Contact Lens Spectrum


January 2017

Document #254

(p. 14) Research Review – CLPC: Inevitable Dropout or a Passing Phase
By Maria Markoulli, PhD, MOptom, GradCeretOcTher

    1. Stapleton F, Keay L, Jalbert I, Cole N. The epidemiology of contact lens related infiltrates. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;84:257-272.

    2. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Contact Lens Clin. 1999 Nov;26:157-162.

    3. Skotnitsky CC, Naduvilath TJ, Sweeney DF, Sankaridurg PR. Two presentations of contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC) in hydrogel lens wear: local and general. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Jan;83:27-36.

    4. Cornea and Contact Lens Research Unit. C.C.L.R.U. Grading Scales, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 1996.

    5. Tagliaferri A, Love TE, Szczotka-Flynn LB. Risk factors for contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis associated with silicone hydrogel contact lens wear. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 May;40:117-122.

    6. Sankaridurg PR, Sweeney DF, Sharma S, Gora R, Naduvilath T, Ramachandran L, Holden BA, Rao GN. Adverse events with extended wear of disposable hydrogels: Results for the first 13 months of lens wear. Ophthalmology. 1999 Sep;106:1671-1680.

    7. Jolson AS, Jolson SC. Suture barb giant papillary conjunctivitis. Ophthalmic Surg. 1984 Feb;15:139-140.

    8. Stapleton F, Stretton S, Papas E, Skotnitsky C, Sweeney DF. Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses and the Ocular Surface. Ocul Surf. 2006 Jan;4:24-43.

    9. Allansmith MR, Korb DR, Greiner JV, Henriquez AS, Simon MA, Finnemore VM. Giant papillary conjunctivitis in contact lens wearers. Am J Ophthalmol. 1977 May;83:697-708.

    10. Ballow M, Donshik PC, Rapacz P, Maenza R, Yamase H, Muncy L. Immune responses in monkeys to lenses from patients with contact lens induced giant papillary conjunctivitis. CLAO J. 1989 Jan-Mar;15:64-70.

    11. Zhao Z, Fu H, Skotnitsky CC, Sankaridurg PR, Willcox MD. IgE antibody on worn highly oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogel contact lenses from patients with contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC). Eye Contact Lens. 2008 Mar;34:117-121.

    12. Szczotka-Flynn L, Lass JH, Sethi A, Debanne S, Benetz BA, Albright M, Gillespie B, Kuo J, Jacobs MR, Rimm A. Risk factors for corneal infiltrative events during continuous wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Nov;51:5421-430.

    13. Donshik PC, Ehlers WH, Ballow M. Giant papillary conjunctivitis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008 Feb;28:83-103, vi.

    14. Noble S, Goa KL. Loteprednol etabonate: clinical potential in the management of ocular inflammation. BioDrugs. 1998 Oct;10:329-339.

    15. Khurana S, Sharma N, Agarwal T, Chawla B, Velpandian T, Tandon R, Titiyal JS. Comparison of olopatadine and fluorometholone in contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis. Eye Contact Lens. 2010 Jul;36:210-214.

    16. Diao H, She Z, Cao D, Wang Z, Lin Z. Comparison of Tacrolimus, Fluorometholone, and Saline in Mild-to-Moderate Contact Lens-Induced Papillary Conjunctivitis. Adv Ther. 2012 Jul;29:645-653.

    17. Porazinski AD, Donshik PC. Giant papillary conjunctivitis in frequent replacement contact lens wearers: a retrospective study. CLAO J. 1999 Jul;25:142-147.

    18. Morgan PB1, Chamberlain P, Moody K, Maldonado-Codina C. Ocular physiology and comfort in neophyte subjects fitted with daily disposable silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Jun;36:118-125.

(p. 16) Prescribing for Presbyopia – The Latest Challenges to Presbyopic Contact Lenses
By Craig W. Norman

    1. Nichols J. Contact Lenses 2016. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2017 Jan;32:22-25, 27, 29. 55.

    2. Census reference:


(p. 17) GP Insights – Sclerals and CXL: A Perfect Match
By Jaclyn Leonhardt, OD, & Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd

    1. American Optometric Association. FDA approves first corneal cross-linking system for treatment. 2016, Jul 12. Accessed on Oct. 19, 2016. Available at

    2. Jankov Ii MR, Jovanovic V, Nikolic L, Lake JC, Kymionis G, Coskunseven E. Corneal collagen cross-linking. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2010 Jan;17:21-27.

    3. Hersh PS, Greenstein SA, Fry KL. Corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus and corneal ectasia: One-year results. J Cataract Refract Surgery. 2011 Jan;37:149-160.

    4. Karpecki PM, Shechtman, D.L (Eds.). (2011). A Look at Corneal Crosslinking. Review of Optometry. 2011 Aug. Accessed on Nov. 30, 2016. Available at

(p. 19) Contact Lens Design & Materials – Myopia Control Contact Lens Designs
By Ronald K. Watanabe, OD

    1. Si JK, Tang K, Bi HS, Guo DD, Guo JG, Wang XR. Orthokeratology for myopia control: a meta-analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Mar;92:252-257.

    2. Huang J, Wen D, Wang Q, McAlinden C, Flitcroft I, Chen H, Saw SM, Chen H, Bao F, Zhao Y, Hu L, LLi X, Gao R, Lu W, Du Y, Jinag Z, Yu A, Lian H, Jiang Q, Yu Y, Qu J. Efficacy comparison of 16 interventions for myopia control in children. Ophthalmoly. 2016 Apr;123:697-708.

    3. Turnbull PRK, Munro OJ, Phillips JR. Contact lens methods for clinical myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Sep;93:1120-1126.

    4. Smith EL 3rd. Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A case for peripheral optical treatment strategies for myopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Sep;88:1029-1044.

    5. Troilo D. The case for lens treatments in the control of myopia progression. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Sep;93:1045-1048.

    6. Atchison DA, Li SM, Li H, Liu LR, Kang MT, Mend B, Sun YY, Zhan SY, Mitchell P, Wang N. Relative peripheral hyperopia does not predict development and progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Sep;56:6162-6170.

    7. Walline JJ. Myopia control: A review. Eye Contact Lens 2016 Jan;42:3-8.

(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Why Delaying Contact Lens Wear Is the Best Strategy
By William Townsend, OD

    1. Bron AJ, Tomlinson A, Foulks GN, Pepose JS, Baudouin C, Geerling G, Nichols KK, Lemp MA. Rethinking dry eye disease: a perspective on clinical implications. Ocul Surf. 2014 Apr;12(2 Suppl):S1-S31.

    2. Khanal S, Tomlinson A, McFadyen A, Diaper C, Ramaesh K. Dry eye diagnosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Apr;49:1407-1414.

    3. Baudouin C, Aragona P, Messmer EM, Tomlinson A, Calonge M, Boboridis KG, Akova YA, Geerling G, Labetoulle M, Rolando M. Role of hyperosmolarity in the pathogenesis and management of dry eye disease: proceedings of the OCEAN group meeting. Ocul Surf. 2013 Oct;11:246-258.

    4. García-Resúa C, Pena-Verdeal H, Remeseiro B, Giráldez MJ, Yebra-Pimentel E. Correlation between tear osmolarity and tear meniscus. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Dec;91:1419-1429.

    5. Rosdahl JA, Swamy L, Stinnett S, Muir KW. Patient education preferences in ophthalmic care. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2014 Apr 25;8:565-574.

    6. Feng A, O'Neill J, Holt M, Georgiadis C, Wright MM, Montezuma SR. Success of patient training in improving proficiency of eyedrop administration among various ophthalmic patient populations. Clin Ophthalmol. 2016 Aug 10;10:1505-1511.

    7. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Antimicrobial Contact Lens Cases
By Andrew D. Pucker, OD, PhD

    1. Wu YT, Zhu H, Harmis NY, Iskandar SY, Willcox M, Stapleton F. Profile and frequency of microbial contamination of contact lens cases. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Mar;87:E152-E158.

    2. Panthi S, Paudel P, Chaudhary M, Sapkota K, Shah DN. Microbial contamination of contact lens care accessories and compliance with care regimens in Nepal. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2014 Feb;37:2-10.

    3. Dantam J, Zhu H, Willcox M, Ozkan J, Naduvilath T, Thomas V, Stapleton F. In vivo assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of silver-impregnated contact lens storage cases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Mar 26;53:1641-1648.

    4. Dutta D, Willcox MD. Antimicrobial contact lenses and lens cases: a review. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 Sep;40:312-324.

    5. Nichols JJ. 2015 Annual Report: Contact Lenses 2015 Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Jan;31:18-23, 55.

    6. Amos CF, George MD. Clinical and laboratory testing of a silver-impregnated lens case. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2006 Dec;29:247-255.

    7. Dantam J, Zhu H, Stapleton F. Biocidal efficacy of silver-impregnated contact lens storage cases in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jan 5;52:51-57.

    8. Hickson-Curran S, Chalmers RL, Riley C. Patient attitudes and behavior regarding hygiene and replacement of soft contact lenses and storage cases. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Oct;34:207-215.

    9. Tran PL, Huynh E, Pham P, Lacky B, Jarvis C, Mosley T, Hamood AN, Hanes R, Reid T. Organoselenium Polymer Inhibits Biofilm Formation in Polypropylene Contact Lens Case Material. Eye Contact Lens. 2016 Mar 11. [Epub ahead of print]

(p. 22) Contact Lenses 2016
By Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD, FAAO

    1. Barr JT. The Contact Lens Event of 2006. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2007 Jan;22:15.

    2. Barr JT. Contact Lens Advances and the Event of 2005. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2006 Jan;21:13.

    3. Barr JT. Contact Lenses 2006. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2007 Jan;22:26-33.

    4. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2015. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Jan;31:18-23, 55.

    5. Federal Trade Commission. The Contact Lens Rule: A Guide for Prescribers and Sellers. 2004 Oct. Available at Accessed Dec. 20, 2016.

    6. American Optometric Association. Update: Legislation targets prescription verification, deceptive internet sales tactics. 2016 Sept. 23. Available at Accessed Dec 20, 2016.

(p. 36) Clinical Controversies: Point/Counterpoint
By Edward S. Bennett, OD, MSEd; Jeffrey J. Walline, OD, PhD; Jeffrey Sonsino, OD; Shalu Pal, OD; Pamela Lowe, OD; & Jason Compton, OD

    1. Richdale K, Mitchell GL, Zadnik K. Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low-astigmatic presbyopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 May;83:266-273.

    2. Rajagopalan AS, Bennett ES, Lakshminarayanan V. Visual performance of subjects wearing presbyopic contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2006 Aug;83:611-615.

    3. Bennett ES, Jurkus JM. Presbyopic correction. In Bennett ES, Weissman BA: Clinical Contact Lens Practice (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 2005: 27-18.

    4. Johannsdottir KR, Stelmach LB. Monovision: a review of the scientific literature. Optom Vis Sci. 2001;78:646-651.

    5. Collins MJ, Goode A, Brown B. Distance visual acuity and monovision. Optom Vis Sci. 1993 Sep;70:723-728.

    6. Wick B. Westin E. Change in refractive anisometropia in presbyopic adults wearing monovision contact lens correction. Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Jan;76:33-39.

    7. Wood JM, Wick K, Shuley V, Pearce B, Evans D. The effect of monovision contact lens wear on driving performance. Clin Exp Optom. 1998 May-Jun;81:100-103.

    8. Sivardeen A, Laughton D, Wolffsohn JS. Randomized crossover trial of silicone hydrogel presbyopic contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Feb;93:141-149.

    9. Johnson J, Bennett ES, Henry VA, et al. MultiVision™ vs. monovision: a comparative study. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Las Vegas, February, 2000.

    10. Benjamin W. Comparing multifocals and monovision. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2007 Jul;22:35-39.

    11. Kirschen DG, Hung CC, Nakano TR. Comparison of suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular differences in visual acuity in monovision, and Acuvue bifocal contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Dec;76:832-837.

    12. Situ P, Du Toit R, Fonn D, Simpson T. Successful monovision contact lens wearers refitted with bifocal contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2003 Jul;29:181-184.

    13. Woods J, Woods CA, Fonn D. Early symptomatic presbyopes – what correction modality works best? Eye Contact Lens. 2009 Sep;35:221-226.

    14. Nichols JJ. Contact lenses 2015. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Jan;31:18-23,55.

    15. Jones LA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. Parental history of myopia, sports and outdoor activities, and future myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug;48:3524-32.

    16. Dirani M, Tong L, Gazzard G, Zhang X, Chia A, Young TL, Rose KA, Mitchell P, Saw SM. Outdoor activity and myopia in Singapore teenage children. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug;93:997-1000.

    17. Guo Y, Liu LJ, Xu L, Lv YY, Tang P, Feng Y, Meng M, Jonas JB. Outdoor Activity and Myopia among Primary Students in Rural and Urban Regions of Beijing. Ophthalmology. 2013 Feb;120:277-283.

    18. Rose KA, Morgan IG, Ip J, Kifley A, Huynh S, Smith W, Mitchell P. Outdoor activity reduces the prevalence of myopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2008 Aug;115:1279-1285.

    19. Wu PC, Tsai CL, Wu HL, Yang YH, Kuo HK. Outdoor activity during class recess reduces myopia onset and progression in school children. Ophthalmology. 2013 May;120:1080–1085.

    20. Fulk GW, Cyert LA. Can bifocals slow myopia progression? J Am Optom Assoc. 1996 Dec;67:749-754.

    21. Donovan L, Sankaridurg P, Ho A, Chen X, Lin Z, Thomas V, Smith EL, 3rd, Ge J, Holden B. Myopia Progression in Chinese Children is Slower in Summer Than in Winter. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Aug;89:1196-1202.

    22. Fulk GW, Cyert LA, Parker DA. Seasonal variation in myopia progression and ocular elongation. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Jan;79:46-51.

    23. Goss DA, Rainey BB. Relation of childhood myopia progression rates to time of year. J Am Optom Assoc. 1998 Apr;69:262-266.

    24. Gwiazda J, Deng L, Manny R, Norton TT, COMET Study Group. Seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the correction of myopia evaluation trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Feb;55:752-758.

    25. Deng L, Gwiazda J, Thorn F. Children’s refractions and visual activities in the school year and summer. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Jun;87:406-413.

    26. He M, Xiang F, Zeng Y, Mai J, Chen Q, Zhang J, Smith W, Rose K, Morgan IG. Effect of Time Spent Outdoors at School on the Development of Myopia Among Children in China: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2015 Sep 15;314:1142-1148.

    27. Gauch RR. It’s Great! Oops, No It Isn’t: Why Clinical Reseach Can’t Guarantee the Right Medical Answers. Pougkeepsie, NY: Springer. 2009.

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    29. Jacobsen N, Jensen H, Goldscbmidt E. Does the level of physical activity in university students influence development and progression of myopia?—A 2-year prospective cohort study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Apr;49:1322-1327.

    30. French AN, Morgan IG, Mitchell P, Rose KA. Risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren: the Sydney adolescent vascular and eye study. Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct;120:2100-2108.

    31. Ip JM, Saw SM, Rose KA, Morgan IG, Kifley A, Wang JJ, Mitchell P. Role of near work in Myopia: Findings in a sample of Australian school children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Jul;49:2903-2910.

    32. Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Jones LA, Zadnik K. Parental myopia, near work, school achievement and children's refractive error. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Dec;43:3633-3640.

    33. Tromans C, Haigh PM, Biswas S, Lloyd JC. Accuracy of intraocular lens power calculation in paediatric cataract surgery. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001 Aug;85:939-941.

    34. VanderVeen DK, Nizam A, Lynn MJ, Bothun ED, McClatchey SK, Weakley DR, DuBois LG, Lambert SR; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Predictability of intraocular lens calculation and early refractive status: The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Mar;130:293-299.

    35. Plager DA, Lynn MJ, Buckley EG, Wilson ME, Lambert SR; Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Complications, Adverse Events, and Additional Intraocular Surgery 1 Year after Cataract Surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2011 Dec;118:2330–2334

    36. Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group, Lambert SR, Lynn MJ, Hartmann EE, DuBois L, Drews-Botsch C, Freedman SF, Plager DA, Buckley EG, Wilson ME. Comparison of contact lens and intraocular lens correction of monocular aphakia during infancy: a randomized clinical trial of HOTV optotype acuity at age 4.5 years and clinical findings at age 5 years. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Jun;132:676-82.

    37. Ham WT Jr, Mueller HA, Ruffolo JJ Jr, GUerry D 3rd, Guerry RK. Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey. Am J Ophthalmol. 1982 Mar;93:299-306.

    38. Ham WT Jr, Ruffolo JJ Jr, Mueller HA, Clarke AM, Moon ME. Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short wave-length light. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1978 Oct;17:1029-1035.

    39. Kwok LS, Kuznetsov VA, Ho A, Coroneo MT. Prevention of the adverse photic effects of peripheral light-focusing using UV-blocking contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Apr;44:1501-1507.

    40. Walsh JE, Bergmanson JP, Wallace D, Saldana G, Dempsey H, McEvoy H, Collum LM. Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001 Sep;85:1080-1085.

    41. Green AC, Wallingford SC, McBride P. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation and harmful skin effects: Epidemiological evidence. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 200 Dec;107:349-355.

    42. Ooi JL, Sharma NS, Papalkar D, Sharma S, Oakey M, Dawes P, Coroneo MT. Ultraviolet fluorescence photography to detect early sun damage in the eyes of school-aged children. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Feb;141:294-298.

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    44. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Nov;90:1207-1214.

    45. Aller TA, Liu M, Wildsoet CF. Myopia control with bifocal contact lenses: A randomized clinical trial. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Apr;93:344-352.

    46. Rumpakis J. New Data on Contact Lens Dropouts: An International Perspective. Review of Optometry 2010 Jan 15. Available at

    47. Ritchey ER, Barr JT, Mitchell GL. The comparison of overnight lens modalities (COLM) study. Eye Contact Lens. 2005 Mar;31:70-75.

    48. Lipson MJ, Sugar A, Musch DC. Overnight corneal reshaping versus soft disposable contact lenses: Vision-related quality of life differences from a randomized clinical trial. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Oct;82:886-891.

    49. Walline JJ. Current and future developments in myopia control. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2012 Oct;27:34-38.

    50. Holden BA. The future of myopia management with contact lenses: Where to from here? Possibilities and probabilities. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, January 2015, Las Vegas.

    51. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: A pilot study on refractive changes and myopia control. Curr Eye Res. 2005 Jan;30:71-80.

    52. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep;93:1181-1185.

    53. Charm J, Cho P. High myopia-partial reduction Ortho-K: A 2-year randomized study. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Jun;90:530-539.

    54. Walline JJ, Rah MJ, Jones LA. The Children’s Overnight Orthokeratology Investigation (COOKI) Pilot Study. Optom Vis Sci. 2004 Jun;81:407-413.

    55. Swarbrick HA. Incidence of microbial keratitis (MK) in orthokeratology. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium. January, 2009, Las Vegas, NV

    56. Bullimore MA, Sinnott LT, Jones-Jordan LA. The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013 Sep;90:937-944.

    57. Eiden SB, Davis RL, Bennett ES, DeKinder JO. The SMART study: Background, rationale, and baseline results. Contact Lens Spectrum 2009;24:24-28, 30-31.

    58. Swarbrick HA. The future of myopia management. Presented at the Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Jan. 2016.

    59. Perry HD, Doshi-Carnevale S, Donnenfeld ED, Solomon R, Biser SA, Bloom AH. Efficacy of commercially available topical cyclosporine A 0.05% in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Cornea. 2006 Feb;25:171-175.

    60. Prabhasawat P, Tesavibul N, Mahawong W. A Randomized Double-Masked Study of 0.05% Cyclosporine Ophthalmic Emulsion in the Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Cornea. 2012 Dec;31:1386-93.

    61. Rubin M, Rao SN. Efficacy of topical cyclosporin 0.05% in the treatment of posterior blepharitis. J Ocul Pharm Ther. 2006 Feb; 22:47-53.

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    65. Prabhasawat P, Tesavibul N, Mahawong W. A randomized double-masked study of 0.05% cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Cornea. 2012 Dec;31:1386-1393.

    66. Melton R and Randall Thomas R. Stop EKC with a 'Silver Bullet.' Review of Optometry 2008 Nov 19;145. Available at

    67. Than T, Hartwick A, Shorter E, Johnson S, Lonsberry B, Gordon M, Freddo T. How to manage adenoviral conjunctivitis. Optometry Times. 2014 Feb 18. Available at

(p. 50) The Scleral Lens Vault – Putting Scleral Lenses into Perspective
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD, FAAO

    1. Nau C, Harthan J, Shorter E, Barr J, Nau A, Shornack M. SCOPE Study: Demographics of Scleral Lens Fitters. Poster presented at the 2016 Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Jan. 2016.

    2. Nau A, Nau C, Shorter E, Harthan J, Barr J, Schornack M. SCOPE Study: Indications for Scleral Lens Wear. Poster presented at the 2016 Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Jan 2016. Accessed on Oct. 27, 2016. Available at,%20Amy%20-%20SCOPE%20Study,%20Indications.pdf.

    3. Shorter E, Harthan J, Nau C, Nau A, Barr J, Schornack M. The Role of Scleral Lenses in the Treatment of Corneal Irregularity and Ocular Surface Disease. 1475 – A0155 ARVO 2016.

(p. 51) Treatment Plan – Floppy Eyelid Syndrome
By William L. Miller, OD, MS, PhD, FAAO

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    11. Hashemi H, Rastad H, Emamian MH, Fotouhi A. Floppy eyelid syndrome and its determinants in Iranian adults: A population-based study. Eye Contact Lens. 2016 Jul 13. [Epub ahead of print]

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    15. Chambe J, Laib S, Hubbard J, Erhardt C, Ruppert E, Schroder C, Malan A, Bourcier T, Bourgin P. Floppy eyelid syndrome is associated with obstructive sleep apnoea: a prospective study on 127 patients. J Sleep Res. 2012 Jun;21:308-315.

    16. Pihlblad MS, Schaefer DP. Eyelid laxity, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea in keratoconus. Cornea. 2013 Sep;32:123-126.

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