) Contact Lens Dry Eye: Neutrotrophic Disease or MGD
By Stephanie M. Cox, OD, FAAO, & Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO

    1. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

    2. Belmonte C, Aracil A, Acosta MC, Luna C, Gallar J. Nerves and Sensations from the Eye Surface. Ocul Surf. 2004 Oct;2:248-253.

    3. Müller LJ, Marfurt CF, Kruse F, Tervo TM. Corneal nerves: structure, contents and function. Exp Eye Res. 2003 May;76:521-542.

    4. Shaheen BS, Bakir M, Jain S. Corneal nerves in health and disease. Surv Ophthalmol. 2014 May-Jun;59:263-285.

    5. Stapleton F, Marfurt C, Golebiowski B, Rosenblatt M, Bereiter D, Begley C, Dartt D, Gallar J, Belmonte C, Hamrah P, Willcox M; TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the Subcommittee on Neurobiology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS71-TFOS97.

    6. Nishida T. Neurotrophic mediators and corneal wound healing. Ocul Surf. 2005 Oct;3:194-202.

    7. Sacchetti M, Lambiase A. Diagnosis and management of neurotrophic keratitis. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar 19;8:571-579.

    8. Nakamori K, Odawara M, Nakajima T, Mizutani T, Tsubota K. Blinking is controlled primarily by ocular surface conditions. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997 Jul;124:24-30.

    9. Doughty MJ, Naase T, Button NF. Frequent spontaneous eyeblink activity associated with reduced conjunctival surface (trigeminal nerve) tactile sensitivity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009 Jul;247:939-946.

    10. Nosch DS, Pult H, Albon J, Purslow C, Murphy PJ. Relationship between Corneal Sensation, Blinking, and Tear Film Quality. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 May;93;471-481.

    11. Rahman EZ, Lam PK, Chu CK, Moore Q, Pflugfelder SC. Corneal Sensitivity in Tear Dysfunction and its Correlation With Clinical Parameters and Blink Rate. Am J Ophthalmol. 2015 Nov;160:858-866.e5.

    12. Robbins A, Kurose M, Winterson BJ, Meng ID. Menthol Activation of Corneal Cool Cells Induces TRPM8-Mediated Lacrimation but Not Nociceptive Responses in Rodents. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Oct 9;53;7034-7042.

    13. Parra A, Madrid R, Echevarria D, del Olmo S, Morenilla-Palao C, Acosta MC, Gallar J, Dhaka A, Viana F, Belmonte C. Ocular surface wetness is regulated by TRPM8-dependent cold thermoreceptors of the cornea. Nat Med. 2010 Dec;16:1396-1399.

    14. Hamrah P, Cruzat A, Dastjerdi MH, Prüss H, Zheng L, Shahatit BM, Bayhan HA, Dana R, Pavan-Langston D. Unilateral herpes zoster ophthalmicus results in bilateral corneal nerve alteration: an in vivo confocal microscopy study. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jan;120:40-47.

    15. Lambiase A, Sacchetti M, Mastropasqua A, Bonini S. Corneal changes in neurosurgically induced neurotrophic keratitis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Dec;131:1547-1553.

    16. Cruzat A, Pavan-Langston D, Hamrah P. In vivo confocal microscopy of corneal nerves: analysis and clinical correlation. Semin Ophthalmol. 2010 Sep-Nov;25:171-177.

    17. Heigle TJ, Pflugfelder SC. Aqueous tear production in patients with neurotrophic keratitis. Cornea. 1996 Mar;15:135-138.

    18. M'Garrech M, Rousseau A, Kaswin G, Sauer A, Barreau E, Bourcier T, Labetoulle M. Impairment of lacrimal secretion in the unaffected fellow eye of patients with recurrent unilateral herpetic keratitis. Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct;120:1959-1967.

    19. Jabbarvand M, Hashemian H, Khodaparast M, Rafatnejad A, Beheshtnejad A, Salami A. Do Unilateral Herpetic Stromal Keratitis and Neurotrophic Ulcers Cause Bilateral Dry Eye? Cornea. 2015 Jul;34:768-772.

    20. Okada Y, Reinach PS, Kitano A, Shirai K, Kao WW, Saika S. Neurotrophic keratopathy; its pathophysiology and treatment. Histol Histopathol. 2010 Jun;25: 771-780.

    21. Semeraro F, Forbice E, Romano V, Angi M, Romano MR, Filippelli ME, Di Iorio R, Costagliola C. Neurotrophic keratitis. Ophthalmologica. 2014;231(4):191-197.

    22. Nichols JJ, Sinnott LT. Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens-related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;47:1319-1328.

    23. Iskeleli G, Karakoç Y, Aydin O, Yetik H, Uslu H, Kizilkaya M. Comparison of tear-film osmolarity in different types of contact lenses. CLAO J. 2002;28:174-176.

    24. Le Q, Jiang C, Jiang AC, Xu J. The analysis of tear meniscus in soft contact lens wearers by spectral optical coherence tomography. Cornea. 2009 Sep;28:851-855.

    25. Miller WL, Doughty MJ, Narayanan S, Leach NE, Tran A, Gaume AL, Bergmanson JP. A comparison of tear volume (by tear meniscus height and phenol red thread test) and tear fluid osmolality measures in non-lens wearers and in contact lens wearers. Eye Contact Lens. 2004 Jul;30:132-137.

    26. Chen Q, Wang J, Shen M, Cai C, Li J, Cui L, Qu J, Lu F. Lower volumes of tear menisci in contact lens wearers with dry eye symptoms. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Jul;50:3159-3163.

    27. Chen Q, Wang J, Shen M, Cui L, Cai C, Li M, Li K, Lu F. Tear menisci and ocular discomfort during daily contact lens wear in symptomatic wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr;52:2175-2180.

    28. Martín-Montañez V, López-de la Rosa A, López-Miguel A, Pinto-Fraga J, González-Méijome JM, González-García MJ. End-of-day dryness, corneal sensitivity and blink rate in contact lens wearers. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2015 Jun;38:148-151.

    29. Kaido M, Kawashima M, Ishida R, Tsubota K. Relationship of Corneal Pain Sensitivity With Dry Eye Symptoms in Dry Eye With Short Tear Break-Up Time. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Mar 1;57:914-919.

    30. Liu Q, McDermott AM, Miller WL. Elevated nerve growth factor in dry eye associated with established contact lens wear. Eye Contact Lens. 2009 Sep;35: 232-237.

    31. Villani E, Baudouin C, Efron N, Hamrah P, Kojima T, Patel SV, Pflugfelder SC, Zhivov A, Dogru M. In vivo confocal microscopy of the ocular surface: from bench to bedside. Curr Eye Res. 2014 Mar;39:213-231.

    32. No authors listed. The epidemiology of dry eye disease: report of the Epidemiology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5:93-107.

    33. Schaumberg DA, Nichols JJ, Papas EB, Tong L, Uchino M, Nichols KK. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the subcommittee on the epidemiology of, and associated risk factors for, MGD. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 30;52:1994-2005.

    34. Arita R, Itoh K, Inoue K, Kuchiba A, Yamaguchi T, Amano S. Contact Lens Wear Is Associated with Decrease of Meibomian Glands. Ophthalmology. 2009 Mar;116:379-384.

    35. Machalińska A, Zakrzewska A, Adamek B, Safranow K, Wiszniewska B, Parafiniuk M, Machaliński B. Comparison of morphological and functional meibomian gland characteristics between daily contact lens wearers and nonwearers. Cornea. 2015 Sep;34:1098-1104.

    36. Villani E, Ceresara G, Beretta S, Magnani F, Viola F, Ratiglia R. In vivo confocal microscopy of meibomian glands in contact lens wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul 13;52:5215-5219.

    37. Doughty MJ. Contact lens wear and the goblet cells of the human conjunctiva-A review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Aug;34:157-163.

    38. García-Posadas L, Contreras-Ruiz L, Soriano-Romaní L, Dartt DA, Diebold Y. Conjunctival Goblet Cell Function: Effect of Contact Lens Wear and Cytokines. Eye Contact Lens. 2016 Mar;42:83-90.

    39. Bhargava R, Kumar P. Oral omega-3 fatty acid treatment for dry eye in contact lens wearers. Cornea. 2015 Apr;34;413-20.

    40. Kokke KH, Morris JA, Lawrenson JG.. Oral omega-6 essential fatty acid treatment in contact lens associated dry eye. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2008 Jun;31:141-146; quiz 170.

    41. Geerling G, Tauber J, Baudouin C, Goto E, Matsumoto Y, O'Brien T, Rolando M, Tsubota K, Nichols KK. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the subcommittee on management and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 30;52:2050-2064.

    42. Arita R, Morishige N, Shirakawa R, Sato Y, Amano S. Effects of Eyelid Warming Devices on Tear Film Parameters in Normal Subjects and Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Ocul Surf. 2015 Oct;13:321-330.

    43. Lee H, Chung B, Kim KS, Seo KY, Choi BJ, Kim TI. Effects of topical loteprednol etabonate on tear cytokines and clinical outcomes in moderate and severe meibomian gland dysfunction: randomized clinical trial. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Dec;158:1172-1183.e1.

    44. Aggarwal S, Kheirkhah A, Cavalcanti BM, Cruzat A, Colon C, Brown E, Borsook D, Prüss H, Hamrah P. Autologous Serum Tears for Treatment of Photoallodynia in Patients with Corneal Neuropathy: Efficacy and Evaluation with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy. Ocul Surf. 2015 Jul;13:250-262.

    45. Hussain M, Shtein RM, Sugar A, Soong HK, Woodward MA, DeLoss K, Mian SI. Long-term use of autologous serum 50% eye drops for the treatment of dry eye disease. Cornea. 2014 Dec;33:1245-1251.

    46. Rao K, Leveque C, Pflugfelder SC. Corneal nerve regeneration in neurotrophic keratopathy following autologous plasma therapy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 May;94:584-591.

(p. 36) Utilization of Scleral Lenses for Ocular Surface Disease
By Melissa Barnett, OD, FAAO, FSLS

    1. Lin PY, Tsai SY, Cheng CY, Liu JH, Chou P, Hsu WM. Prevalence of dry eye among an elderly Chinese population in Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2003 Jun;110:1096-1101.

    2. McCarty CA, Bansal AK, Livingston PM, Stanislavsky YL, Taylor HR. The epidemiology of dry eye in Melbourne, Australia. Ophthalmology. 1998 Jun;105:1114-1119.

    3. Market Scope. Report on the Global Dry Eye Market. St. Louis. Market Scope, July 2004.

    4. Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK, Caffery B, Simpson T DuToit R, Portello J, Davis L. Characterization of ocular surface symptoms from optometric practices in North America. Cornea. 2001 Aug;20:610-618.

    5. Tear Lab. Website information 2014. www.tearlab.com.

    6. Oculus Corporation. Oculus Keratograph Topography System website information. 2014. www.wetzlar-network.de.

    7. Chotikavanich S, de Paiva CS, Li de Q, Chen JJ, Bian F, Farley WJ, Pfugfelder SC. Production and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 on the ocular surface increase in dysfunctional tear syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Jul;50:3203-3209.

    8. Bowden T. Contact Lenses: The Story. 23 Apr 2009.

    9. Fick A. Eine Contactbrille. Archiv Fur Augen Heilkinde. March 1888.

    10. Kalt E. Presented by Professor Photinas Pannas at the Academy of Medicine, Paris. March 1888.

    11. Müeller A. Brillenglaser und Hornhautlinsen. Doctoral thesis. Presented February 28, 1889.

    12. Müller Söhne FA. Founded in 1887.

    13. Klein M. Contact Lens in Cases of Neuroparalytic Keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1943 May;27:221-222.

    14. Ridley F. Therapeutic uses of scleral contact lenses. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1962 Oct;2:687-716.

    15. Gould HL. Treatment of neurotrophic keratitis with scleral contact lenses. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon. 1967 Nov;46:1406-1414.

    16. Ezekiel DF. Gas Permeable Haptic Lenses. J Br Contact Lens Assoc. 1983 Oct;6:158, 160-161.

    17. Schein OD, Rosenthal P, Cucharme C. A gas-permeable scleral contact lens for visual rehabilitation. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990 Mar 15;109;318-322.

    18. Kok JH, Visser R. Treatment of ocular surface disorders and dry eyes with high gas-permeable scleral lenses. Cornea. 1992 Nov;11:518-522.

    19. Pullum KW, Buckley RJ. A study of 530 patients referred for rigid gas permeable scleral contact lens assessment. Cornea. 1997 Nov;16:612-622.

    20. Bavinger JC, DeLoss K, Mian SI. Scleral lens use in dry eye syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2015 Jul;26:319-324.

    21. Malta JB, Soong HK, Shtein RM, Musch DC, Rhoades W, Sugar A. Mian SI. Treatment of ocular graft-versus-host disease with topical cyclosporine 0.05%. Cornea. 2010 Dec;29:1392-1396.

    22. Rossi P, Delcampe A, Gueudry J, Duncombe A, Gabison E, Doan S, Muraine M. Gas-permeable scleral lens for management of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca secondary to chronic graft-versus-host disease. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2015 Nov;38:793-799.

    23. Carracedo G, Blanco MS, Martin-Gil A, Zicheng W, Alvarez JC, Pintor J. Short-term Effect of Scleral Lens on the Dry Eye Biomarkers in Keratoconus. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Feb;93:150-157.

    24. Peral A, Carracedo G, Acosta MC, Gallar J, Pintor J. Increased levels of diadenosine polyphosphates in dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Sep;47:4053-4038.

(p. 47) The Scleral Lens Vault – Scleral Lenses for Exposure Keratopathy
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. Alsuhaibani AH. Facial Nerve Palsy: Providing Eye Comfort and Cosmesis. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2010 Apr-Jun;17:142-147.

    2. Shan H, Min D. Prevention of exposure keratopathy in intensive care unit. Int J Ophthalmol. 2010;3:346-348.

    3. Weyns M, Koppen C, Tassignon MJ. Scleral contact lenses as an alternative to tarshorrhaphy for the long-term management of combined exposure and neurotrophic keratopathy. Cornea. 2013Mar;32:359-361.

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(p. 48) Treatment Plan – “The Past Is Prologue…”—Never Truer than for Dry Eye
By Leo Semes, OD, FAAO

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