Contact Lens Spectrum


February 2017

Document #255

(p. 14) Refractive Focus – Surgical Solutions for Presbyopia
By Shanda Ross, OD

  1. Wade NJ, Wade N. A Natural History of Vision. MIT Press, 2000. p. 50. ISBN 9780262731294.
  2. Isaacson W. A Benjamin Franklin Reader. Simon & Schuster, 2005. p. 349. ISBN 9780743273985.
  3. Market Scope. Global Presbyopia–Correcting Surgery Market Report. 2012 Apr.
  4. Alarcón A, Anera RG, Villa C, Jiménez del Barco L, Gutierrez R. Visual quality after monovision correction by laser in situ keratomileusis in presbyopic patients. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011 Sep;37:1629-1635.
  5. Goldberg DB. Laser in situ keratomileusis monovision. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2001 Sep;27:1449-1455.
  6. Fox ML. Treatments to Correct Reading Vision Are at Hand. 2016 Apr 9. Web. 12 Aug 2016. Available at .
  7. Srinivasan S. Corneal inlays for spectacle independence: friend or foe? J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016 Jul;42:953-954.
  8. Waring GO 4th, Berry DE. Advances in the surgical correction of presbyopia. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2013 Winter;53:129-152.
  9. Whitman J. Minimally invasive surgical solutions for presbyopia. Optometry Times. Modern Medicine Network. 2016 Nov 18. Available at . Accessed on Jan. 9, 2017.
  10. Shiple DA, Aquavella JV. Presbyopia: when is surgery the best option? Rev Optom. 2013 Sep. Available at .
  11. Ang RE. Incorporating presbyopia-correcting IOLs into your practice. Philippine Journal of Ophthalmology. 2015 Jan-June:1-2.
  12. Ang RE. Are extended-depth-of-focus IOLs hitting the visual sweet spot? Ophthalmology Times Europe. 2016 Feb 29. Web. 2016 Dec 6. Available at .

(p. 18) Contact Lens Design & Materials – Is It Still Permissible to Use Hydrogel Soft Lenses?
By Neil Pence, OD

  1. Holden BA, Mertz GW. Critical oxygen levels to avoid corneal edema for daily and extended wear contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1984 Oct;25:1161-1167.
  2. Harvitt DM, Bonanno JA. Re-evaluation of the oxygen diffusion model for predicting minimum contact lens Dk/t values needed to avoid hypoxia. Optom Vis Sci. 1990 Oct;76:712-719.

(p. 19) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – Dry Eye and Multiple Sclerosis
By Amber Gaume Giannoni, OD

  1. National Multiple Sclerosis Society. MS Symptoms. Available at . Accessed on Dec. 6, 2016.
  2. Lewandowska-Furmanik M, Pozarowska D, Matysik-Woźniak A, Katski W. Uveitis in patients with multiple sclerosis. Klin Oczna. 2011;113(1-3):25-27.
  3. Prasad S, Galetta SL. Eye movement abnormalities in multiple sclerosis. Neurol Clin. 2010 Aug;28:641-655.
  4. Jung SM, Lee BG, Joh GY, Cha JK, Chung WT, Kim KH. Primary Sjögren's syndrome manifested as multiple sclerosis and cutaneous erythematous lesions: a case report. J Korean Med Sci. 2000 Feb;15:115-118.
  5. Prabhasawat P, Tesavibul N, Mahawong W. A randomized double-masked study of 0.05% cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Cornea 2012 Dec;31:1386-1393.
  6. Perry HD, Doshi-Carnevale S, Donnenfeld ED, Solomon R, Biser SA, Bloom AH. Efficacy of commercially available topical cyclosporine A 0.05% in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Cornea. 2006 Feb;25:171-175.
  7. Pflugfelder SC, De Paiva CS, Villarreal AL, Stern ME. Effects of sequential artificial tear and cyclosporine emulsion therapy on conjunctival goblet cell density and transforming growth factor-beta2 production. Cornea. 2008 Jan;27:64-69.

(p. 23) Daily Disposables: Heightened Opportunity
By David L. Kading, OD

  1. Faber E, Golding TR, Lowe R, Brennan NA. Effect of hydrogel lens wear on tear film stability. Optom Vis Sci. 1991 May;68:380-384.
  2. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2014. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2015 Jan;30:22-27.
  3. Dumbleton K, Caffery B, Dogru M, Hickson-Curran S, Kern J, Kojima T, Morgan PB, Purslow C, Robertson DM, Nelson JD; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS international workshop on contact lens discomfort: report of the subcommittee on epidemiology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 18;54:TFOS20-TFOS36.
  4. Richdale K. Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.

(p. 28) The Words We Choose to Discuss Multifocals
By Shalu Pal, OD

  1. Sulley A, Young G, Hunt C. Factors in the success of new contact lens wearers. Contact Lens Anterior Eye, 2017 Feb;40:154-124.
  2. Silicone Hydrogels. Contact Lens Options for Presbyopia. Available at . Accessed on July 18, 2016.
  3. The Vision Council. Hindsight Is 20/20/20: Protect Your Eyes from Digital Devices: 2015 Digital Eyestrain Report. Available at . Accessed on Jan. 18, 2017.
  4. The Vision Council. 2014 Digital Eye Strain Report. Available at . Accessed on July 18, 2016.

(p. 34) Contact Lens-Related Keratitis and Ocular Microbiology
By Mark D.P. Willcox, PhD, DSc

  1. Tewari A, Sood N, Vegad MM, Mehta DC. Epidemiological and microbiological profile of infective keratitis in Ahmedabad. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2012 Jul;60: 267-272.
  2. Somabhai Katara R, Dhanjibhai Patel N, Sinha M. A clinical microbiological study of corneal ulcer patients at Western Gujarat, India. Acta Med Iran. 2013 Jul;51; 399-403.
  3. Rahimi F, Hashemian MN, Khosravi A, Moradi G, Bamdad S. Bacterial keratitis in a tertiary eye centre in Iran: a retrospective study. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2015 Apr-Jun;22:238-244.
  4. Lin TY, Yeh LK, Ma DH, Chen PY, Lin HC, Sun CC, Tan HY, Chen HC, Chen SY, Hsiao CH. Risk factors and microbiological features of patients hospitalized for microbial keratitis: A 10-year study in a referral center in Taiwan. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Oct;94:e1905.
  5. Yildiz EH, Airiani S, Hammersmith KM, Rapuano CJ, Laibson PR, Virdi AS, Hongyok T, Cohen EJ. Trends in contact lens-related corneal ulcers at a tertiary referral center. Cornea. 2012 Oct;31:1097-1102.
  6. Truong DT, Bui MT, Cavanagh HD. Epidemiology and outcome of microbial keratitis: Private university versus urban public hospital care. Eye Contact Lens. 2016 Oct 7. [Epub ahead of print]
  7. Ni N, Nam EM, Hammersmith KM, Nagra PK, Azari AA, Leiby BE, Dai Y, Cabrera FA, Ma JF, Lambert CE Jr, Honig SE, Rapuano CJ. Seasonal, geographic, and antimicrobial resistance patterns in microbial keratitis: 4-year experience in eastern Pennsylvania. Cornea. 2015 Mar;34:296-302.
  8. Young AL, Leung KS, Tsim N, Hui M, Jhanji V. Risk factors, microbiological profile, and treatment outcomes of pediatric microbial keratitis in a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Nov;156:1040-1044.
  9. Ng AL, To KK, Choi CC, Yuen LH, Yim SM, Chan KS, Lai JS, Wong IY. Predisposing factors, microbial characteristics, and clinical outcome of microbial keratitis in a tertiary centre in Hong Kong: A 10-year experience. J Ophthalmol. 2015;2015:769436.
  10. Sand D, She R, Shulman IA, Chen DS, Schur M, Hsu HY. Microbial keratitis in Los Angeles: the Doheny Eye Institute and the Los Angeles county hospital experience. Ophthalmology. 2015 May;122:918-924.
  11. Chang VS, Dhaliwal DK, Raju L, Kowalski RP. Antibiotic resistance in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus keratitis: a 20-year review. Cornea. 2015 Jun;34: 698-703.
  12. Lichtinger A, Yeung SN, Kim P, Amiran MD, Iovieno A, Elbaz U, Ku JY, Wolff R, Rootman DS, Slomovic AR. Shifting trends in bacterial keratitis in Toronto: an 11-year review. Ophthalmology. 2012 Sep;119:1785-1790.
  13. Hernandez-Camarena JC, Graue-Hernandez EO, Ortiz-Casas M, Ramirez-Miranda A, Navas A, Pedro-Aguilar L, Lopez-Espinosa NL, Gaona-Juarez C, Bautista-Hernandez LA, Bautista-de Lucio VM. Trends in microbiological and antibiotic sensitivity patterns in infectious keratitis: 10-year experience in Mexico City. Cornea. 2015 Jul;34:778-785.
  14. Prokosch V, Gatzioufas Z, Thanos S, Stupp T. Microbiological findings and predisposing risk factors in corneal ulcers. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012 Maer;250:369-374.
  15. Hoddenbach JG, Boekhoorn SS, Wubbels R, Vreugdenhil W, Van Rooij J, Geerards AJ. Clinical presentation and morbidity of contact lens-associated microbial keratitis: a retrospective study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb;252:299-306.
  16. Hsiao CH, Sun CC, Yeh LK, Ma DH, Chen PY, Lin HC, Tan HY, Chen HC, Chen SY, Huang YC.Shifting trends in bacterial keratitis in Taiwan: A 10-year review in a tertiary-care hospital. Cornea. 2016 Mar;35:313-317.
  17. Kaliamurthy J, Kalavathy CM, Parmar P, Nelson Jesudasan CA, Thomas PA. Spectrum of bacterial keratitis at a tertiary eye care centre in India. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:181564.
  18. Murugan N, Malathi J, Kulandai LT, Madhavan HN. Antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) and metallo betalactamase (MBL) and its co-existence among Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from ocular infections. Int J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2015 May;7:147-151.
  19. Lalitha P, Manoharan G, Karpagam R, Prajna NV, Srinivasan M, Mascarenhas J, Das M, Porco TC, Lietman TM, Cevallos V, Keenan JD. Trends in antibiotic resistance in bacterial keratitis isolates from South India. Br J Ophthalmol. 2017 Feb;101:108-113.
  20. Al-Dhaheri HS, Al-Tamimi MD, Khandekar RB, Khan M, Stone DU. Ocular pathogens and antibiotic sensitivity in bacterial keratitis isolates at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, 2011 to 2014. Cornea. 2016 Jun;35:789-794.
  21. Konda N, Motukupally SR, Garg P, Sharma S, Ali MH, Willcox MD. Microbial analyses of contact lens-associated microbial keratitis. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Jan;91:47-53.
  22. Oldenburg CE, Lalitha P, Srinivasan M, Rajaraman R, Ravindran M, Mascarenhas J, Borkar DS, Ray KJ, Zegans ME, McLeod SD, Porco TC, Lietman TM, Acharya NR. Emerging moxifloxacin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis isolates in South India. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2013 Jun;20:155-158.
  23. Park J, Lee KM, Zhou H, Rabin M, Jwo K, Burton WB, Gritz DC. Community practice patterns for bacterial corneal ulcer evaluation and treatment. Eye Contact Lens. 2015 Jan;41:12-18.
  24. Booranapong W, Prabhasawat P, Kosrirukvongs P, Tarawatcharasart Y. Risk factors for contact lens related microbial keratitis: a case-control study. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012 May;95:693-698.
  25. Ismail LA, Rampal L, Rahman HA, Omar N, Midi H, Ariffin AE. Risk factors associated with contact lens related microbial keratitis. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences. 2016 Jan;12.
  26. Lim CH, Carnt NA, Farook M, Lam J, Tan DT, Mehta JS, Stapleton F.Risk factors for contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Singapore. Eye (Lond). 2016 Mar;30:447-455.
  27. Sauer A, Meyer N, Bourcier T; French Study Group for Contact Lens–Related Microbial Keratitis. Risk factors for contact lens-related microbial keratitis: A case-control multicenter study. Eye Contact Lens. 2016 May;42:158-162.
  28. Stapleton F, Edwards K, Keay L, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden B. Risk factors for moderate and severe microbial keratitis in daily wear contact lens users. Ophthalmology. 2012 Aug;119:1516-1521.
  29. Willcox MD, Stapleton F. Original letter: Interactions of contact lenses with multipurpose disinfecting solution containing PHMB. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 Jul;40:265-266.
  30. Willcox M, Sharma S, Naduvilath TJ, Sankaridurg PR, Gopinathan U, Holden BA. External ocular surface and lens microbiota in contact lens wearers with corneal infiltrates during extended wear of hydrogel lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2011 Mar;37:90-95.
  31. Szczotka-Flynn L, Lass JH, Sethi A, Debanne S, Benetz BA, Albright M, Gillespie B, Kuo J, Jacobs MR, Rimm A. Risk factors for corneal infiltrative events during continuous wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Nov;51:5421-5430.
  32. Radford CF, Minassian D, Dart JK, Stapleton F, Verma S. Risk factors for nonulcerative contact lens complications in an ophthalmic accident and emergency department: a case-control study. Ophthalmology. 2009 Jan;116:385-392.
  33. Chalmers RL, Keay L, Long B, Bergenske P, Giles T, Bullimore MA. Risk factors for contact lens complications in US clinical practices. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Oct;87:725-735.
  34. Chalmers RL, Wagner H, Mitchell GL, Lam DY, Kinoshita BT, Jansen ME, Richdale K, Sorbara L, McMahon TT. Age and other risk factors for corneal infiltrative and inflammatory events in young soft contact lens wearers from the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Aug 24;52:6690-6696.
  35. Chalmers RL, Keay L, McNally J, Kern J. Multicenter case-control study of the role of lens materials and care products on the development of corneal infiltrates. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Mar;89:316-325.
  36. Zimmerman AB, Emch AJ, Geldis J, Nixon GJ, Mitchell GL. Contact lens corneal inflammatory events in a university population. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Jan;93:42-49.
  37. Richdale K, Lam D2, Wagner H, Zimmerman AB, Kinoshita BT, Chalmers R, Sorbara L, Szczotka-Flynn L, Govindarajulu U, Mitchell GL. Case-control pilot study of soft contact lens wearers with corneal infiltrative events and healthy controls. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Jan;57:47-55.
  38. Henriques M, Sousa C, Lira M, Elisabete M, Oliveira R, Oliveira R, Azeredo J. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis to silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Jun;82:446-450.
  39. Bruinsma GM, van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ. Bacterial adhesion to surface hydrophilic and hydrophobic contact lenses. Biomaterials. 2001 Dec;22:3217-3224.
  40. Willcox MD, Harmis N, Cowell, Williams T, Holden. Bacterial interactions with contact lenses; effects of lens material, lens wear and microbial physiology. Biomaterials. 2001 Dec;22:3235-3247.
  41. Stefani FO, Bell TH, Marchand C, de la Providencia IE, El Yassimi A, St-Arnaud M, Hijri M. Culture-dependent and -independent methods capture different microbial community fractions in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 8;10:e0128272.
  42. Dave SB, Toma HS, Kim SJ. Changes in ocular flora in eyes exposed to ophthalmic antibiotics. Ophthalmology. 2013 May;120:937-941.
  43. Fernández-Rubio ME, Cuesta-Rodríguez T, Urcelay-Segura JL, Cortés-Valdés C. Pathogenic conjunctival bacteria associated with systemic co-morbidities of patients undergoing cataract surgery. Eye (Lond). 2013 Aug;27:915-923.
  44. Hsu HY, Lind JT, Tseng L, Miller D. Ocular flora and their antibiotic resistance patterns in the midwest: a prospective study of patients undergoing cataract surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013nJan;155:36-44.
  45. Mshangila B, Paddy M, Kajumbula H, Ateenyi-Agaba C, Kahwa B, Seni J. External ocular surface bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pre-operative cataract patients at Mulago National Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. BMC Ophthalmol. 2013 Nov 15;13:71.
  46. Peral A, Alonso J, García-García C, Niño-Rueda C, Calvo Del Bosque P. Importance of lid hygiene before ocular surgery: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of eyelid and conjunctiva microbiota. Eye Contact Lens. 2016 Nov;42:366-370.
  47. Ozkiriş M, Kapusuz Gencer Z, Kader C, Saydam L. Ocular surface culture changes in patients after septoplasty. Turk J Med Sci. 2014;44(1):157-161.
  48. Nimmo GR, Pearson JC, Collignon PJ, Christiansen KJ, Coombs GW, Bell JM, McLaws ML; Australian Group for Antimicrobial Resistance. Prevalence of MRSA among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospital inpatients, 2005 report from the Australian Group for Antimicrobial Resistance. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2007 Sep;31:288-296.
  49. Kugadas A, Christiansen SH, Sankaranarayanan S, Surana NK, Gauguet S, Kunz R, Fichorova R, Vorup-Jensen T, Gadjeva M. Impact of microbiota on resistance to ocular Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced keratitis. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Sep 22;12:e1005855.
  50. Cole N, Hume EB, Vijay AK, Sankaridurg P, Kumar N, Willcox MD. In vivo performance of melimine as an antimicrobial coating for contact lenses in models of CLARE and CLPU. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jan;51:390-395.
  51. Dutta D, Vijay AK, Kumar N, Willcox MD. Melimine-coated antimicrobial contact lenses reduce microbial keratitis in an animal model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Oct 1;57:5616-5624.
  52. Huang Y, Yang B, Li W. Defining the normal core microbiome of conjunctival microbial communities. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Jul;22:643.e7-643.e12.
  53. Dong Q, Brulc JM, Iovieno A, Bates B, Garoutte A, Miller D, Revanna KV, Gao X, Antonopoulos DA, Slepak VZ, Shestopalov VI. Diversity of bacteria at healthy human conjunctiva. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul 20;52:5408-5413.
  54. Shin H, Price K, Albert L, Dodick J, Park L, Dominguez-Bello MG. Changes in the eye microbiota associated with contact lens wearing. MBio. 2016 Mar 22;7:e00198.
  55. Zhou Y, Holland MJ, Makalo P, Joof H, Roberts CH, Mabey DC, Bailey RL, Burton MJ, Weinstock GM, Burr SE. The conjunctival microbiome in health and trachomatous disease: a case control study. Genome Med. 2014 Nov 15;6:99.
  56. Doan T, Akileswaran L, Andersen D, Johnson B, Ko N, Shrestha A, Shestopalov V, Lee CS, Lee AY, Van Gelder RN. Paucibacterial microbiome and resident DNA virome of the healthy conjunctiva. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Oct 1;57:5116-5126.

(p. 46) Contact Lens Practice Pearls – I Don’t Want to Prescribe an Uncomfortable Lens
By Jason R. Miller, OD, MBA

  1. Wolffsohn JS, Emberlin JC. Role of contact lenses in relieving ocular allergy. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011 Aug;34:169-172.
  2. Keir N, Jones L. Wettability and silicone hydrogel lenses: a review. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:100-108.

(p. 48) Pediatric and Teen CL Care – Contact Lens Options for Pediatric Aphakia
By Melanie Frogozo, OD

  1. Sclafani L. Aphakia. In Manual of Contact Lens Prescribing and Fitting, Third Edition. MM Hom, AS Bruce, eds. St. Louis, Elsevier Inc. 2006:559-590.
  2. Lindsay R., Chi J. Contact lens management of infantile aphakia. Clin Exp Optom. 2010 Jan;93:3-14.
  3. Polse KA, Sarver MD, Harris MG. Corneal effects of high plus hydrogel lenses. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1978 April;55:234-237.
  4. Fatt I, Chaston J. Swelling factors of hydrogels and the effect of deswelling (drying) in the eye on power of a soft contact lens. ICLC. 1982;9:146-153.
  5. Sweeny DF. Have silicone hydrogel lenses eliminated hypoxia. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 Jan;39:53-60.
  6. Cutler SI, Nelson LB, Calhoun JH. Extended wear contact lenses in pediatric aphakia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1985 May-June;22:86-91.
  7. Aasuri MK, Venkata N, Preetam P, Rao NT. Management of pediatric aphakia with silsoft contact lenses. CLAO J. 1999 Oct;25:209-212.
  8. de Brabander J, Kok JH, Nuijts RM, Wenniger-Prick LJ. A practical approach to and long-term results of fitting silicone contact lenses in aphakic children after congenital cataract. CLAO J. 2002 Jan;28:31-35
  9. Bausch & Lomb Inc. Silsoft and Silsoft Super Plus Contact Lenses. 2015 Available at . Accessed on Jan. 3, 2017.
  10. van der Worp E, Bornman D, Ferreira DL, Faria-Ribeiro M, Garcia-Porta N, González-Meijome JM. Modern scleral contact lenses. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2014 Aug;37:240-250.