Contact Lens Spectrum


March 2017

Document #256

(p. 13) Editor’s Perspective – Be Smart, Be Intelligent, and Be Informed
By Jason J. Nichols, OD, MPH, PhD

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(p. 14) International Perspectives – Germany, Austria, and Switzerland: Gründlich
By Eef van der Worp, BOptom, PhD, & Heiko Pult, PhD, MSc

  1. Morgan PB, Woods CA, Tranoudis IG, Helland M, Efron N, jones L, van Beusekom M, Grupcheva CN, Jones D, Beeler-Kaupke M, Qi P, Tan KO, Krasnanska J, Pult H, Ravn O, Santodomingo-Rebido J, Végh, M, Fan CH, Erdinets N, Jafari AR, Montani G, Itoi M, Sun Chu B, Bendoriene J, Ziziuchin V, van der Worp E, Lam W, Romualdez-Oo J, Abesamis-Dichoso C, González-Méijone JM, Belousov V, Gierow P, Stabuc Silih M, Hsiao J, Nichols JJ. International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2016. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2017 Jan;32:30-35.

(p. 16) Prescribing for Presbyopia – Presbyopia Findings Presented at the 2017 GSLS
By Craig W. Norman

  1. Chen T, Perrigin J. Multifocal Scleral Lenses: A Newer Player for Presbyopic Correction. Poster presented at the 2017 Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Jan. 2017, Las Vegas.
  2. Spors F, Tsang D, Shen J, McNaughton LE, Akers D, Egan DJ. Corneal Wavefront Aberrations: Multifocal Soft Lenses compared to Orthokeratology. Poster presented at the 2017 Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Jan. 2017, Las Vegas.

(p. 17) GP Insights – The Latest Options for Managing GP Non-Wetting
By Stephanie L. Woo, OD

  1. Walker M, Redfern R. Scleral lens surface coating improves vision and comfort. Poster presented at the 8th Int’l Conference of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society (TFOS). Montpellier, France. 2016 Sept.

(p. 19) Contact Lens Design & Materials – Understanding Contact Lens Dehydration
By Andrew D. Pucker, OD, PhD

  1. Dillehay SM. Does the level of available oxygen impact comfort in contact lens wear?: A review of the literature. Eye Contact Lens. 2007 May;33:148-155.
  2. González-Méijome JM, da Silva AC, Neves H, Lopes-Ferreira D, Queiros A, Jorge J. Clinical performance and “ex vivo” dehydration of silicone hydrogel contact lenses with two new multipurpose solutions. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013 Apr;36:86-92.
  3. González-Méijome JM, López-Alemany A, Almeida JB, Parafita MA, Refojo MF. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of the in vitro dehydration process of hydrogel contact lenses. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2007 Nov;83:512-526.
  4. Ramamoorthy P, Sinnott LT, Nichols JJ. Contact lens material characteristics associated with hydrogel lens dehydration. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2010 Mar;30:160-166.
  5. Jones L, May C, Nazar L, Simpson T. In vitro evaluation of the dehydration characteristics of silicone hydrogel and conventional hydrogel contact lens materials. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2002 Sep;25:147-156.
  6. Martin-Montanez V, Lopez-Miguel A, Arroyo C, Mateo ME, González-Méijome JM, Calonge M, González-García MJ. Influence of environmental factors in the in vitro dehydration of hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2014 May;102:764-771.
  7. Morgan PB, Efron N, Morgan SL, Little SA. Hydrogel contact lens dehydration in controlled environmental conditions. Eye Contact Lens. 2004 Apr;30:99-102.

(p. 20) Dry Eye Dx and Tx – The Demodex-Ptergyium Connection
By Katherine Mastrota, MS, OD

  1. Duke-Elder S, Leigh AG. Disease of the outer eye. In: Duke-Elder S, ed. System of ophthalmology, vol. 8. London: Henry Kimpton Publ; 1965. pp. 573-585.
  2. Cameron M. Ultra-violet radiation. In: Pterygium throughout the world; 1965. pp. 41-54.
  3. Turgut Erdemir A, Gurel MS, Koku Aksu AE, Falay T, Inan Yuksel E, Sarikaya E. Demodex mites in acne rosacea: reflectance confocal microscopic study. Australa J Dermatol. 2016 Mar 11. [Epub ahead of print]
  4. Dolenc-Voljc M, Pohar M, Lunder T. Density of Demodex folliculorum in perioral dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2005;85(3):211-215.
  5. Nicholls SG, Oakley CL, Tan A, Vote BJ. Demodex species in human ocular disease: new clinicopathological aspects. Int Ophthalmol. 2017 Feb;37:303-312.
  6. Zhao YE, Hu L, Wu LP, Ma JX. A meta-analysis of association between acne vulgaris and Demodex infestation. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2012 Mar;13:192-202.
  7. Zhao YE, Wu LP, Hu L, Xu JR. Association of blepharitis with Demodex: a metaanalysis. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2012 Apr;19:95-102.
  8. Kumar A, Karthikeyan K. Madarosis: A Marker of Many Maladies. Int J Trichology. 2012 Jan-Mar;4:3-18.

(p. 21) Contact Lens Care & Compliance – Cigarette Smoking and Contact Lens Use
By Andrew D. Pucker, OD, PhD

  1. Food and Drug Administration. Tobacco Products: Health Information. 2016. Available at: . Accessed on Jan. 19, 2017.
  2. Chiba M, Masironi R. Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Bull World Health Organ. 1992;70(2):269-275.
  3. Satici A, Bitiren M, Ozardali I, Vural H, Kilic A, Guzey M. The effects of chronic smoking on the ocular surface and tear characteristics: a clinical, histological and biochemical study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003 Dec;81:583-587.
  4. Asfar T, Lam BL, Lee DJ. Smoking causes blindness: time for eye care professionals to join the fight against tobacco. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Feb 13;56:1120-1121.
  5. Matsumoto Y, Dogru M, Goto E, Sasaki Y, Inoue H, Saito I, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K. Alterations of the tear film and ocular surface health in chronic smokers. Eye (Lond). 2008 Jul;22:961-968.
  6. Lee SY, Petznick A, Tong L. Associations of systemic diseases, smoking and contact lens wear with severity of dry eye. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012 Nov;32:518-526.
  7. Jiang Y, Jacobs M, Bajaksouzian S, Foster AN, Debanne SM, Bielefeld R, Garvey M, Raghupathy S, Kern J, Szczotka-Flynn LB. Risk factors for microbial bioburden during daily wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2014 May;40:148-156.
  8. Szczotka-Flynn L, Lass JH, Sethi A, Debanne S, Benetz BA, Albright M, Gillespie B, Kuo J, Jacobs MR, Rimm A. Risk factors for corneal infiltrative events during continuous wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Nov;51:5421-5430.
  9. Stapleton F, Edwards K, Keay L, Naduvilath T, Dart JK, Brian G, Holden B. Risk factors for moderate and severe microbial keratitis in daily wear contact lens users. Ophthalmology. 2012 Aug;119:1516-1521.
  10. Roszkowska AM, De Grazia L, Visalli M, Mondello MN, Teti D, Venza M, Venza I. Contact lens wearing and chronic cigarette smoking positively correlate with TGF-β1 and VEGF tear levels and impaired corneal wound healing after photorefractive keratectomy. Curr Eye Res. 2013 Mar;38:335-341.
  11. Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Eligible Professional Meaningful Use Core Measures Measure 9 of 13. May 2014. Available at . Accessed on Jan. 19, 2017.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. I’m Ready to Quit! 2016. Available at . Accessed on Jan. 19, 2017.

(p. 22) When Astigmats Become Presbyopic
By Melanie Frogozo, OD

  1. Bradley A, Nam J, Xu R, Harman L, Thibos L. Impact of contact lens zone geometry and ocular optics on bifocal retinal image quality. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2014 May;34:331-345.
  2. Guillon M, Dumbleton K, Theodoratos P, Gobbe M, Wooley CB, Moody K. The Effects of Age, Refractive Status, and Luminance on Pupil Size. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Sep;93:1093-1100.
  3. Tomlinson A1, Bron AJ, Korb DR, Amano S, Paugh JR, Pearce EI, Yee R, Yokoi N, Arita R, Dogru M. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the diagnosis subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 30;52:2006-2049.
  4. Yam JC, Kwok AK. Ultraviolet light and ocular diseases. Int Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;34:383-400.
  5. Duman R, Tok Çevik M, Görkem Çevik S, Duman R, Perente İ. Corneal endothelial cell density in healthy Caucasian population. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2016 Oct-Dec;30:236-239.
  6. Grossniklaus HE, Nickerson JM, Edelhauser HF, Bergman LA, Berglin L. Anatomic alterations in aging and age-related diseases of the eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Dec;54:ORSF23-ORSF27.
  7. van den Bosch WA, Leenders I, Mulder P. Topographic anatomy of the eyelids, and the effects of sex and age. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999 Mar;83:347-352.
  8. Pérez-Prados R, Piñero DP, Pérez-Cambrodí RJ, Madrid-Costa D. Soft multifocal simultaneous image contact lenses: a review. Clin Exp Optom. 2016 Nov 1. [Epub ahead of print]
  9. Gispets J, Arjona M, Pujol J. Image quality in wearers of a centre distance concentric design bifocal contact lens. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2002 May;22:221-233.
  10. Pujol J, Gispets J, Arjona M. Optical performance in eyes wearing two multifocal contact lens designs. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2003 Jul;23:347-360.
  11. Josephson JE, Erickson P, Back A, Holden BA, Harris M, Tomlinson A, Caffrey BE, Finnemore V, Silbert J. Monovision. J Am Optom Assoc. 1990 Nov;61:820-826.
  12. Tatham A, Prydal J. Progressive lenticular astigmatism in the clear lens. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008 Mar;34:514-516.
  13. Ho JD, Liou SW, Tsai RJ, Tsai CY. Effects of aging on anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism. Cornea. 2010 Jun;29:632-637.
  14. Bennett ES, Layfield KA, Lam D, Henry VA. Correction of Astigmatism. In ES Bennet, VA Henry (eds), Clinical Manual of Contact Lenses(4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014(14);344-394.

(p. 26) Taking a Stand Through Advocacy
By Carol Alexander, OD

  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. 2000. Available at https: . Accessed on Feb. 8, 2017.

(p. 30) The Anatomy of a Modern Orthokeratology Lens
By Emily Korszen, OD, & Patrick Caroline

  1. Herzberg C. An update on orthokeratology. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2010 Mar;25:22-24, 26-31.
  2. Mountford J. Retention and regression of orthokeratology with time. Int Contact Lens Clin. 1998 Mar-Apr;25:59-64.
  3. Mountford J, Ruston D, Dave T. Orthokeratology Principles and Practice. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004.
  4. Chan B, Cho P, Mountford J. The validity of the Jessen formula in overnight orthokeratology: a retrospective study. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008 May;28:265-268.
  5. Young G. Fluorescein fit in rigid lens evaluation. Int Contact Lens Clin. 1988;15(3):95-110.
  6. Caroline PJ. Contemporary orthokeratology. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2001;24(1):41-46.
  7. Holden BA, Mertz GW. Critical oxygen levels to avoid corneal edema for daily and extended wear contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1984 Oct;25:1161-1167.
  8. Lum E, Swarbrick HA. Lens Dk/t influences the clinical response in overnight orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Apr;88:469-475.
  9. Wu R, White L, Caroline P, Hayes J, Turner S, Clamp J. Ethnic difference in ocular profiles between Chinese and Caucasians. Poster presented at the 2017 Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Jan. 2017, Las Vegas.
  10. Chen CC, Cheung SW, Cho P. Toric orthokeratology for highly astigmatic children. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 Jun;89:849-855.
  11. Kojima R, Caroline P, Morrison S, Kinoshita B, Andre M, Lampa M. Should all orthokeratology lenses be toric? Poster presented at the 2016 Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Jan. 2016, Las Vegas.
  12. Kang P, Swarbrick H. Peripheral refraction in myopic children wearing orthokeratology and gas-permeable lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Apr;88:476-482.
  13. Caroline P, Andre M. Effects of Corneal Eccentricity. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2010 Nov;25:56.
  14. Mountford J, Caroline P, Noack D. Corneal topography and orthokeratology: Pre-fitting evaluation. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2002 Apr;17:38, 40, 42-44.

(p. 36) Meibomian Glands and Dry Eye Symptoms
By Rajesh Gannavarapu, MPhil Optometry; Sheeba Swarna, MPhil Optometry; & Rajeswari Mahadevan, PhD Optometry

  1. Dumbleton K, Caffery B, Dogru M, Hickson-Curran S, Kern J, Kojima T, Morgan PB, Purslow C, Robertson DM, Nelson JD; members of the TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: Report of the Subcommittee on Epidemiology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct;54:TFOS20-TFOS36.
  2. Nichols JJ. Contact Lenses 2015. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2016 Jan;31:18-23, 55.
  3. Pritchard N, Fonn D, Brazeau D. Discontinuation of contact lens wear: a survey. Int Contact Lens Clin. 1999 Nov;26:157-162.
  4. Weed K, Fonn D, Potvin R. Discontinuation of contact lens wear. Poster presented at the American Academy of Optometry Meeting, Dec. 13, 1993.
  5. Richdale K, Sinnott LT, Skadahl E, Nichols JJ. Frequency of and factors associated with contact lens dissatisfaction and discontinuation. Cornea. 2007 Feb;26:168-174.
  6. Nichols JJ, Sinnott LT. Tear film, contact lens, and patient-related factors associated with contact lens–related dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Apr;47:1319-1328.
  7. Schaumberg DA, Nichols JJ, Papas EB, Tong L, Uchino M, Nichols KK. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the subcommittee on the epidemiology of, and associated risk factors for, MGD. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar;52:1994-2005.
  8. Knop E, Knop N, Millar T, Obata H, Sullivan DA. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the subcommittee on anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the meibomian gland. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar;52:1938-1978.
  9. King-Smith PE, Nichols JJ, Nichols KK, Fink BA, Braun RJ. Contributions of evaporation and other mechanisms to tear film thinning and break-up. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Aug;85:623-630.
  10. Foulks GN. The correlation between the tear film lipid layer and dry eye disease. Surv Ophthalmol. 2007 Aug;52:369-374.
  11. Henriquez AS, Korb DR. Meibomian glands and contact lens wear. Br J Ophthalmol. 1981 Feb;65:108-111.
  12. Arita R, Itoh K, Inoue K, Kuchiba A, Yamaguchi T, Amano S. Contact lens wear is associated with decrease of meibomian glands. Ophthalmology. 2009 Mar;116:379-384.
  13. Machalińska A, Zakrzewska A, Adamek B, Safranow K, Wiszniewska B, Parafiniuk M, Machaliński B. Comparison of Morphological and Functional Meibomian Gland Characteristics Between Daily Contact Lens Wearers and Nonwearers. Cornea. 2015 Sep;34:1098-1104.
  14. Pucker AD, Jones-Jordan LA, Li W, Kwan JT, Lin MC, Sickenberger W, Marx S, Srinivasan S, Jones LW. Associations with meibomian gland atrophy in daily contact lens wearers. Optom Vis Sci. 2015 Sep;92:e206-e213.
  15. Arita R, Itoh K, Inoue K, Amano S. Noncontact infrared meibography to document age-related changes of the meibomian glands in a normal population. Ophthalmology. 2008 May;115:911-915.
  16. Ong BL, Larke JR. Meibomian gland dysfunction: some clinical, biochemical and physical observations. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1990 Apr;10:144-148.

(p. 46) The Scleral Lens Vault – Scleral Lenses for Post-Refractive Surgery
By Gregory W. DeNaeyer, OD

  1. DeNaeyer GW. Surgical Comanagement and Contact Lens Fitting. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2011 Sept;26:26-30.

(p. 56) Contact Lens Case Reports – Does Scleral Lens Wear Influence IOP
By Patrick J. Caroline & Mark P. André

  1. Nau CB, Schornack MM, McLauren JW, Sit AJ. Intraocular pressure after 2 hours of small-diameter scleral lens wear. Eye Cont Lens. 2015 Nov;42:350-353
  2. McMonnies CW. A hypothesis that scleral contact lenses could elevate intraocular pressure. Clin Exp Optom. 2016 Nov;99:594-596.
  3. Vincent SJ, Alonso-Caneiro D, Collins MJ. Evidence on scleral contact lenses and intraocular pressure. Clin Exp Optom. 2017 Jan;100:87-88.
  4. Doherty MD, Carrim ZI, O’Neill DP. Diaton tonometry: an assessment of validity and preference against Goldmann tonometry. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012 May-June;40:171-175.
  5. Funk RH, Gehr J, Rohen JW. Short-term hemodynamic changes in episcleral arteriovenous anastomoses correlate with venous pressure and IOP changes in the albino rabbit. Curr Eye Res. 1996 Jan;15:87-93.